Chapter 20 : Uncommon Enterobacterial Genera Associated with Clinical Specimens

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Uncommon Enterobacterial Genera Associated with Clinical Specimens, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap20-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817541/9781555813420_Chap20-2.gif


can be separated from other members of the by negative tests for lysine decarboxylase (LDC), gelatinase, and deoxyribonuclease; their inability to ferment L-arabinose and L-rhamnose; and a positive test for arginine dihydrolase (ADH). In addition, some strains of produce what is described as a distinctive potato-like odor (actually a rather pungent, unpleasant, musty smell), a trait they share with . is also thought to be a possible cause of internal stipe necrosis, a browning disorder of the cultivated mushroom . In 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) redefined the genus and proposed it for a group of organisms known as enteric group 8. spp. utilize a wide number of substrates, ferment most sugars, and must be separated from other indole-positive, Voges-Proskauer (VP)-negative members of the . Typical of most enteric bacteria, grows well on isolation media. As it does not ferment lactose or sucrose and is HS positive, it produces colorless colonies with or without a black center resembling . In 1986, researchers isolated three strains from 400 diarrheal stools with a medium specifically designed for . has been shown to be the most abundant nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat and maize, one of two dominant bacteria present on grasses, and isolated from carrots.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Uncommon Enterobacterial Genera Associated with Clinical Specimens, p 357-376. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch20
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Abbott, S. L.,, and J. M. Janda. 1994. Isolation of Yokenella regensburgei (“ Koserella trabulsii”) from a patient with transient bacteremia and from a patient with a septic knee. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2854 2855.
2. Achouak, W.,, J.-M. Pages,, R. De Mot,, G. Molle,, and T. Heulin. 1998. A major outer membrane protein of Rahnella aquatilis functions as a porin and root adhesion. J. Bacteriol. 180: 909 913.
3. Aevaliotis, A.,, A. M. Belle,, J. P. Chanione,, and E. Serruys. 1985. Kluyvera ascorbata isolated from a baby with diarrhea. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 7: 51.
4. Aguilera, A.,, J. Pascual,, E. Loza,, G. Garcia,, F. Liano,, C. Quereda,, and J. Ortuno. 1995. Bacteremia with Cedecea neteri in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Postgrad. Med. J. 1: 179 180.
5. Akhurst, R. J. 1980. Morphological and functional dimorphism in Xenorhabdus spp., bacteria symbiotically associated with the insect pathogenic nematodes Neoaplectana and Heterorhabditis. J. Gen. Microbiol. 121: 303 309.
6. Akhurst, R. J. 1982. Antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus spp., bacteria symbiotically associated with insect pathogenic nematodes of the families Hererorhabditidae and Steinernematidae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 128: 3061 3065.
7. Akhurst, R. J.,, N. E. Boemare,, P. H. Janssen,, M. M. Peel,, D. A. Alfredson,, and C. E. Beard. 2004. Taxonomy of Australian clinical isolates of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of Photorhabdus asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis subsp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 1301 1310.
8. Akhurst, R. J.,, R. G. Mourant,, L. Baud,, and N. E. Boemare. 1996. Phenotypic and DNA relatedness between nematode symbionts and clinical strains of the genus Photorhabdus ( Enterobacteriaceae). Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46: 1034 1041.
9. Alballaa, S. R.,, S. M. Quadri,, O. al-Furayh,, and K. al-Qatary. 1992. Urinary tract infection due to Rahnella aquatilis in a renal transplant patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 2948 2950.
10. Altwegg, M.,, J. Zollinger-Iten,, and A. von Graevenitz. 1986. Differentiation of Kluyvera cryocrescens from Kluyvera ascorbata by irgasan susceptibility testing. Ann. Inst. Pasteur Microbiol. 137A: 159 168.
11.Anonymous. 1985. Validation of the publication of new names outside the IJSB: list no. 17. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 223225.
12. Asai, T.,, H. Iizuka,, and K. Komagata. 1962. The flagellation of genus Kluyvera. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 8: 187 191.
13. Asai, T.,, S. Okumura,, and T. Tsunoda. 1956. On a new genus, Kluyvera. Proc. Jpn. Acad. 32: 488 493.
14. Asai, T.,, S. Okumura,, and T. Tsunoda. 1957. On the classification of the α-ketoglutaric acid accumulating bacteria in aerobic fermentation. J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 3: 13 33.
15. Bae, B. H. C.,, and S. B. Sureka. 1983. Cedecea davisae isolated from scrotal abscess. J. Urol. 1: 148 149.
16. Bae, B. H. C.,, S. B. Sureka,, and J. A. Ajamy. 1981. Enteric group 15 ( Enterobacteriaceae) associated with pneumonia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14: 596 597.
17. Bangert, R. L.,, A. C. Ward,, E. H. Stauber,, B. R. Cho,, and P. R. Widders. 1988. A survey of the aerobic bacteria in the feces of captive raptors. Avian Dis. 32: 53 62.
18. Bascomb, S.,, S. L. Abbott,, J. D. Bobolis,, D. A. Bruckner,, S. J. Connell,, S. K. Cullen,, M. Daugherty,, D. Glenn,, J. M. Janda,, S. J. Lentsch,, D. Lindquist,, P. B. Mayhew,, D. N. Notharft,, J. R. Skinner,, G. B. Williams,, J. Wong,, and B. L. Zimmer. 1997. Multicenter evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Gram- Negative Identification Type 3 Panel. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2531 2536.
19. Bear, N.,, K. P. Klugman,, L. Tobiansky,, and H. J. Koornhof. 1986. Wound colonization by Ewingella americana. J. Clin. Microbiol. 23: 650 651.
20. Bellais, S.,, L. Poirel,, N. Fortineau,, J. W. Decousser,, and P. Nordmann. 2001. Biochemical-genetic characterization of the chromosomally encoded extended-spectrum class A β-lactamase from Rahnella aquatilis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 2965 2968.
21. Berge, O.,, T. Heulin,, and W. Achouak. 1991. Rahnella aquatilis, a nitrogen-fixing enteric bacterium associated with the rhizosphere of wheat and maize. Can. J. Microbiol. 37: 195 203.
22. Berkowitz, F. E.,, and B. Metchock. 1995. Third generation cephalothin-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the feces of hospitalized children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 14: 97 100.
23. Blekher, L.,, Y. Siegman-Igra,, D. Schwartz,, S. A. Berger,, and Y. Carmeli. 2000. Clinical significance and antibiotic resistance patterns of Leminorella spp., an emerging nosocomial pathogen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3036 3038.
24. Boemare, N. E.,, R. J. Akhurst,, and R. G. Mourant. 1993. DNA relatedness between Xenorhabdus spp. ( Enterobacteriaceae) symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes, and a proposal to transfer Xenorhabdus luminescens to a new genus, Photorhabdus gen. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 43: 249 255.
25. Bourbeau, P. P.,, and B. J. Heiter. 1998. Comparison of Vitek GNI and GNI+ cards for identification of gram-negative bacteria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2775 2777.
26. Braunstein, H.,, M. Tomasulo,, S. Scott,, and M. P. Chadwick. 1980. A biotype of Enterobacteriaceae intermediate between Citrobacter and Enterobacter. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 73: 114 116.
27. Brenner, D. J.,, H. E. Muller,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, A. M. Whitney,, C. M. O’Hara,, and P. Kampfer. 1998. Two new Rahnella genomospecies that cannot be phenotypically differentiated from Rahnella aquatilis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 48: 141 149.
28. Brooks, T.,, and S. Feldman. 2003. Central venous catheter infection in a child: case report and review of Kluyvera infection in children. South. Med. J. 96: 214 217.
29. Burd, G. I.,, D. G. Dixon,, and B. R. Glick. 2000. Plant growth-promoting bacteria that decrease heavy metal toxicity in plants. Can. J. Microbiol. 46: 237 245.
30. Carinder, J. E.,, J. D. Chua,, R. B. Corales,, A. J. Taege,, and G. W. Procop. 2001. Rahnella aquatilis bacteremia in a patient with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 33: 471 473.
31. Caroff, N.,, C. Chamoux,, F. le Gallou,, E. Espaze,, F. Gavini,, D. Gautreau,, H. Richet,, and A. Reynaud. 1998. Two epidemiologically related cases of Rahnella aquatilis bacteremia. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17: 349 352.
31a.. Carter, J. E.,, and T. N. Evans. 2005. Clinically significant Kluyvera infections. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 123: 334 338.
32. Cassel-Beraud, A. M.,, and C. Richard. 1988. The aerobic intestinal flora of the microchiropteran bat Chaerephon pumila in Madagascar. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Filiales 5: 806 810.
33. Chang, C. L.,, J. Jeong,, J. H. Shin,, E. Y. Lee,, and H. C. Son. 1999. Rahnella aquatilis sepsis in an immunocompetent adult. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 4161 4162.
34. Ciche, T. A.,, and J. C. Ensign. 2003. For the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens, which end of a nematode is out? Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 1890 1897.
35. Coudron, P. E.,, and S. M. Markowitz. 1987. Cedecea lapagei isolated from lung tissue. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 9: 171 172.
36. Daborn, P. J.,, N. Waterfield,, C. P. Silva,, C. P. Y. Au,, S. Sharma,, and R. H. ffrench-Constant. 2002. A single Photorhabdus gene, makes caterpillars floppy (mcf ), allows Escherichia coli to persist within and kill insects. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 10742 10747.
37. Da Costa, P. S.,, M. M. Tostes,, and L. M. de Carvalho Valle. 2000. A case of keratoconjunctivitis due to Ewingella americana and a review of unusual organisms causing external eye infections. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 4: 262 267.
37a.. Darling, S.,, L. Taniguchi,, G. Erdem,, and K. N. Kon. 2005. Soft tissue infection caused by Kluyvera species. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 24: 93.
38. De Baere, T.,, G. Wauters,, A. Huylenbroeck,, G. Claeys,, R. Peleman,, G. Verschraegen,, D. Allemeersch,, and M. Vaneechoutte. 2001. Isolations of Leclercia adecarboxylata from a patient with a chronically inflamed gallbladder and from a patient with sepsis without focus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1674 1675.
39. De Freitas, J. R.,, J. J. Schoenau,, S. M. Boyetchko,, and S. A. Cyrenne. 2003. Soil microbial populations, community composition, and activity as affected by repeated applications of hog and cattle manure in eastern Saskatchewan. Can. J. Microbiol. 49: 538 548.
40. Devreese, K.,, G. Claeys,, and G. Verschraegen. 1992. Septicemia with Ewingella americana. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 2746 2747.
41. Dollberg, S.,, A. Gandacu,, and A. Klar. 1990. Acute pyelonephritis due to Kluyvera species in a child. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9: 281 282.
42. Duarte, A.,, N. Faria,, T. Conceicao,, M. Correia,, L. M. Lito,, J. Melo Cristino,, M. J. Salgado,, and R. Tenreiro. 2002. Identification of TEM-10 β-lactamase in Kluyvera sp. and other Enterobacteriaceae at a Portugese hospital. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 4041 4042.
43. Fainstein, V. R.,, L. Hopfer,, K. Mills,, and G. P. Bodey. 1982. Colonization by or diarrhea due to Kluyvera species. J. Infect. Dis. 145: 127.
44. Farmer, J. J., III, B. R. Davis, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, A. McWhorter, G. P. Huntley-Carter, M. A. Asbury, C. Riddle, H. G. Wathen-Grady, C. Elias, G. R. Fanning, A. G. Steigerwalt, C. M. O’Hara, G. K. Morris, P. B. Smith, and D. J. Brenner. 1985. Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 46 76.
45. Farmer, J. J., III, G. R. Fanning, G. P. Huntley-Carter, B. Holmes, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, C. Richard, and D. J. Brenner. 1981. Kluyvera, a new (redefined) genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae: identification of Kluyvera ascorbata sp. nov. and Kluyvera cryocrescens sp. nov. in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 13: 919 933.
46. Farmer, J. J., III,, J. H. Jorgensen,, P. A. D. Grimont,, R. J. Akhurst,, G. O. Poinar Jr.,, E. Agernon,, G. V. Pierce,, J. A. Smith,, G. P. Carter,, K. L Wilson,, and F. W. Hickman-Brenner. 1989. Xenorhabdus luminescens (DNA hybridization group 5) from human clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1594 1600.
47. Farmer, J. J., III, N. K. Sneath, J. A. Hudzinski, and H. D. Rose. 1982. Bacteremia due to Cedecea neteri sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16: 775 778.
48. Fattal, O.,, and J. G. Deville. 2000. Leclercia adecarboxylata peritonitis in a child receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis. Pediatr. Nephrol. 15: 186 187.
49. Fischer-Le Saux, M.,, V. Villard,, B. Brunel,, P. Normand,, and N. E. Boemare. 1999. Polyphasic classification of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of new taxa: P. luminescens subsp. luminescens subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. akhurstii subsp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. laumondii subsp. nov., P. temperata sp. nov., P. temperata subsp. temperata subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49: 1645 1656.
50. Forst, S.,, B. Dowds,, N. Boemare,, and E. Stackebrandt. 1997. Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp.: bugs that kill bugs. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 51: 47 72.
51. Forst, S.,, and K. Nealson. 1996. Molecular biology of the symbiotic-pathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp. Microbiol. Rev. 60: 21 43.
52. Funke, G.,, D. Monnet,, C. deBernardis,, A. von Graevenitz,, and J. Freney. 1998. Evaluation of the VITEK 2 system for rapid identification of medically revelant gram-negative rods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1948 1952.
53. Funke, G.,, and H. Rosner. 1995. Rahnella aquatilis bacteremia in an HIV-infected intravenous drug abuser. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22: 293 296.
54. Gallios, A.,, and P. A. D. Grimont. 1985. Pyrazine responsible for the potatolike odor produced by some Serratia and Cedecea strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50: 1048 1051.
55. Gerrard, J. G.,, S. McNevin,, D. Alfredson,, R. Forgan-Smith,, and N. Fraser. 2003. Photorhabdus species: bioluminescent bacteria as emerging human pathogens? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 251 254.
56. Goubau, P.,, F. Van Aelst,, J. Verhaegen,, and M. Boogaerts. 1988. Septicemia caused by Rahnella aquatilis in an immuno-compromised patient. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7: 697 699.
57. Grimont, P. A. D.,, J. J. Farmer III,, F. Grimont,, M. A. Asbury,, D. J. Brenner,, and C. Deval. 1983. Ewingella americana gen. nov., sp. nov., a new Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens. Ann Microbiol. (Paris) 134A: 39 52.
58. Grimont, P. A. D.,, F. Grimont,, J. J. Farmer III,, and M. A. Asbury. 1981. Cedecea davisae gen. nov., sp. nov., and Cedecea lapagei sp. nov., new Enterobacteriaceae from clinical specimens. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 31: 317 326.
59. Grimont, P. A. D.,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, N. Boemare,, F. W. Hickman-Brenner,, C. Deval,, F. Grimont,, and D. J. Brenner. 1984. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness and phenotypic study of the genus Xenorhabdus. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34: 378 388.
60. Hamilton-Miller, J. M.,, and S. Shah. 2001. Identity and antibiotic susceptibility of enterobacterial flora of salad vegetables. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 18: 81 83.
61. Hamze, M.,, J. Maegaert,, H. J. J. van Vuuren,, F. Gavini,, A. Beji,, D. Izard,, and K. Kersters. 1991. Rahnella aquatilis, a potential contaminant in lager beer breweries. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 13: 63 68.
62. Hansen, M. W.,, and G. Y. Glupczynski. 1984. Isolation of an unusual Cedecea species from a cutaneous ulcer. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 3: 152 153.
63. Harrell, L. J.,, M. L. Cameron,, and C. M. O’Hara. 1989. Rahnella aquatilis, an unusual gram-negative rod isolated from the bronchial washing of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1671 1672.
64. Heizmann, W. R.,, and R. Michel. 1991. Isolation of Ewingella americana from a patient with conjunctivitis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10: 957 959.
65. Heron, S. J. E.,, J. F. Wilkinson,, and C. M. Duffus. 1993. Enterobacteria associated with grass and silages. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75: 13 17.
66. Hickman-Brenner, F. W.,, G. P. Huntley-Carter,, G. R. Fanning,, D. J. Brenner,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1985. Koserella trabulsii, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae formerly known as Enteric Group 45. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 39 42.
67. Hickman-Brenner, F. W.,, G. P. Huntley-Carter,, Y. Saitoh,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, J. J. Farmer III,, and D. J. Brenner. 1984. Moellerella wisconsensis, a new genus and species of Enterobacteriaceae found in human stool specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 19: 460 463.
68. Hickman-Brenner, F. W.,, M. P. Vohra,, G. P. Huntley-Carter,, G. R. Fanning,, V. A. Lowery III,, D. J. Brenner,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1985. Leminorella, a new genus of Enterobacteriaceae: identification of Leminorella grimontii sp. nov. and Leminorella richardii sp. nov. found in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 21: 234 239.
69. Hollis, D. G.,, F. W. Hickman,, G. R. Fanning,, J. J. Farmer III,, R. E. Weaver,, and D. J. Brenner. 1981. Tatumella ptyseos gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae found in clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 14: 79 88.
70. Hoppe, J. E.,, M. Herter,, S. Aleksic,, T. Klingbiel,, and D. Niethammer. 1993. Catheter-related Rahnella aquatilis bacteremia in a pediatric bone marrow transplant recipient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1911 1912.
71. Hurlbert, R. E. 1994. Investigations into the pathogenic mechanisms of the bacterium-nematode complex. ASM News 60: 473 478.
72. Inglis, P. W.,, and J. F. Peberdy. 1996. Isolation of Ewingella americana from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Curr. Microbiol. 33: 334 337.
73. Izard, D.,, F. Gavini,, P. A. Trinel,, and H. Leclerc. 1979. Rahnella aquatilis, nouveau membre de la famille des Enterobacteriaceae. Ann. Microbiol. (Paris) 130: 163 177.
74. Jang, E. B.,, and K. A. Nishijima. 1990. Identification and attractancy of bacteria associated with Dacus dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Environ. Entomol. 19: 1726 1731.
75. Jensen, N.,, P. Varelis,, and F. B. Whitfield. 2001. Formation of guaiacol in chocolate milk by the psychrotrophic bacterium, Rahnella aquatilis. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 33: 339 343.
76. Jossart, M.-F.,, and R. J. Courcol. 1999. Evaluation of an automated system for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenting bacilli. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18: 902 907.
77. Kati, C.,, E. Bibashi,, E. Kokolina,, and D. Sofianou. 1999. Case of peritonitis caused by Ewingella americana in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3733 3734.
78. Kitch, T. T.,, M. R. Jacobs,, and P. C. Appelbaum. 1994. Evaluation of RapID onE system for identification of 379 strains in the family Enterobacteriaceae and oxidase-negative gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 931 934.
79. Kosako, Y.,, and R. Sakazaki. 1991. Priority of Yokenella regensburgei Kosako, Sakazaki, and Yoshizaki 1985 over Koserella trabulsii Hickman-Brenner, Huntley-Carter, Brenner, and Farmer 1985. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41: 171.
80. Kosako, Y. R. Sakazaki, G. P. Huntley-Carter, and J. J. Farmer III. 1987. Yokenella regensburgei and Koserella trabulsii are subjective synonyms. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 37: 127 129.
81. Kosako, Y.,, R. Sakazaki,, and E. Yoshizaki. 1984. Yokenella regensburgei gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new genus and species in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Jpn. J. Med. Sci. Biol. 37: 117 124.
82. Leclerc, H. 1962. Etude biochimique d’ Enterobacteriaceae pigmentes. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 102: 726 741.
83. Lindberg, A.-M.,, A. Ljungh,, S. Ahrne,, S. Lofdahl,, and G. Molin. 1998. Enterobacteriaceae found in high numbers in fish, minced meat and pasteurized milk or cream and the presence of toxin encoding genes. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 39: 11 17.
84. Longhurst, C. A.,, and D. C. West. 2001. Isolation of Leclercia adecarboxylata from an infant with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 1659.
85. Ma, W.,, K. Zalec,, and B. R. Glick. 2001. Biological activity and colonization pattern of the bioluminescence-labeled plant growth-promoting bacterium Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165/ 26. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 35: 137 144.
86. Maertens, J.,, M. Delforge,, P. Vandenberghe,, M. Boogaerts,, and J. Verhaegen. 2001. Catheter-related bacteremia due to Ewingella americana. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 7: 103 104.
87. Mangum, M. E.,, and D. Radisch. 1987. Cedecea species: unusual clinical isolate. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 9: 171 172.
88. Maraki, S.,, G. Samonis,, E. Marnelakis,, and Y. Tselentis. 1994. Surgical wound infection caused by Rahnella aquatilis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 2706 2708.
89. Marshall, A. R.,, I. J. Al-Jumaili,, and A. J. Bint. 1986. The isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from stool samples in the U. K. J. Infect. 12: 31 33.
90. Matsukura, H.,, K. Katayama,, N. Kitano,, K. Kobayashi,, C. Kanegane,, and A. Higuchi. 1996. Infective endocarditis caused by an unusual gram-negative rod, Rahnella aquatilis. Pediatr. Cardiol. 17: 108 111.
91. Mazzariol, A.,, J. Zuliani,, R. Fontana,, and G. Cornaglia. 2003. Isolation from blood culture of a Leclercia adecarboxylata strain producing an SHV-12 extended-spectrum β-lactamase. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 1738 1739.
92. McNeil, M. M.,, B. J. Davis,, S. L. Soloman,, R. L. Anderson,, S. T. Shulman,, S. Gardner,, K. Kabat,, and W. J. Martone. 1987. Ewingella americana: recurrent pseudobacteremia from a persistent environmental reservoir. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 498 500.
93. McWhorter, A. C.,, R. L. Haddock,, A. F. Nocon,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, D. J. Brenner,, A. Aleksic,, J. Bockmuhl,, and J. J. Farmer III. 1991. Trabulsiella guamensis, a new genus and species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that resembles Salmonella subgroups 4 and 5. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 1480 1485.
94. Menasalvas, A.,, F. Garcia-Garrote,, E. Cercenado,, M. D. Diaz,, L. Martinez-Sanchez,, and E. Bouza. 1996. Rahnella aquatilis: a report of two cases. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 18: 143 144.
95. Morgan, J. A. W.,, V. Kuntzelmann,, S. Tavernor,, M. A. Ousley,, and C. Winstanley. 1997. Survival of Xenorhabdus nematophilus and Photorhabdus luminescens in water and soil. J. Appl. Microbiol. 83: 665 670.
96. Muller, H. E.,, D. J. Brenner,, G. R. Steigerwalt,, P. A. D. Grimont,, and P. Kampfer. 1996. Emended description of Buttiauxella agrestis with recognition of six new species of Buttiauxella and two new species of Kluyvera: Buttiauxella ferragutiae sp. nov., Buttiauxella gaviniae sp. nov., Buttiauxella brennerae sp. nov., Buttiauxella izardii sp. nov., Buttiauxella noackiae sp. nov., Buttiauxella warmboldiae sp. nov., Kluyvera cochleae sp. nov., and Kluyvera georgiana sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Microbiol. 46: 50 63.
97. Muller, H. E.,, G. R. Fanning,, and D. J. Brenner. 1995. Isolation of Ewingella americana from mollusks. Curr. Microbiol. 31: 287 290.
98. Oh, H. M. L.,, and L. Tay. 1995. Bacteremia caused by Rahnella aquatilis: report of two cases and review. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 27: 79 80.
99. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 1992. Evaluation of the autoSCAN-W/A system for rapid (2 hour) identification of the family Enterobacteriaceae. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 1541 1543.
100. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2000. Evaluation of the MicroScan Rapid Neg ID3 panel for identification of Enterobacteriaceae and some common gram-negative nonfermenters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3577 3580.
101. O’Hara, C. M.,, and J. M. Miller. 2003. Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB assay for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other nonenteric gramnegative bacilli and comparison with the Vitek GNI+ card. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41: 2096 2101.
102. O’Hara, C. M.,, F. C. Tenover,, and J. M. Miller. 1993. Parallel comparison of accuracy of API 20E, Vitek GNI, MicroScan Walk/Away Rapid ID, and Becton Dickinson Cobas Micro ID-E/NF for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and common gram-negative, non-glucosefermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 3165 3169.
103. O’Hara, C. M.,, G. L. Westbrook,, and J. M. Miller. 1997. Evaluation of Vitek GNI+ and Becton Dickinson Microbiology Systems Crystal E/NF identification systems for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative, glucose-fermenting and non-glucosefermenting bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 3269 3273.
104. Österblad, M.,, O. Pensala,, M. Peterzéns,, H. Helenius,, and P. Huovinen. 1999. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from vegetables. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43: 503 509.
105. Otani, E.,, and D. A. Bruckner. 1991. Leclercia adecarboxylata isolated from blood culture. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 13: 20.
106. Oteo, J.,, J. L. Gomez-Garces,, and J. L. Alos. 1998. Acute cholecystitis and bacteremia caused by Kluyvera ascorbata in a cirrhotic patient. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 4: 113 115.
107. Pavan, M. E.,, R. J. Franco,, J. M. Rodriguez,, P. Gadaleta,, S. L. Abbott,, J. M. Janda,, and J. Zorzopulos. 2005. Phylogenetic relationshops of the genus Kluyvera: transfer of Enterobacter intermedius Izard et al. 1980 to the genus Kluyvera as Kluyvera intermedia comb. nov. and reclassification of Kluyvera cochleae as a later synonym of K. intermedia. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55: 437 442.
108. Peel, M. M.,, D. A. Alfredson,, J. G. Gerrard,, J. M. Davis,, J. M. Robson,, R. J. McDougall,, B. L. Scullie,, and R. J Akhurst. 1999. Isolation, identification, and molecular characterization of strains of Photorhabdus luminescens from infected humans in Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3647 3653.
109. Pien, F. D.,, and A. E. Bruce. 1986. Nosocomial Ewingella americana bacteremia in an intensive care unit. Arch. Intern. Med. 146: 111 112.
110. Pien, F. D.,, J. J. Farmer III,, and R. E. Weaver. 1983. Polymicrobial bacteremia caused by Ewingella americana (family Enterobacteriaceae) and an unusual Pseudomonas species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18: 727 729.
111. Poirel, L.,, P. Kampfer,, and P. Nordmann. 2002. Chromosome-encoded Ambler class A β-lactamase of Kluyvera georgiana, a probable progenitor of a subgroup of CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 4038 4040.
112. Prazmo, Z.,, J. Dutkiewicz,, C. Skorska,, J. Sitkowska,, and G. Cholewa. 2003. Exposure to airborne gram-negative bacteria, dust and endotoxin in paper factories. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 10: 93 100.
113. Pumponi, C. B.,, M. S. Beier,, J. P. Nataro,, L. D. Guers,, and J. R. Davis. 1993. Plasmodium falciparum: inhibition of sporogonic development in Anopheles stephensi by gram-negative bacteria. Exp. Parasitol. 77: 195 199.
114. Rabsch, W.,, and G. Winkelmann. 1991. The specificity of bacterial siderophore receptors probed by bioassays. Biol. Metals 4: 244 250.
115. Reina, J.,, and A. Lopez. 1996. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of Rahnella aquatilis strains isolated from children. J. Infect. 33: 135 137.
116. Rhoden, D. L.,, B. Schable,, and P. B. Smith. 1987. Evaluation of PASCO MIC-ID system for identifying gram-negative bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 2363 2366.
117. Rhodes, A. N.,, J. W. Urbance,, H. Youga,, H. Corlew- Newman,, C. A. Reddy,, M. J. Klug,, J. M. Tiedje,, and D. C. Fisher. 1998. Identification of bacterial isolates obtained from intestinal contents associated with 12,000-year-old mastodon remains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 651 658.
118. Richard, C. 1987. Isolation of Kluyvera ascorbata from Madagascar lemurs, healthy carriers of this unusual enterobacteium. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Filiales 80: 756 760.
119. Sandfort, R. F.,, W. Murray,, and J. M. Janda. 2002 . Moellerella wisconsensis isolated from the oral cavity of a wild raccoon ( Procyon lotor). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2: 197 199.
120. Sarria, J. C.,, A. M. Vidal,, and R. C. Kimbrough III. 2001. Infections caused by Kluyvera species in humans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33e: 69 74.
121. Schwach, T. 1979. A case report. Clin. Microbiol. Newsl. 1: 4 5.
122. Stock, I.,, E. Falsen,, and B. Wiedemann. 2003. Moellerella wisconsensis: identification, natural antibiotic susceptibility and its dependency on the medium applied. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 45: 1 11.
123. Stock, I.,, T. Gruger,, and B. Wiedemann. 2000. Natural antibiotic susceptibility of Rahnella aquatilis and R. aquatilis-related strains. J. Chemother. 12: 30 39.
124. Stock, I.,, K. J. Sherwood,, and B. Wiedemann. 2003. Natural susceptibility of Ewingella americana strains. J. Chemother. 15: 428 441.
125. Stock, I.,, K. J. Sherwood,, and B. Wiedemann. 2004. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, β-lactamases, and biochemical identification of Yokenella regensburgei strains. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 48: 5 15.
126. Tamura, K.,, R. Sakazaki,, Y. Kosako,, and E. Yoshizaki. 1986. Leclercia adecarboxylata gen., comb. nov. formerly known as Escherichia adecarboxylata. Curr. Microbiol. 13: 179 184.
127. Tan, S. C. 1989. The first isolate of Tatumella ptyseos in Malaysia. Malays. J. Pathol. 25: 261 263.
128. Temesgen, Z.,, D. R. Toal,, and F. R. Cockerill III. 1997. Leclercia adecarboxylata infections: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 79 81.
129. Thaller, R.,, F. Berletta,, M. C. Thaller. 1988. Kluyvera cryocrescens strain from a gall-bladder infection. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 1: 124 126.
130. Thomas, G. M.,, and G. O. Poinar, Jr. 1979. Xenorhabdus gen. nov., a genus of entomopathogenic, nematophilic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 29: 352 360.
131. Thomas, G. M.,, and G. O. Poinar, Jr. 1983. Amended description of the genus Xenorhabdus Thomas and Poinar. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33: 878 879.
132. Thornsberry, C. 1994. Susceptibility of clinical bacterial isolates to ciprofloxacin in the United States. Infection 22(Suppl. 2): S80 S89.
133. Tristam, D. A.,, and B. A. Forbes. 1988. Kluyvera: a case report of urinary tract infection and sepsis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7: 297 298.
134. Tsai, Y. H.,, H. F. Kung,, T. M. Lee,, G. T. Lin,, and D. F. Hwang. 2004. Histamine-related hygienic qualities and bacteria found in popular commercial scrombroid fish fillets in Taiwan. J. Food Prot. 67: 407 412.
135. Tsokos, M. 2003. Fatal Waterhouse-Freiderichsen syndrome due to Ewingella americana infection. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 24: 41 44.
136. Wallet, F.,, A. Fruchart,, P. J. M. Bouvet,, and R. J. Courcol. 1994. Isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from bronchial aspirate. Eur. J. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13: 182 183.
137. Waterfield, N. R.,, D. J. Bowen,, J. D. Fetherson,, R. D. Perry,, and R. H. ffrench-Constant. 2001. The tc genes of Photorhabdus: a growing family. Trends Microbiol. 9: 185 191.
138. Wauters, G.,, A. Boel,, G. P. Voorn,, J. Verhaegen,, F. Meunier,, M. Janssens,, and L. Verbist. 1995. Evaluation of a new identification system, Crystal Enteric/Non-Fermenter, for gramnegative bacilli. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 845 849.
139. Wittke, J.-W.,, S. Aleksic,, and H.-H. Wuthe. 1985. Isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from an infected human gallbladder. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. 4: 351 352.
140. Wong, V. K. 1987. Broviac catheter infection with Kluyvera ascorbata: a case report. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1115 1116.
141. Yogev, R.,, and S. Kozlowski. 1990. Peritonitis due to Kluyvera ascorbata: case report and review. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12: 399 402.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Taxonomic recap of miscellaneous genera in this chapter

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Uncommon Enterobacterial Genera Associated with Clinical Specimens, p 357-376. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch20
Generic image for table
Table 2

Identification of miscellaneous by 10 commercial systems

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Uncommon Enterobacterial Genera Associated with Clinical Specimens, p 357-376. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch20

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error