Chapter 19 : The Genus

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There exists a rather colorful and winding history of interconnected pathways regarding the taxonomy and nomenclature associated with a group of enteric organisms now known as , the only recognized species in the genus. 16S rRNA sequencing indicates that members of the genera and are the closest phylogenetic neighbors to . This chapter provides a list of the major disease categories associated with infection and these categories include (i) septicemia; (ii) meningitis; (iii) intra-abdominal infections including peritonitis, abscesses, and hepatobiliary disease; (iv) ocular infections; and (v) a variety of miscellaneous illnesses involving infections of soft tissues and the urogenital tract. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory data supporting the role of plesiomonads in bacterial gastroenteritis are discussed. The chapter also talks about complications that include cirrhosis, pernicious anemia, renal impairment, and diabetes mellitus. Identification of plesiomonads begins with the recognition of their possible presence, particularly in heavily contaminated specimens. Molecular identification of has not been exploited to any great extent because of the rarity of this species in causing human disease in most parts of the world. Iron regulation may also play a role in pathogenesis. A number of extraintestinal infections have been linked to underlying medical complications with abnormal iron levels including iron overload conditions. Virtually all plesiomonads are susceptible to chloramphenicol, tetracyclines, cephalosporins, quinolones, monobactams, carbapenems, and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole. Conversely, they are almost uniformly resistant to ampicillin and penicillin-like compounds.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
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Figure 1

Comparison of the susceptibility of two strains to O/129 (10 and 150 μg) on three different nonselective media. The bottom plate contains Mueller-Hinton agar, where O/129 zones are larger and sharper.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
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Table 1.

Reputed outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease involving

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
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Table 2.

Clinical presentations of

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
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Table 3.

Evidence implicating as a gastrointestinal pathogen

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
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Table 4.

gastroenteritis: major findings

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
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Table 5.

septicemia without CNS involvement

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
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Table 6.

bacteremia accompanied by CNS disease

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
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Table 7.

Recovery of on selective plating media

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 8.

Serologic relationships between and species

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 9.

Proposed virulence factors associated with pathogenicity

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 10.

Susceptibility of to selected antimicrobial agents

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. The Genus , p 335-356. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch19

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