Chapter 26 : The Genome

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The Genome, Page 1 of 2

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is the most important vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, where most of the world’s human malaria cases and deaths occur each year. Genetically, sensu stricto is a very polymorphic taxon. is clearly a species with a high degree of genetic population structure, particularly in west and central Africa. has three pairs of chromosomes, an X and Y sex-determining pair and two autosomes, chromosomes 2 and 3. The shotgun sequences from Celera and Genoscope were assembled with the Celera assembler into 8,987 scaffolds (ordered and oriented sets of contigs with gaps) that constitute the assembled genome. The genome is currently undergoing a major update of the assembly, which will then be followed by an entirely new annotation. A major milestone for the VectorBase developers will be the completion of the first draft of the genome and close comparison between the and genomes. Postgenome studies using large-scale data sets involving expressed sequence tags (ESTs), microarray expression analysis, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and proteomics data, in addition to third-party annotations, are essential to provide information on the annotation of the genome and to pinpoint unique and fundamental aspects of mosquito biology that could be exploited for control. Insecticides are an essential component to most malaria control programs. Our future challenge will be to determine the function of gene products and to establish precisely how they interact in time and space to affect vector biology and disease transmission.

Citation: Collins F, Hill C. 2005. The Genome, p 499-515. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch26
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Image of FIGURE 1

Schematic diagram by M. Coluzzi of the X chromosome of showing sites of hybridization of a sample of BAC clones and cDNA clones. The dark lines below the chromosome indicate the approximate location along the chromosome of individual scaffolds. Scaffolds are identified by the last four digits in the scaffold clone name (e.g., scaffold AAAB01008846 is marked 8846).Arrows indicate orientation of the scaffold from the first nucleotide pair to the last (at arrowhead). Some small scaffolds in division 6 have not been oriented.

Citation: Collins F, Hill C. 2005. The Genome, p 499-515. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch26
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Image of FIGURE 2

Schematic representation of the molecular processes involved in GPCR signal transduction pathways that may operate in a range of mosquito biological processes such as olfaction, taste, vision, and neurohormonal processes. GPCRs in sensilla of the mosquito antennae and mouthparts are thought to function in mosquito olfaction and taste, while GPCRs in the photoreceptor cells of the compound eye function in visual processes. In this diagram, a seven-transmembrane-spanning GPCR is shown interacting with a range of extracellular ligands, including odorant molecules in the case of olfaction and photons of light in the case of visual processes. Odorant receptors may interact with OBPs before interacting with the GPCR. Following interaction with a specific ligand, the GPCR undergoes a conformational change and interacts with heterotrimeric G protein complexes that activate downstream effector molecules, either adenyl cyclase (AC) or phospholipase C (PLC).This results in the synthesis of second messengers, namely cyclic AMP (cAMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), and inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate (IP), which regulate cation channels, resulting in a transduction current.

Citation: Collins F, Hill C. 2005. The Genome, p 499-515. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch26
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Species in the complex and their role in malaria transmission

Citation: Collins F, Hill C. 2005. The Genome, p 499-515. In Sherman I (ed), Molecular Approaches to Malaria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817558.ch26

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