Chapter 8 : Salmonella Serotype Typhi and Salmonella Serotype Paratyphi A, B, and C

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The epidemiology of serotype Typhi in industrialized countries is relatively simple. Recent outbreaks of serotype Paratyphi A, characterized by severe disease, have occurred in India and Thailand. Most typhoid fever infections, whether sporadic or epidemic, occur in children 5 to 19 years of age. Treatment with high levels of ciprofloxacin (750 mg orally twice daily) for 28 days is effective in eliminating chronic carriage. Blood culture, the standard method for the diagnosis of enteric fever, is positive in 30 to 90% of patients depending upon bacteremic levels and the stage of disease. serotype Paratyphi B is negative for L-tartrate (also known as Jordan’s or phenol red tartrate), while the antigenically identical serotype previously known as serotype Java is L-tartrate positive. serotype Typhi and some strains of serotype Paratyphi C possess a capsule, the Vi Ag, which envelops the somatic or cell surface Ag. The results of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and other methods (e.g., analysis of outer membrane proteins), in fact, suggest that serotype Typhi strains from different geographical areas are derived from only two clones, one restricted to west Africa and the other of worldwide distribution. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) currently licenses the parenteral Vi capsular polysaccharide and the oral serotype Typhi Ty21a vaccines. Adverse events after receipt of either vaccine are largely self limited, with frequent reports of gastrointestinal symptoms occasionally requiring hospitalization.

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Salmonella Serotype Typhi and Salmonella Serotype Paratyphi A, B, and C, p 105-114. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch8
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Phage typing of serotype Typhi, type C .

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Salmonella Serotype Typhi and Salmonella Serotype Paratyphi A, B, and C, p 105-114. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch8
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Table 1

Characteristics of untreated enteric fever

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Salmonella Serotype Typhi and Salmonella Serotype Paratyphi A, B, and C, p 105-114. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 2

Reactions of serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, B, and C in screening media

Citation: Janda J, Abbott S. 2006. Salmonella Serotype Typhi and Salmonella Serotype Paratyphi A, B, and C, p 105-114. In The Enterobacteria, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817541.ch8

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