Chapter 25 : Anaerobes

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Anaerobes comprise over 500, and perhaps as many as 1,000, species and make up over 99% of the indigenous gastrointestinal or oral microflora. The major anaerobic genera of clinical interest include , , , , , , and . In , macrolide-lincosamidestreptogramin (MLS) and tetracycline resistance determinants are typically found on conjugative transposons and on mobilizable transposons in . Among the three known tetracycline resistance mechanisms-efflux-mediated resistance, enzymatic tetracycline degradation and ribosomal protection - only the latter is operative in members of the group. An AcrB-related multidrug efflux system termed XepCAB has been described in this species, the inactivation of which resulted in only discretely increased susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones, as well as tetracyclines and rifampin. Macrolide resistance is widespread in , reaching rates of up to 96%. The clostridia are considered susceptible to the glycopeptides vancomycin and teicoplanin. The rates of resistance to carbapenems and imidazoles have remained low overall, as has antimicrobial resistance in spp., , and maybe to a somewhat lesser degree also in and peptostreptococci.

Citation: Podglajen I, Collatz E, Breuil J. 2005. Anaerobes, p 340-354. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch25
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Generic image for table
Table 1.

β-Lactamases produced by anaerobic bacteria

HG I and II: DNA homology group I and II ( ).

Species-specific chromosome-encoded β-lactamases are shown in bold.

Values in italics were computed for the proteins after elimination of the putative signal peptides using the ProtParam and SignalP ( ) software packages of the ExPASy Proteomics Server (http://www.expasy.org/).

Citation: Podglajen I, Collatz E, Breuil J. 2005. Anaerobes, p 340-354. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 2.

The penicillin-binding proteins of and

The PBP designations are those given in the annotated genomes of YCH46 (NC_006347) and VPI-5482 (NC_004663).

The molecular weights were calculated for the PBPs before and after cleavage of their predicted signal peptides using the ProtParam and SignalP ( ) software packages of the ExPASy Proteomics Server (http://www.expasy.org/).

A signal peptide was not unambiguously predicted.

NSP, no signal peptide was predicted.

-Ala--Ala carboxypeptidase.

Citation: Podglajen I, Collatz E, Breuil J. 2005. Anaerobes, p 340-354. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Metronidazole resistance genes () in anaerobic bacteria

Citation: Podglajen I, Collatz E, Breuil J. 2005. Anaerobes, p 340-354. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic bacteria

Further unreferenced genes in anaerobes can be found at http://faculty.washington.edu/marilynr/tetweb2.pdf.

genes mediating ribosomal protection.

gene mediating drug modification.

genes mediating drug efflux.

Citation: Podglajen I, Collatz E, Breuil J. 2005. Anaerobes, p 340-354. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 5.

Macrolide resistance genes () in anaerobic bacteria

Further unreferenced determinants are listed at http://faculty.washington.edu/marilynr/ermweb4.pdf.

Citation: Podglajen I, Collatz E, Breuil J. 2005. Anaerobes, p 340-354. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch25
Generic image for table
Table 6.

Amino acid changes reported in gyrase and topoisomerase IV in fluoroquinolone-resistant laboratory mutants and/or clinical or veterinary isolates

Citation: Podglajen I, Collatz E, Breuil J. 2005. Anaerobes, p 340-354. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch25

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