Chapter 9 : Phenicol Resistance

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Phenicol Resistance, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817572/9781555813291_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817572/9781555813291_Chap09-2.gif


Chloramphenicol (CML) resistance among bacteria is frequently due to the presence of the antibiotic inactivating enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), which catalyzes the acetyl-S-CoA-dependent acetylation of chloramphenicol at the 3-hydroxyl group. The genes are widespread among most genera of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and represent the best-understood mechanism of microbial resistance to chloramphenicol. There are two defined types of CATs which differ distinctly in their structure: the classical CATs, referred to in this chapter as type A CATs and the novel CATs, also known as xenobiotic CATs, but referred to in the chapter as type B CATs. A number of closely related or identical genes have been identified from several gram-negative bacteria including , , , and and have been assigned to group E-1. The CML protein does not share significant homology to other characterized chloramphenicol resistance proteins and only consists of 302 amino acids and five transmembrane segments. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests on transconjugant strains demonstrated that resistance to sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and kanamycin frequently transferred along with chloramphenicol resistance.

Citation: Schwarz S, White D. 2005. Phenicol Resistance, p 124-147. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch9
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Phenicol chemical structures.

Citation: Schwarz S, White D. 2005. Phenicol Resistance, p 124-147. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

70S bacterial ribosome

Citation: Schwarz S, White D. 2005. Phenicol Resistance, p 124-147. In White D, Alekshun M, McDermott P (ed), Frontiers in Antimicrobial Resistance. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817572.ch9
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Adler, J.,, O. Lewinson,, and E. Bibi. 2004. Role of a conserved membrane-embedded acidic residue in the multidrug transporter MdfA. Biochemistry 43: 518 525.
2. Ahmed, M.,, L. Lyass,, P. N. Markham,, S. S. Taylor,, N. Vazquez-Laslop,, and A. A. Neyfakh. 1995. Two highly similar multidrug transporters of Bacillus subtilis whose expression is differentially regulated. J. Bacteriol. 177: 3904 3910.
3. Albini, E.,, G. Belluco,, M. Berton,, G. Schioppacassi,, and D. Ungheri. 1999. In vitro antibacterial activity of thiamphenicol glycinate acetylcysteinate against respiratory pathogens. Arzneimittelforschung 49: 533 537.
4. Alekshun, M. N.,, and S. B. Levy. 1999. The mar regulon: multiple resistance to antibiotics and other toxic chemicals. Trends Microbiol. 7: 410 413.
5. Allignet, J.,, and N. El Solh. 1995. Diversity among the gram-positive acetyltransferases inactivating streptogramin A and structurally related compounds and characterization of a new staphylococcal determinant, vatB. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 2027 2036.
6. Allignet, J.,, V. Loncle,, C. Simenel,, M. Delepierre,, and N. El Solh. 1993. Sequence of a staphylococcal gene, vat, encoding an acetyltransferase inactivating the A-type compounds of virginiamycin-like antibiotics. Gene 130: 91 98.
7. Alton, N. K.,, and D. Vapnek. 1979. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance transposon Tn9. Nature 282: 864 869.
8. Anderson, L. M.,, T. M. Henkin,, G. H. Chambliss,, and K. F. Bott. 1984. New chloramphenicol resistance locus in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 158: 386 388.
9. Aoki, T.,, N. Noguchi,, M. Sasatsu,, and M. Kono. 1987. Complete nucleotide sequence of pTZ12, a chloramphenicolresistance plasmid of Bacillus subtilis. Gene 51: 107 111.
10. Arcangioli, M. A.,, S. Leroy-Setrin,, J. L. Martel,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 1999. A new chloramphenicol and florfenicol resistance gene flanked by two integron structures in Salmonella typhimurium DT104. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 174: 327 332.
11. Arcangioli, M. A.,, S. Leroy-Setrin,, J. L. Martel,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2000. Evolution of chloramphenicol resistance, with emergence of cross-resistance to florfenicol, in bovine Salmonella typhimurium strains implicates definitive phage type (DT) 104. J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 103 110.
12. Aubert, D.,, L. Poirel,, J. Chevalier,, S. Leotard,, J. M. Pages,, and P. Nordmann. 2001. Oxacillinase-mediated resistance to cefepime and susceptibility to ceftazidime in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 1615 1620.
13. Ayoubi, P.,, A. O. Kilic,, and M. N. Vijayakumar. 1991. Tn5253, the pneumococcal omega (cat tet) BM6001 element, is a composite structure of two conjugative transposons, Tn5251 and Tn5252. J. Bacteriol. 173: 1617 1622.
14. Balbi, H. J. 2004. Chloramphenicol: a review. Pediatr. Rev. 25: 284 288.
15. Bannam, T. L.,, P. K. Crellin,, and J. I. Rood. 1995. Molecular genetics of the chloramphenicol-resistance transposon Tn4451 from Clostridium perfringens: the TnpX site-specific recombinase excises a circular transposon molecule. Mol. Microbiol. 16: 535 551.
16. Bannam, T. L.,, and J. I. Rood. 1991. Relationship between the Clostridium perfringens catQ gene product and chloramphenicol acetyltransferases from other bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 471 476.
17. Baucheron, S.,, H. Imberechts,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2002. The AcrB multidrug transporter plays a major role in high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium phage type DT204. Microb. Drug Resist. 8: 281 289.
18. Baucheron, S.,, S. Tyler,, D. Boyd,, M. R. Mulvey,, E. Chaslus- Dancla,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2004. AcrAB-TolC directs effluxmediated multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 3729 3735.
19. Baughman, G. A.,, and S. R. Fahnestock. 1979. Chloramphenicol resistance mutation in Escherichia coli which maps in the major ribosomal protein gene cluster. J. Bacteriol. 137: 1315 1323.
20. Beaber, J. W.,, B. Hochhut,, and M. K. Waldor. 2002. Genomic and functional analyses of SXT, an integrating antibiotic resistance gene transfer element derived from Vibrio cholerae. J. Bacteriol. 184: 4259 4269.
21. Beers, D. V.,, E. Schoutens,, M. P. Vanderlinden,, and E. Yourassowsky. 1975. Comparative in vitro acitvity of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol on common aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli ( Salmonella and Shigella excluded). Chemotherapy 21: 73 81.
22. Belda, J. W.,, L. F. Siqueira,, and L. J. Fagundes. 2000. Thiamphenicol in the treatment of chancroid. A study of 1, 128 cases. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 42: 133 135.
23. Belda, W.,, M. F. dos Santos Junior,, L. J. Fagundes,, L. F. Siqueira,, C. Lombardi,, and W. Francisco. 1984. Minute treatment with thiamphenicol in water for acute gonococcal urethritis in male patients. Sex Transm. Dis. 11: 420 422.
24. Bhakta, M.,, and M. Bal. 2003. Identification and characterization of a shuttle plasmid with antibiotic resistance gene from Staphylococcus aureus. Curr. Microbiol. 46: 413 417.
25. Bibi, E.,, J. Adler,, O. Lewinson,, and R. Edgar. 2001. MdfA, an interesting model protein for studying multidrug transport. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3: 171 177.
26. Bischoff, K. M.,, D. G. White,, M. E. Hume,, T. L. Poole,, and D. J. Nisbet. 2005. The chloramphenicol resistance gene cmlAis disseminated on transferable plasmids that confer multiple- drug resistance in swine Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 243: 285 291.
27. Bischoff, K. M.,, D. G. White,, P. F. McDermott,, S. Zhao,, S. Gaines,, J. J. Maurer,, and D. J. Nisbet. 2002. Characterization of chloramphenicol resistance in beta-hemolytic Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in neonatal swine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 389 394.
28. Bissonnette, L.,, S. Champetier,, J. P. Buisson,, and P. H. Roy. 1991. Characterization of the nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance ( cmlA) gene of the In4 integron of Tn1696: similarity of the product to transmembrane transport proteins. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4493 4502.
29. Blickwede, M.,, and S. Schwarz. 2004. Molecular analysis of florfenicol-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from pigs. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53: 58 64.
30. Bolton, L. F.,, L. C. Kelley,, M. D. Lee,, P. J. Fedorka-Cray,, and J. J. Maurer. 1999. Detection of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104 based on a gene which confers cross-resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1348 1351.
31. Boyd, D.,, A. Cloeckaert,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, and M. R. Mulvey. 2002. Characterization of variant Salmonella genomic island 1 multidrug resistance regions from serovars Typhimurium DT104 and Agona. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 1714 1722.
32. Boyd, D.,, G. A. Peters,, A. Cloeckaert,, K. S. Boumedine,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, H. Imberechts,, and M. R. Mulvey. 2001. Complete nucleotide sequence of a 43-kilobase genomic island associated with the multidrug resistance region of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 and its identification in phage type DT120 and serovar Agona. J. Bacteriol. 183: 5725 5732.
33. Brenner, D. G.,, and W. V. Shaw. 1985. The use of synthetic oligonucleotides with universal templates for rapid DNA sequencing: results with staphylococcal replicon pC221. EMBO J. 4: 561 568.
34. Briggs, C. E.,, and P. M. Fratamico. 1999. Molecular characterization of an antibiotic resistance gene cluster of Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 846 849.
35. Bruckner, R.,, and H. Matzura. 1985. Regulation of the inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pUB112. EMBO J. 4: 2295 2300.
36. Bruggemann, H.,, S. Baumer,, W. F. Fricke,, A. Wiezer,, H. Liesegang,, I. Decker,, C. Herzberg,, R. Martinez-Arias,, R. Merkl,, A. Henne,, and G. Gottschalk. 2003. The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 1316 1321.
37. Bunny, K. L.,, R. M. Hall,, and H. W. Stokes. 1995. New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catB3, in an integron in pBWH301. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 686 693.
38. Burns, J. L.,, L. A. Hedin,, and D. M. Lien. 1989. Chloramphenicol resistance in Pseudomonas cepacia because of decreased permeability. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33: 136 141.
39. Burns, J. L.,, P. M. Mendelman,, J. Levy,, T. L. Stull,, and A. L. Smith. 1985. A permeability barrier as a mechanism of chloramphenicol resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27: 46 54.
40. Butaye, P.,, A. Cloeckaert,, and S. Schwarz. 2003. Mobile genes coding for efflux-mediated antimicrobial resistance in grampositive and gram-negative bacteria. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 22: 205 210.
41. Byeon, W. H. 1992. Genbank accession no. M90091. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
42. Cabrera, R.,, J. Ruiz,, F. Marco,, I. Oliveira,, M. Arroyo,, A. Aladuena,, M. A. Usera,, M. T. Jimenez De Anta,, J. Gascon,, and J. Vila. 2004. Mechanism of resistance to several antimicrobial agents in Salmonella clinical isolates causing traveler’s diarrhea. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 3934 3939.
43. Cannon, M.,, S. Harford,, and J. Davies. 1990. A comparative study on the inhibitory actions of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and some fluorinated derivatives. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 26: 307 317.
44. Carattoli, A.,, F. Tosini,, W. P. Giles,, M. E. Rupp,, S. H. Hinrichs,, F. J. Angulo,, T. J. Barrett,, and P. D. Fey. 2002. Characterization of plasmids carrying CMY-2 from expanded-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Salmonella strains isolated in the United States between 1996 and 1998. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 1269 1272.
45. Cardoso, M.,, and S. Schwarz. 1992. Nucleotide sequence and structural relationships of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by the plasmid pSCS6 from Staphylococcus aureus. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 72: 289 293.
46. Center for Veterinary Medicine. FDA approved animal drug products online database system. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2005.
47. Charles, I. G.,, J. W. Keyte,, and W. V. Shaw. 1985. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cat gene of Proteus mirabilis: comparison with the type I (Tn9) cat gene. J. Bacteriol. 164: 123 129.
48. Chen, S.,, S. Zhao,, D. G. White,, C. M. Schroeder,, R. Lu,, H. Yang,, P. F. McDermott,, S. Ayers,, and J. Meng. 2004. Characterization of multiple-antimicrobial-resistant salmonella serovars isolated from retail meats. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 1 7.
49. Cloeckaert, A.,, S. Baucheron,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2001. Nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance mediated by IncC plasmid R55 is encoded by a floR gene variant. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 2381 2382.
50. Cloeckaert, A.,, S. Baucheron,, G. Flaujac,, S. Schwarz,, C. Kehrenberg,, J. L. Martel,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2000. Plasmid- mediated florfenicol resistance encoded by the floR gene in Escherichia coli isolated from cattle. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 2858 2860.
51. Cloeckaert, A.,, and S. Schwarz. 2001. Molecular characterization, spread and evolution of multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica typhimurium DT104. Vet. Res. 32: 301 310.
52. Cloeckaert, A.,, B. K. Sidi,, G. Flaujac,, H. Imberechts,, I. D’Hooghe,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2000. Occurrence of a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104-like antibiotic resistance gene cluster including the floR gene in S. enterica serovar agona. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 1359 1361.
53. Colmer, J. A.,, J. A. Fralick,, and A. N. Hamood. 1998. Isolation and characterization of a putative multidrug resistance pump from Vibrio cholerae. Mol. Microbiol. 27: 63 72.
54. Cook, A. T.,, and D. E. Marmion. 1949. Chloromycetin in the treatment of typhoid fever; 14 cases treated in the Middle East. Lancet 2: 975 979.
55. De Craene, B. A.,, P. Deprez,, E. D’Haese,, H. J. Nelis,, B. W. Van den,, and P. De Leenheer. 1997. Pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of calves. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 1991 1995.
56. DelVecchio, V. G.,, V. Kapatral,, R. J. Redkar,, G. Patra,, C. Mujer,, T. Los,, N. Ivanova,, I. Anderson,, A. Bhattacharyya,, A. Lykidis,, G. Reznik,, L. Jablonski,, N. Larsen,, M. D’Souza,, A. Bernal,, M. Mazur,, E. Goltsman,, E. Selkov,, P. H. Elzer,, S. Hagius,, D. O’Callaghan,, J. J. Letesson,, R. Haselkorn,, N. Kyrpides,, and R. Overbeek. 2002. The genome sequence of the facultative intracellular pathogen Brucella melitensis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 443 448.
57. Desomer, J.,, D. Vereecke,, M. Crespi,, and M. Van Montagu. 1992. The plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol-resistance protein of Rhodococcus fascians is homologous to the transmembrane tetracycline efflux proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 2377 2385.
58. Dittrich, W.,, M. Betzler,, and H. Schrempf. 1991. An amplifiable and deletable chloramphenicol-resistance determinant of Streptomyces lividans 1326 encodes a putative transmembrane protein. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 2789 2797.
59. Dorman, C. J.,, and T. J. Foster. 1982. Nonenzymatic chloramphenicol resistance determinants specified by plasmids R26 and R55-1 in Escherichia coli K-12 do not confer high-level resistance to fluorinated analogs. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22: 912 914.
60. Dorman, C. J.,, T. J. Foster,, and W. V. Shaw. 1986. Nucleotide sequence of the R26 chloramphenicol resistance determinant and identification of its gene product. Gene 41: 349 353.
61. Doublet, B.,, P. Butaye,, H. Imberechts,, D. Boyd,, M. R. Mulvey,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2004. Salmonella genomic island 1 multidrug resistance gene clusters in Salmonella enterica serovar Agona isolated in Belgium in 1992 to 2002. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 2510 2517.
62. Doublet, B.,, A. Carattoli,, J. M. Whichard,, D. G. White,, S. Baucheron,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2004. Plasmid-mediated florfenicol and ceftriaxone resistance encoded by the floR and bla (CMY-2) genes in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Newport isolated in the United States. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 233: 301 305.
63. Doublet, B.,, R. Lailler,, D. Meunier,, A. Brisabois,, D. Boyd,, M. R. Mulvey,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2003. Variant Salmonella genomic island 1 antibiotic resistance gene cluster in Salmonella enterica serovar Albany. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 585 591.
64. Doublet, B.,, S. Schwarz,, C. Kehrenberg,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2005. The florfenicol resistance gene floR is part of a novel transposon. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 2106 2108.
65. Doublet, B.,, S. Schwarz,, E. Nussbeck,, S. Baucheron,, J. L. Martel,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2002. Molecular analysis of chromosomally florfenicol-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from France and Germany. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49: 49 54.
66. Drago, L.,, E. De Vecchi,, M. C. Fassina,, B. Mombelli,, and M. R. Gismondo. 2000. Serum and lung levels of thiamphenicol after administration of its glycinate N-acetylcysteinate ester in experimentally infected guinea pigs. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 13: 301 303.
67. Du, X.,, C. Xia,, J. Shen,, B. Wu,, and Z. Shen. 2004. Characterization of florfenicol resistance among calf pathogenic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 236: 183 189.
68. Ecker, G. F.,, K. Pleban,, S. Kopp,, E. Csaszar,, G. J. Poelarends,, M. Putman,, D. Kaiser,, W. N. Konings,, and P. Chiba. 2004. A three-dimensional model for the substrate binding domain of the multidrug ATP binding cassette transporter LmrA. Mol. Pharmacol. 66: 1169 1179.
69. Ehrlich, J. Q.,, Q. R. Bartz,, R. M. Smith,, D. A. Joslyn,, and P. R. Burkholder. 1947. Chlormycetin, a new antibiotic from a soil actinomycete. Science 106: 417.
70. Eisen, J. A.,, K. E. Nelson,, I. T. Paulsen,, J. F. Heidelberg,, M. Wu,, R. J. Dodson,, R. Deboy,, M. L. Gwinn,, W. C. Nelson,, D. H. Haft,, E. K. Hickey,, J. D. Peterson,, A. S. Durkin,, J. L. Kolonay,, F. Yang,, I. Holt,, L. A. Umayam,, T. Mason,, M. Brenner,, T. P. Shea,, D. Parksey,, W. C. Nierman,, T. V. Feldblyum,, C. L. Hansen,, M. B. Craven,, D. Radune,, J. Vamathevan,, H. Khouri,, O. White,, T. M. Gruber,, K. A. Ketchum,, J. C. Venter,, H. Tettelin,, D. A. Bryant,, and C. M. Fraser. 2002. The complete genome sequence of Chlorobium tepidum TLS, a photosynthetic, anaerobic, green-sulfur bacterium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 9509 9514.
71. Elisha, B. G.,, and L. M. Steyn. 1991. Identification of an Acinetobacter baumannii gene region with sequence and organizational similarity to Tn2670. Plasmid 25: 96 104.
72. Ettayebi, M.,, S. M. Prasad,, and E. A. Morgan. 1985. Chloramphenicol- erythromycin resistance mutations in a 23S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 162: 551 557.
73. Federici, L.,, D. Du,, F. Walas,, H. Matsumura,, J. Fernandez- Recio,, K. S. McKeegan,, M. I. Borges-Walmsley,, B. F. Luisi,, and A. R. Walmsley. 2005. The crystal structure of the outer membrane protein VCEC from the bacterial pathogen vibrio cholerae at 1.8 A resolution. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 15307 15314.
74. Frech, G.,, C. Kehrenberg,, and S. Schwarz. 2003. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes of multiresistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen isolates from animal sources. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: 180 182.
75. Fukui, H.,, Y. Fujihara,, and T. Kano. 1987. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of florfenicol, a new fluorinated analog of thiamphenicol, against fish pathogens. Fish. Pathol. 22: 201 207.
76. Fuller, D. G.,, T. Duke,, F. Shann,, and N. Curtis. 2003. Antibiotic treatment for bacterial meningitis in children in developing countries. Ann. Trop. Paediatr. 23: 233 253.
77. Galimand, M.,, G. Gerbaud,, M. Guibourdenche,, J. Y. Riou,, and P. Courvalin. 1998. High-level chloramphenicol resistance in Neisseria meningitidis. N. Engl. J. Med. 339: 868 874.
78. Galopin, S.,, and Leclercq R. GenBank accession no. AY238971. National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2003.
79. Gebreyes, W. A.,, and S. Thakur. 2005. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Muenchen from pigs and humans and potential interserovar transfer of antimicrobial resistance. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 503 511.
80. George, A. M.,, and R. M. Hall. 2002. Efflux of chloramphenicol by the CmlA1 protein. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 209: 209 213.
81. Ghisalberti, D.,, M. Masi,, J. M. Pages,, and J. Chevalier. 2005. Chloramphenicol and expression of multidrug efflux pump in Enterobacter aerogenes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 328: 1113 1118.
82. Gilmore, A. 1986. Chloramphenicol and the politics of health. CMAJ. 134: 423, 426 5.
83. Gilmour, M. W.,, N. R. Thomson,, M. Saunders,, J. Parkhill,, and D. E. Taylor. 2003. Genbank accession no. NC_005211. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
84. Goodner, B.,, G. Hinkle,, S. Gattung,, N. Miller,, M. Blanchard,, B. Qurollo,, B. S. Goldman,, Y. Cao,, M. Askenazi,, C. Halling,, L. Mullin,, K. Houmiel,, J. Gordon,, M. Vaudin,, O. Iartchouk,, A. Epp,, F. Liu,, C. Wollam,, M. Allinger,, D. Doughty,, C. Scott,, C. Lappas,, B. Markelz,, C. Flanagan,, C. Crowell,, J. Gurson,, C. Lomo,, C. Sear,, G. Strub,, C. Cielo,, and S. Slater. 2001. Genome sequence of the plant pathogen and biotechnology agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2323 2328.
85. Grady, R.,, and F. Hayes. 2003. Axe-Txe, a broad-spectrum proteic toxin-antitoxin system specified by a multidrugresistant, clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecium. Mol. Microbiol. 47: 1419 1432.
86. Guerra, B.,, E. Junker,, A. Schroeter,, B. Malorny,, S. Lehmann,, and R. Helmuth. 2003. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial resistance in German Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, swine and poultry. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52: 489 492.
87. Hadorn, K.,, H. Hachler,, A. Schaffner,, and F. H. Kayser. 1993. Genetic characterization of plasmid-encoded multiple antibiotic resistance in a strain of Listeria monocytogenes causing endocarditis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 12: 928 937.
88. Hall, R. M.,, C. M. Collis,, M. J. Kim,, S. R. Partridge,, G. D. Recchia,, and H. W. Stokes. 1999. Mobile gene cassettes and integrons in evolution. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 870: 68 80.
89. Hansen, L. H.,, E. Johannesen,, M. Burmolle,, A. H. Sorensen,, and S. J. Sorensen. 2004. Plasmid-encoded multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to olaquindox in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 3332 3337.
90. Harwood, C. R.,, D. M. Williams,, and P. S. Lovett. 1983. Nucleotide sequence of a Bacillus pumilus gene specifying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Gene 24: 163 169.
91. Heidelberg, J. F.,, J. A. Eisen,, W. C. Nelson,, R. A. Clayton,, M. L. Gwinn,, R. J. Dodson,, D. H. Haft,, E. K. Hickey,, J. D. Peterson,, L. Umayam,, S. R. Gill,, K. E. Nelson,, T. D. Read,, H. Tettelin,, D. Richardson,, M. D. Ermolaeva,, J. Vamathevan,, S. Bass,, H. Qin,, I. Dragoi,, P. Sellers,, L. McDonald,, T. Utterback,, R. D. Fleishmann,, W. C. Nierman,, O. White,, S. L. Salzberg,, H. O. Smith,, R. R. Colwell,, J. J. Mekalanos,, J. C. Venter,, and C. M. Fraser. 2000. DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature 406: 477 483.
92. Heidelberg, J. F.,, I. T. Paulsen,, K. E. Nelson,, E. J. Gaidos,, W. C. Nelson,, T. D. Read,, J. A. Eisen,, R. Seshadri,, N. Ward,, B. Methe,, R. A. Clayton,, T. Meyer,, A. Tsapin,, J. Scott,, M. Beanan,, L. Brinkac,, S. Daugherty,, R. T. DeBoy,, R. J. Dodson,, A. S. Durkin,, D. H. Haft,, J. F. Kolonay,, R. Madupu,, J. D. Peterson,, L. A. Umayam,, O. White,, A. M. Wolf,, J. Vamathevan,, J. Weidman,, M. Impraim,, K. Lee,, K. Berry,, C. Lee,, J. Mueller,, H. Khouri,, J. Gill,, T. R. Utterback,, L. A. McDonald,, T. V. Feldblyum,, H. O. Smith,, J. C. Venter,, K. H. Nealson,, and C. M. Fraser. 2002. Genome sequence of the dissimilatory metal ion-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. Nat. Biotechnol. 20: 1118 1123.
93. Ho, S. P.,, T. Y. Hsu,, M. H. Che,, and W. S. Wang. 2000. Antibacterial effect of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol and florfenicol against aquatic animal bacteria. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62: 479 485.
94. Hochhut, B.,, Y. Lotfi,, D. Mazel,, S. M. Faruque,, R. Woodgate,, and M. K. Waldor. 2001. Molecular analysis of antibiotic resistance gene clusters in vibrio cholerae O139 and O1 SXT constins. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 2991 3000.
95. Horinouchi, S.,, and B. Weisblum. 1982. Nucleotide sequence and functional map of pC194, a plasmid that specifies inducible chloramphenicol resistance. J. Bacteriol. 150: 815 825.
96. Houang, E. T.,, Y. W. Chu,, W. S. Lo,, K. Y. Chu,, and A. F. Cheng. 2003. Epidemiology of rifampin ADP-ribosyltransferase ( arr-2) and metallo-beta-lactamase ( blaIMP-4) gene cassettes in class 1 integrons in Acinetobacter strains isolated from blood cultures in 1997 to 2000. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 1382 1390.
97. Huggins, A. S.,, T. L. Bannam,, and J. I. Rood. 1992. Comparative sequence analysis of the catB gene from Clostridium butyricum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36: 2548 2551.
98. Ivanova, N.,, A. Sorokin,, I. Anderson,, N. Galleron,, B. Candelon,, V. Kapatral,, A. Bhattacharyya,, G. Reznik,, N. Mikhailova,, A. Lapidus,, L. Chu,, M. Mazur,, E. Goltsman,, N. Larsen,, M. D’Souza,, T. Walunas,, Y. Grechkin,, G. Pusch,, R. Haselkorn,, M. Fonstein,, S. D. Ehrlich,, R. Overbeek,, and N. Kyrpides. 2003. Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis. Nature 423: 87 91.
99. Izard, T. 2001. Structural basis for chloramphenicol tolerance in Streptomyces venezuelae by chloramphenicol phosphotransferase activity. Protein Sci. 10: 1508 1513.
100. Jude, F.,, C. Arpin,, C. Brachet-Castang,, M. Capdepuy,, P. Caumette,, and C. Quentin. 2004. TbtABM, a multidrug efflux pump associated with tributyltin resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 232: 7 14.
101. Kadlec, K.,, C. Kehrenberg,, and S. Schwarz. 2005. GenBank accession nos. AJ844287 and AJ879564. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
102. Kaneko, T.,, Y. Nakamura,, S. Sato,, E. Asamizu,, T. Kato,, S. Sasamoto,, A. Watanabe,, K. Idesawa,, A. Ishikawa,, K. Kawashima,, T. Kimura,, Y. Kishida,, C. Kiyokawa,, M. Kohara,, M. Matsumoto,, A. Matsuno,, Y. Mochizuki,, S. Nakayama,, N. Nakazaki,, S. Shimpo,, M. Sugimoto,, C. Takeuchi,, M. Yamada,, and S. Tabata. 2000. Complete genome structure of the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacterium Mesorhizobium loti. DNA Res. 7: 331 338.
103. Kapatral, V.,, I. Anderson,, N. Ivanova,, G. Reznik,, T. Los,, A. Lykidis,, A. Bhattacharyya,, A. Bartman,, W. Gardner,, G. Grechkin,, L. Zhu,, O. Vasieva,, L. Chu,, Y. Kogan,, O. Chaga,, E. Goltsman,, A. Bernal,, N. Larsen,, M. D’Souza,, T. Walunas,, G. Pusch,, R. Haselkorn,, M. Fonstein,, N. Kyrpides,, and R. Overbeek 2002. Genome sequence and analysis of the oral bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum strain ATCC 25586. J. Bacteriol. 184: 2005 2018.
104. Kapatral, V.,, N. Ivanova,, I. Anderson,, G. Reznik,, A. Bhattacharyya,, W. L. Gardner,, N. Mikhailova,, A. Lapidus,, N. Larsen,, M. D’Souza,, T. Walunas,, R. Haselkorn,, R. Overbeek,, and N. Kyrpides. 2003. Genome analysis of F. nucleatum sub spp vincentii and its comparison with the genome of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586. Genome Res. 13: 1180 1189.
105. Kehrenberg, C.,, J. Mumme,, J. Wallmann,, J. Verspohl,, R. Tegeler,, T. Kuhn,, and S. Schwarz. 2004. Monitoring of florfenicol susceptibility among bovine and porcine respiratory tract pathogens collected in Germany during the years 2002 and 2003. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54: 572 574.
106. Kehrenberg, C.,, K. K. Ojo,, and S. Schwarz. 2004. Nucleotide sequence and organization of the multiresistance plasmid pSCFS1 from Staphylococcus sciuri. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54: 936 939.
107. Kehrenberg, C.,, G. Schulze-Tanzil,, J. L. Martel,, E. Chaslus- Dancla,, and S. Schwarz. 2001. Antimicrobial resistance in Pasteurella and Mannheimia: epidemiology and genetic basis. Vet. Res. 32: 323 339.
108. Kehrenberg, C.,, and S. Schwarz. 2001. Occurrence and linkage of genes coding for resistance to sulfonamides, streptomycin and chloramphenicol in bacteria of the genera Pasteurella and Mannheimia. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 205: 283 290.
109. Kehrenberg, C.,, and S. Schwarz. 2002. Nucleotide sequence and organization of plasmid pMVSCS1 from Mannheimia varigena: identification of a multiresistance gene cluster. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49: 383 386.
110. Kehrenberg, C.,, and S. Schwarz. 2004. fexA, a novel Staphylococcus lentus gene encoding resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 615 618.
111. Kehrenberg, C.,, and S. Schwarz. 2005. Florfenicolchloramphenicol exporter gene fexA is part of the novel transposon Tn558. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 813 815.
112. Kehrenberg, C.,, and S. Schwarz. 2005. Plasmid-borne florfenicol resistance in Pasteurella multocida. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 55: 773 775.
113. Keyes, K.,, C. Hudson,, J. J. Maurer,, S. Thayer,, D. G. White,, and M. D. Lee. 2000. Detection of florfenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from sick chickens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 421 424.
114. Kieboom, J.,, and J. de Bont. 2001. Identification and molecular characterization of an efflux system involved in Pseudomonas putida S12 multidrug resistance. Microbiology 147: 43 51.
115. Kim, E.,, and T. Aoki. 1993. The structure of the chloramphenicol resistance gene on a transferable R plasmid from the fish pathogen, Pasteurella piscicida. Microbiol. Immunol. 37: 705 712.
116. Kim, E.,, and T. Aoki. 1996. Sequence analysis of the florfenicol resistance gene encoded in the transferable R-plasmid of a fish pathogen, Pasteurella piscicida. Microbiol. Immunol. 40: 665 669.
117. Kim, J. 2003. Genbank accession no. AF227506. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
118. Kim, S. 2003. GenBank accession no. AY339985. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
119. Kucers, A.,, and N. Bennett,. 1987. Chloramphenicol and Thiamphenicol, p. 757 807. In A. Kucers, and N. Bennett (ed.), The use of antibiotics. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA.
120. Kupzig, S.,, and P. M. Bennett. 1994. Genbank accession no. X82455. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
121. Laraki, N.,, M. Galleni,, I. Thamm,, M. L. Riccio,, G. Amicosante,, J. M. Frere,, and G. M. Rossolini. 1999. Structure of In31, a blaIMP-containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa integron phyletically related to In5, which carries an unusual array of gene cassettes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 890 901.
122. Lee, A.,, W. Mao,, M. S. Warren,, A. Mistry,, K. Hoshino,, R. Okumura,, H. Ishida,, and O. Lomovskaya. 2000. Interplay between efflux pumps may provide either additive or multiplicative effects on drug resistance. J. Bacteriol. 182: 3142 3150.
123. Lee, H. J.,, and H. S. Kang. 1999. GenBank accession no. AF124757. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
124. Lee, K.,, J. H. Yum,, D. Yong,, K. H. Roh,, Y. Chong,, and G. M. Rossolini. 2001. GenBank accession no. AF418284. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
125. Lee, M. H.,, A. Nittayajarn,, and C. E. Rubens. 1997. GenBank accession no. U83488. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
126. Levy, S. B. 2002. Active efflux, a common mechanism for biocide and antibiotic resistance. Symp. Ser. Soc. Appl. Microbiol. 65S 71S.
127. Lewinson, O.,, J. Adler,, G. J. Poelarends,, P. Mazurkiewicz,, A. J. Driessen,, and E. Bibi. 2003. The Escherichia coli multidrug transporter MdfA catalyzes both electrogenic and electroneutral transport reactions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100: 1667 1672.
128. Lin, C. F.,, Z. F. Fung,, C. L. Wu,, and T. C. Chung. 1996. Molecular characterization of a plasmid-borne (pTC82) chloramphenicol resistance determinant (cat-TC) from Lactobacillus reuteri G4. Plasmid 36: 116 124.
129. Lombardi, A.,, L. Drago,, E. De Vecchi,, B. Mombelli,, and M. R. Gismondo. 2001. Antimicrobial activity of thiamphenicol- glycinate-acetylcysteinate and other drugs against Chlamydia pneumoniae. Arzneimittelforschung 51: 264 267.
130. Lovett, P. S. 1990. Translational attenuation as the regulator of inducible cat genes. J. Bacteriol. 172: 1 6.
131. Luck, S. N.,, S. A. Turner,, K. Rajakumar,, H. Sakellaris,, and B. Adler. 2001. Ferric dicitrate transport system (Fec) of Shigella flexneri 2a YSH6000 is encoded on a novel pathogenicity island carrying multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Infect. Immun. 69: 6012 6021.
132. Lyras, D.,, and J. I. Rood. 2000. Transposition of Tn4451 and Tn4453 involves a circular intermediate that forms a promoter for the large resolvase, TnpX. Mol. Microbiol. 38: 588 601.
133. Lyras, D.,, C. Storie,, A. S. Huggins,, P. K. Crellin,, T. L. Bannam,, and J. I. Rood. 1998. Chloramphenicol resistance in Clostridium difficile is encoded on Tn4453 transposons that are closely related to Tn4451 from Clostridium perfringens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 1563 1567.
134. Makino, K.,, K. Oshima,, K. Kurokawa,, K. Yokoyama,, T. Uda,, K. Tagomori,, Y. Iijima,, M. Najima,, M. Nakano,, A. Yamashita,, Y. Kubota,, S. Kimura,, T. Yasunaga,, T. Honda,, H. Shinagawa,, M. Hattori,, and T. Iida. 2003. Genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a pathogenic mechanism distinct from that of V cholerae. Lancet 361: 743 749.
135. Mandal, S.,, M. D. Mandal,, and N. K. Pal. 2004. Reduced minimum inhibitory concentration of chloramphenicol for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Indian J. Med. Sci. 58: 16 23.
136. Mankin, A. S.,, and R. A. Garrett. 1991. Chloramphenicol resistance mutations in the single 23S rRNA gene of the archaeon Halobacterium halobium. J. Bacteriol. 173: 3559 3563.
137. Marchese, A.,, E. A. Debbia,, E. Tonoli,, L. Gualco,, and A. M. Schito. 2002. In vitro activity of thiamphenicol against multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus in Italy. J. Chemother. 14: 554 561.
138. McDermott, P. F.,, R. D. Walker,, and D. G. White. 2003. Antimicrobials: modes of action and mechanisms of resistance. Int. J. Toxicol. 22: 135 143.
139. McMurry, L.,, R. E. Petrucci, Jr.,, and S. B. Levy. 1980. Active efflux of tetracycline encoded by four genetically different tetracycline resistance determinants in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 3974 3977.
140. Meunier, D.,, S. Baucheron,, E. Chaslus-Dancla,, J. L. Martel,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2003. Florfenicol resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Newport mediated by a plasmid related to R55 from Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51: 1007 1009.
141. Michael, G. B.,, M. Cardoso,, and S. Schwarz. Class 1 integronassociated gene cassettes in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Agona isolated from pig carcasses in Brazil. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., in press.
142. Middlemiss, J. K.,, and K. Poole. 2004. Differential impact of MexB mutations on substrate selectivity of the MexAB-OprM multidrug efflux pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 186: 1258 1269.
143. Moon, K. H.,, B. R. Lee,, S. J. Yoon,, C. H. Koh,, H. D. Jeong,, and D. S. Lee. 1995. Nucleotide sequences of the REP and CAT proteins encoded by the chloramphenicol resistance plasmid pKH7. Yakhak Hoeji 39: 676 680.
144. Morii, H.,, N. Hayashi,, and K. Uramoto. 2003. Cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of the chloramphenicol resistance gene on conjugative R plasmids from the fish pathogen Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida. Dis. Aquat. Organ 53: 107 113.
145. Mosher, R. H.,, D. J. Camp,, K. Yang,, M. P. Brown,, W. V. Shaw,, and L. C. Vining. 1995. Inactivation of chloramphenicol by O-phosphorylation. A novel resistance mechanism in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230, a chloramphenicol producer. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 27000 27006.
146. Murray, I. A.,, J. A. Gil,, D. A. Hopwood,, and W. V. Shaw. 1989. Nucleotide sequence of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of Streptomyces acrimycini. Gene 85: 283 291.
147. Murray, I. A.,, A. R. Hawkins,, J. W. Keyte,, and W. V. Shaw. 1988. Nucleotide sequence analysis and overexpression of the gene encoding a type III chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Biochem. J. 252: 173 179.
148. Murray, I. A.,, J. V. Martinez-Suarez,, T. J. Close,, and W. V. Shaw. 1990. Nucleotide sequences of genes encoding the type II chloramphenicol acetyltransferases of Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae, which are sensitive to inhibition by thiol-reactive reagents. Biochem. J. 272: 505 510.
149. Murray, I. A.,, and W. V. Shaw. 1997. O-Acetyltransferases for chloramphenicol and other natural products. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 1 6.
150. Nagy, I.,, G. Schoofs,, J. Vanderleyden,, and R. De Mot. 1997. Transposition of the IS21-related element IS1415 in Rhodococcus erythropolis. J. Bacteriol. 179: 4635 4638.
151. Nair, B. M.,, K. J. Cheung, Jr.,, A. Griffith,, and J. L. Burns. 2004. Salicylate induces an antibiotic efflux pump in Burkholderia cepacia complex genomovar III ( B. cenocepacia). J. Clin. Invest. 113: 464 473.
152. Nandi, S.,, J. J. Maurer,, C. Hofacre,, and A. O. Summers. 2004. Gram-positive bacteria are a major reservoir of Class 1 antibiotic resistance integrons in poultry litter. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 7118 7122.
153. NCCLS. 2002. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals; Approved Standard. NCCLS document M31-A2. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pa.
154. NCCLS. 2003. Methods for antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing of bacteria isolated from aquatic animals. M42-R. NCCLS, Wayne, Pa.
155. NCCLS. 2004. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals; Informational supplement (May 2004). NCCLS document M31-S1. NCCLS, Wayne, Pa.
156. NCCLS. 2004. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. NCCLS document M100-S14. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Wayne, Pa.
157. Neu, H. C.,, and K. P. Fu. 1980. In vitro activity of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol analogs. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 18: 311 316.
158. Neyfakh, A. A.,, V. E. Bidnenko,, and L. B. Chen. 1991. Effluxmediated multidrug resistance in Bacillus subtilis: similarities and dissimilarities with the mammalian system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 4781 4785.
159. Nilsen, I. W.,, I. Bakke,, A. Vader,, O. Olsvik,, and M. R. El Gewely. 1996. Isolation of cmr, a novel Escherichia coli chloramphenicol resistance gene encoding a putative efflux pump. J. Bacteriol. 178: 3188 3193.
160. Nishino, K.,, and A. Yamaguchi. 2001. Analysis of a complete library of putative drug transporter genes in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 183: 5803 5812.
161. Nolling, J.,, G. Breton,, M. V. Omelchenko,, K. S. Makarova,, Q. Zeng,, R. Gibson,, H. M. Lee,, J. Dubois,, D. Qiu,, J. Hitti,, Y. I. Wolf,, R. L. Tatusov,, F. Sabathe,, L. Doucette-Stamm,, P. Soucaille,, M. J. Daly,, G. N. Bennett,, E. V. Koonin,, and D. R. Smith. 2001. Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the solvent-producing bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum. J. Bacteriol. 183: 4823 4838.
162. Pai, H.,, J. H. Byeon,, S. Yu,, B. K. Lee,, and S. Kim. 2003. Salmonella enterica serovar typhi strains isolated in Korea containing a multidrug resistance class 1 integron. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2006 2008.
163. Parent, R.,, and P. H. Roy. 1992. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene of Tn2424: a new breed of cat. J. Bacteriol. 174: 2891 2897.
164. Parkhill, J.,, G. Dougan,, K. D. James,, N. R. Thomson,, D. Pickard,, J. Wain,, C. Churcher,, K. L. Mungall,, S. D. Bentley,, M. T. Holden,, M. Sebaihia,, S. Baker,, D. Basham,, K. Brooks,, T. Chillingworth,, P. Connerton,, A. Cronin,, P. Davis,, R. M. Davies,, L. Dowd,, N. White,, J. Farrar,, T. Feltwell,, N. Hamlin,, A. Haque,, T. T. Hien,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, A. Krogh,, T. S. Larsen,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, P. O’Gaora,, C. Parry,, M. Quail,, K. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, K. Stevens,, S. Whitehead,, and B. G. Barrell. 2001. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18. Nature 413: 848 852.
165. Parkhill, J.,, B. W. Wren,, N. R. Thomson,, R. W. Titball,, M. T. Holden,, M. B. Prentice,, M. Sebaihia,, K. D. James,, C. Churcher,, K. L. Mungall,, S. Baker,, D. Basham,, S. D. Bentley,, K. Brooks,, A. M. Cerdeno-Tarraga,, T. Chillingworth,, A. Cronin,, R. M. Davies,, P. Davis,, G. Dougan,, T. Feltwell,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, A. V. Karlyshev,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, P. C. Oyston,, M. Quail,, K. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, K. Stevens,, S. Whitehead,, and B. G. Barrell. 2001. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Nature 413: 523 527.
166. Parry, C. M. 2004. The treatment of multidrug-resistant and nalidixic acid-resistant typhoid fever in Viet Nam. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 98: 413 422.
167. Parry, C. M. 2004. Typhoid Fever. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 6: 27 33.
168. Partridge, S. R.,, G. D. Recchia,, H. W. Stokes,, and R. M. Hall. 2001. Family of class 1 integrons related to In4 from Tn1696. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45: 3014 3020.
169. Paulsen, I. T. 2003. Multidrug efflux pumps and resistance: regulation and evolution. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6: 446 451.
170. Pepper, K.,, G. de Cespedes,, and T. Horaud. 1988. Heterogeneity of chromosomal genes encoding chloramphenicol resistance in streptococci. Plasmid 19: 71 74.
171. Pepper, K.,, C. Le Bouguenec,, G. de Cespedes,, and T. Horaud. 1986. Dispersal of a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol resistance gene in streptococcal and enterococcal plasmids. Plasmid 16: 195 203.
172. Perreten, V.,, G. Moschetti,, and M. Teuber. 1995. GenBank accession no. X92945. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
173. Perreten, V.,, F. Schwarz,, L. Cresta,, M. Boeglin,, G. Dasen,, and M. Teuber. 1997. Antibiotic resistance spread in food. Nature 389: 801 802.
174. Ploy, M. C.,, P. Courvalin,, and T. Lambert. 1998. Characterization of In40 of Enterobacter aerogenes BM2688, a class 1 integron with two new gene cassettes, cmlA2 and qacF. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 2557 2563.
175. Poirel, L.,, J. W. Decousser,, and P. Nordmann. 2003. Insertion sequence ISEcp1B is involved in expression and mobilization of a bla(CTX-M) beta-lactamase gene. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 2938 2945.
176. Poirel, L.,, T. Le,, I. T. Naas,, A. Karim,, and P. Nordmann. 2000. Biochemical sequence analyses of GES-1, a novel class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and the class 1 integron In52 from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 622 632.
177. Poirel, L.,, T. Naas,, M. Guibert,, E. B. Chaibi,, R. Labia,, and P. Nordmann. 1999. Molecular and biochemical characterization of VEB-1, a novel class A extended-spectrum betalactamase encoded by an Escherichia coli integron gene. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 573 581.
178. Poole, K. 2001. Multidrug efflux pumps and antimicrobial resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related organisms. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 3: 255 264.
179. Poole, K. 2001. Multidrug resistance in gram-negative bacteria. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 4: 500 508.
180. Poole, K. 2004. Efflux-mediated multiresistance in gramnegative bacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10: 12 26.
181. Projan, S. J.,, J. Kornblum,, S. L. Moghazeh,, I. Edelman,, M. L. Gennaro,, and R. P. Novick. 1985. Comparative sequence and functional analysis of pT181 and pC221, cognate plasmid replicons from Staphylococcus aureus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 199: 452 464.
182. Putman, M.,, H. W. van Veen,, and W. N. Konings. 2000. Molecular properties of bacterial multidrug transporters. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 64: 672 693.
183. Rankin, S.,, Z. Li,, and R. R. Isberg. 2002. Macrophage-induced genes of Legionella pneumophila: protection from reactive intermediates and solute imbalance during intracellular growth. Infect. Immun. 70: 3637 3648.
184. Raymond, J.,, O. Zhaxybayeva,, J. P. Gogarten,, S. Y. Gerdes,, and R. E. Blankenship. 2002. Whole-genome analysis of photosynthetic prokaryotes. Science 298: 1616 1620.
185. Read, T. D.,, S. N. Peterson,, N. Tourasse,, L. W. Baillie,, I. T. Paulsen,, K. E. Nelson,, H. Tettelin,, D. E. Fouts,, J. A. Eisen,, S. R. Gill,, E. K. Holtzapple,, O. A. Okstad,, E. Helgason,, J. Rilstone,, M. Wu,, J. F. Kolonay,, M. J. Beanan,, R. J. Dodson,, L. M. Brinkac,, M. Gwinn,, R. T. DeBoy,, R. Madpu,, S. C. Daugherty,, A. S. Durkin,, D. H. Haft,, W. C. Nelson,, J. D. Peterson,, M. Pop,, H. M. Khouri,, D. Radune,, J. L. Benton,, Y. Mahamoud,, L. Jiang,, I. R. Hance,, J. F. Weidman,, K. J. Berry,, R. D. Plaut,, A. M. Wolf,, K. L. Watkins,, W. C. Nierman,, A. Hazen,, R. Cline,, C. Redmond,, J. E. Thwaite,, O. White,, S. L. Salzberg,, B. Thomason,, A. M. Friedlander,, T. M. Koehler,, P. C. Hanna,, A. B. Kolsto,, and C. M. Fraser. 2003. The genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis Ames and comparison to closely related bacteria. Nature 423: 81 86.
186. Rende-Fournier, R.,, R. Leclercq,, M. Galimand,, J. Duval,, and P. Courvalin. 1993. Identification of the satA gene encoding a streptogramin A acetyltransferase in Enterococcus faecium BM4145. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 2119 2125.
187. Reynolds, E.,, J. I. Ross,, and J. H. Cove. 2003. Msr(A) and related macrolide/streptogramin resistance determinants: incomplete transporters? Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 22: 228 236.
188. Riccio, M. L.,, J. D. Docquier,, E. Dell’Amico,, F. Luzzaro,, G. Amicosante,, and G. M. Rossolini. 2003. Novel 3-Naminoglycoside acetyltransferase gene, aac( 3) -Ic, from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa integron. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 1746 1748.
189. Roberts, M.,, A. Corney,, and W. V. Shaw. 1982. Molecular characterization of three chloramphenicol acetyltransferases isolated from Haemophilus influenzae. J. Bacteriol. 151: 737 741.
190. Roberts, M. C. 2004. Resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin, ketolide, and oxazolidinone antibiotics. Mol. Biotechnol. 28: 47 62.
191. Roberts, M. C.,, L. A. Actis,, and J. H. Crosa. 1985. Molecular characterization of chloramphenicol-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28: 176 180.
192. Rogers, E. J.,, M. S. Rahman,, R. T. Hill,, and P. S. Lovett. 2002. The chloramphenicol-inducible catB gene in Agrobacterium tumefaciens is regulated by translation attenuation. J. Bacteriol. 184: 4296 4300.
193. Rojas, A.,, A. Segura,, M. E. Guazzaroni,, W. Teran,, A. Hurtado,, M. T. Gallegos,, and J. L. Ramos. 2003. In vivo and in vitro evidence that TtgV is the specific regulator of the TtgGHI multidrug and solvent efflux pump of Pseudomonas putida. J. Bacteriol. 185: 4755 4763.
194. Rowe-Magnus, D. A.,, A. M. Guerout,, L. Biskri,, P. Bouige,, and D. Mazel. 2003. Comparative analysis of superintegrons: engineering extensive genetic diversity in the Vibrionaceae. Genome Res. 13: 428 442.
195. Rowe-Magnus, D. A.,, A. M. Guerout,, and D. Mazel. 2002. Bacterial resistance evolution by recruitment of super-integron gene cassettes. Mol. Microbiol. 43: 1657 1669.
196. Rubens, C. E.,, W. F. McNeill,, and W. E. Farrar, Jr. 1979. Transposable plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid sequence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa which mediates resistance to gentamicin and four other antimicrobial agents. J. Bacteriol. 139: 877 882.
197. Sanchez, S.,, M. A. McCrackin Stevenson,, C. R. Hudson,, M. Maier,, T. Buffington,, Q. Dam,, and J. J. Maurer. 2002. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates associated with nosocomial infections in dogs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 3586 3595.
198. Schlunzen, F.,, R. Zarivach,, J. Harms,, A. Bashan,, A. Tocilj,, R. Albrecht,, A. Yonath,, and F. Franceschi. 2001. Structural basis for the interaction of antibiotics with the peptidyl transferase centre in eubacteria. Nature 413: 814 821.
199. Schmidt, A. S.,, M. S. Bruun,, I. Dalsgaard,, and J. L. Larsen. 2001. Incidence, distribution, and spread of tetracycline resistance determinants and integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes among motile aeromonads from a fish farming environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 5675 5682.
200. Schwarz, F. V.,, V. Perreten,, and M. Teuber. 2001. Sequence of the 50-kb conjugative multiresistance plasmid pRE25 from Enterococcus faecalis RE25. Plasmid 46: 170 187.
201. Schwarz, S.,, and M. Cardoso. 1991. Molecular cloning, purification, and properties of a plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol acetyltransferase from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1277 1283.
202. Schwarz, S.,, and M. Cardoso. 1991. Nucleotide sequence and phylogeny of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by the plasmid pSCS7 from Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35: 1551 1556.
203. Schwarz, S.,, and E. Chaslus-Dancla. 2001. Use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and mechanisms of resistance. Vet. Res. 32: 201 225.
204. Schwarz, S.,, and S. Grolz-Krug. 1991. A chloramphenicolstreptomycin- resistance plasmid from a clinical strain of Staphylococcus sciuri and its structural relationships to other staphylococcal resistance plasmids. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 66: 319 322.
205. Schwarz, S.,, C. Kehrenberg,, B. Doublet,, and A. Cloeckaert. 2004. Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 28: 519 542.
206. Schwarz, S.,, and W. C. Noble. 1994. Structure and putative origin of a plasmid from Staphylococcus hyicus that mediates chloramphenicol and streptomycin resistance. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 18: 281 284.
207. Schwarz, S.,, U. Spies,, and M. Cardoso. 1991. Cloning and sequence analysis of a plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene from Staphylococcus intermedius. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137: 977 981.
208. Schwarz, S.,, C. Werckenthin,, and C. Kehrenberg. 2000. Identification of a plasmid-borne chloramphenicol-florfenicol resistance gene in Staphylococcus sciuri. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44: 2530 2533.
209. Settepani, J. A. 1984. The hazard of using chloramphenicol in food animals. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 184: 930 931.
210. Shaw, W. V. 1967. The enzymatic acetylation of chloramphenicol by extracts of R factor-resistant Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 242: 687 693.
211. Shaw, W. V. 1983. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase: enzymology and molecular biology. CRC Crit Rev. Biochem. 14: 1 46.
212. Shaw, W. V. 1992. Chemical anatomy of antibiotic resistance: chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Sci. Prog. 76: 565 580.
213. Shaw, W. V.,, and R. F. Brodsky. 1967. Chloramphenicol resistance by enzymatic acetylation: comparative aspects. Antimicrobial. Agents Chemother. 7: 257 263.
214. Shaw, W. V.,, and A. G. Leslie. 1991. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem. 20: 363 386.
215. Sherwood, K. J.,, and B. Wiedemann. 2004. GenBank accession no. AY775258. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
216. Shultz, T. R.,, J. W. Tapsall,, P. A. White,, C. S. Ryan,, D. Lyras,, J. I. Rood,, E. Binotto,, and C. J. Richardson. 2003. Chloramphenicol- resistant Neisseria meningitidis containing catP isolated in Australia. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52: 856 859.
217. Singer, R. S.,, S. K. Patterson,, A. E. Meier,, J. K. Gibson,, H. L. Lee,, and C. W. Maddox. 2004. Relationship between phenotypic and genotypic florfenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48: 4047 4049.
218. Smith, M. C.,, and C. D. Thomas. 2003. GenBank accession no. NC_005243. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
219. Sorum, H.,, T. M. L’Abee-Lund,, A. Solberg,, and A. Wold. 2003. Integron-containing IncU R plasmids pRAS1 and pAr- 32 from the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47: 1285 1290.
220. Steffen, C.,, and H. Matzura. 1989. Nucleotide sequence analysis and expression studies of a chloramphenicol-acetyltransferasecoding gene from Clostridium perfringens. Gene 75: 349 354.
221. Stokes, H. W.,, and R. M. Hall. 1991. Sequence analysis of the inducible chloramphenicol resistance determinant in the Tn1696 integron suggests regulation by translational attenuation. Plasmid 26: 10 19.
222. Stover, C. K.,, X. Q. Pham,, A. L. Erwin,, S. D. Mizoguchi,, P. Warrener,, M. J. Hickey,, F. S. Brinkman,, W. O. Hufnagle,, D. J. Kowalik,, M. Lagrou,, R. L. Garber,, L. Goltry,, E. Tolentino,, S. Westbrock-Wadman,, Y. Yuan,, L. L. Brody,, S. N. Coulter,, K. R. Folger,, A. Kas,, K. Larbig,, R. Lim,, K. Smith,, D. Spencer,, G. K. Wong,, Z. Wu,, I. T. Paulsen,, J. Reizer,, M. H. Saier,, R. E. Hancock,, S. Lory,, and M. V. Olson. 2000. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, an opportunistic pathogen. Nature 406: 959 964.
223. Suzuki, Y.,, and S. Okamoto. 1967. The enzymatic acetylation of chloramphenicol by the multiple drug-resistant Escherichia coli carrying R factor. J. Biol. Chem. 242: 4722 4730.
224. Syriopoulou, V. P.,, A. L. Harding,, D. A. Goldmann,, and A. L. Smith. 1981. In vitro antibacterial activity of fluorinated analogs of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 19: 294 297.
225. Takamatsu, D.,, M. Osaki,, and T. Sekizaki. 2003. Chloramphenicol resistance transposable element TnSs1 of Streptococcus suis, a transposon flanked by IS6-family elements. Plasmid 49: 143 151.
226. Tauch, A.,, Z. Zheng,, A. Puhler,, and J. Kalinowski. 1998. Corynebacterium striatum chloramphenicol resistance transposon Tn5564: genetic organization and transposition in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Plasmid 40: 126 139.
227. Tennigkeit, J.,, and H. Matzura. 1991. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a chloramphenicol-resistance determinant from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and identification of its gene product. Gene 98: 113 116.
228. Tennstedt, T.,, R. Szczepanowski,, S. Braun,, A. Puehler,, and A. Schlueter. 2003. Occurrence of integron-associated resistance gene cassettes located on antibiotic resistance plasmids isolated from a wastewater treatment plant. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 45: 239 252.
229. Tettelin, H.,, V. Masignani,, M. J. Cieslewicz,, J. A. Eisen,, S. Peterson,, M. R. Wessels,, I. T. Paulsen,, K. E. Nelson,, I. Margarit,, T. D. Read,, L. C. Madoff,, A. M. Wolf,, M. J. Beanan,, L. M. Brinkac,, S. C. Daugherty,, R. T. DeBoy,, A. S. Durkin,, J. F. Kolonay,, R. Madupu,, M. R. Lewis,, D. Radune,, N. B. Fedorova,, D. Scanlan,, H. Khouri,, S. Mulligan,, H. A. Carty,, R. T. Cline,, S. E. Van Aken,, J. Gill,, M. Scarselli,, M. Mora,, E. T. Iacobini,, C. Brettoni,, G. Galli,, M. Mariani,, F. Vegni,, D. Maione,, D. Rinaudo,, R. Rappuoli,, J. L. Telford,, D. L. Kasper,, G. Grandi,, and C. M. Fraser. 2002. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of an emerging human pathogen, serotype V Streptococcus agalactiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 12391 12396.
230. Tietze, E.,, and K. Smalla. 2000. Genbank accession no. NC_004973. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
231. Tikhonova, E. B.,, and H. I. Zgurskaya. 2004. AcrA, AcrB, and TolC of Escherichia coli form a stable intermembrane multidrug efflux complex. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 32116 32124.
232. Toro, C. S.,, S. R. Lobos,, I. Calderon,, M. Rodriguez,, and G. C. Mora. 1990. Clinical isolate of a porinless Salmonella typhi resistant to high levels of chloramphenicol. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 1715 1719.
233. Tosini, F.,, P. Visca,, I. Luzzi,, A. M. Dionisi,, C. Pezzella,, A. Petrucca,, and A. Carattoli. 1998. Class 1 integron-borne multiple- antibiotic resistance carried by IncFI and IncL/M plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 3053 3058.
234. Trieu-Cuot, P.,, G. de Cespedes,, F. Bentorcha,, F. Delbos,, E. Gaspar,, and T. Horaud. 1993. Study of heterogeneity of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) genes in streptococci and enterococci by polymerase chain reaction: characterization of a new CAT determinant. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 2593