Chapter 12 : Microbiota of Mucosal Surfaces in the Gut of Monogastric Animals

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The terminal ileum and the large bowel (cecum and colon) are hospitable places for bacterial proliferation, and a complex and numerous bacterial community resides in this site. This community is often referred to as the normal gut microbiota (microflora). Many of the numerically important members of the gut microbiota have not yet been cultivated under laboratory conditions and are known and detected on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparisons of the characteristics of germfree and conventional animals have clearly demonstrated that the gut microbiota has considerable influences on host biochemistry, physiology, immunology, and low-level resistance to gut infections. Cytoskeletal rearrangements within the enterocyte form a socket by which the filament becomes permanently attached to the mucosal surface. The influence of the gut microbiota of neonates on the immune system is of especial interest because of the observed increase in the incidence of allergies in children in affluent countries over recent decades. The adherence of cells to, and proliferation on, epithelial surfaces in rodents, pigs, and poultry has tempted some researchers to consider that the same phenomenon occurs in the human gut. This overlooks the differences in the anatomy and histology of the human gut relative to that of other monogastric animals. In other words, the immune systems of different humans or other animals recognize different epitopes. This is apparent from experimental-animal studies because the composition of the gut microbiota of HLA-B27 rats and interleukin-10-deficient mice is different, yet colitis results in both types of animals.

Citation: Tannock G. 2005. Microbiota of Mucosal Surfaces in the Gut of Monogastric Animals, p 163-178. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch12
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Table 1

Investigations of the phylogeny of the gut microbiota of humans, mice, chickens, and pigs by the analysis of random clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes

Citation: Tannock G. 2005. Microbiota of Mucosal Surfaces in the Gut of Monogastric Animals, p 163-178. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch12
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Table 2

Comparison of selected biochemical properties of the intestinal tracts of germfree and conventional animals

Citation: Tannock G. 2005. Microbiota of Mucosal Surfaces in the Gut of Monogastric Animals, p 163-178. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 3

Examples of murine gene transcription affected by monoassociation of ex-germfree mice with

Citation: Tannock G. 2005. Microbiota of Mucosal Surfaces in the Gut of Monogastric Animals, p 163-178. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch12
Generic image for table
Table 4

Investigations of gut tissue-associated bacteria of humans

Citation: Tannock G. 2005. Microbiota of Mucosal Surfaces in the Gut of Monogastric Animals, p 163-178. In Nataro J, Cohen P, Mobley H, Weiser J (ed), Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817619.ch12

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