Chapter 5 : Microscopic Aquatic Organisms and Their Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Microscopic Aquatic Organisms and Their Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817626/9781555819118_Chap05-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817626/9781555819118_Chap05-2.gif


In spite of common immersion in pools of mainly diverse types of DNA-containing viruses, the orders of Protista are not typically associated with infections by large DNA viruses but are instead more often associated with RNA virus infections. This chapter collectively deals with the nonalgal aquatic microscopic species that make up a rather diverse set of eukaryotic organisms, which includes the protists, ciliated protozoa, dinoflagellates, and the lower and higher Fungi. It examines the best-studied examples of virus and host to consider virus-host interactions. The main types of viruses to be considered are dsRNA viruses, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses of Fungi, and linear dsDNA viruses of Fungi. The majority of mycoviruses viruses have dsRNA genomes and, like most fungal viruses, lack an extracellular transmission phase. The various aquatic microorganisms, their general characteristics, the types of viral agents they support, and the relationship of virus and host presented in the chapter are summarized in a table. In conclusion, it is worth considering why all distinct characteristics of fungal virus-host interactions are mostly peculiar to the fungal orders of organisms and yet are generally absent from the plants and animals that are descendants of Fungi, as well as the algae or prokaryote predecessors.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. Microscopic Aquatic Organisms and Their Viruses, p 143-176. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch5
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Widmer, G.,, and S. Dooley. 1995. Phylogenetic analysis of Leishmania RNA virusand Leishmania suggests ancient virus-parasite association. Nucleic Acids Res. 23: 2300 2304.
2. Dawe, A. L.,, and D. L. Nuss. 2001. Hypoviruses and chestnut blight: exploiting viruses to understand and modulate fungal pathogenesis. Annu. Rev. Genet 35: 1 29.
3. Dawe, V. H.,, and C. W. Kuhn. 1983. Virus-like particles in the aquatic fungus, Rhizidiomyces. Virology 130: 10 20.
4. Ghabrial, S. A. 1998. Origin, adaptation and evolutionary pathways of fungal viruses. Virus Genes 16: 119 131.
5. Ginsberg, H. S. 1984. The Adenoviruses. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
6. Ellis, L. F.,, and W. J. Kleinschmidt. 1967. Virus-like particles of a fraction of statolon, a mould product. Nature 215: 649 650.
7. Davis, R. H. 2000. Neurospora: Contributions of a Model Organism Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.
8. Gow, N. A. R. 1994. The Growing Fungus. Chapman & Hall, New York, N.Y.
9. Glass, N. L.,, D. J. Jacobson,, and P. K. Shiu. 2000. The genetics of hyphal fusion and vegetative incompatibility in filamentous ascomycete fungi. Annu. Rev. Genet. 34: 165 186.
10. Hirsch, P.,, F. E. W. Eckhardt,, and R. J. Palmer, Jr. 1995. Fungi active in weathering of rock and stone monuments. Can. J. Bot. 73: S1384 S1390.
11. Prince, R. C. 1992. The Methuselah factor: age in cryptoendolithic communities. Trends Ecol. Evol. 7: 211.
12. Smith, M. L.,, J. N. Bruhn,, and J. B. Anderson. 1992. The fungus armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms. Nature 356: 428 431.
13. Smith, M. L.,, L. C. Duchesne,, J. N. Bruhn,, and J. B. Anderson. 1990. Mitochon-drial genetics in a natural population of the plant pathogen Armillaria. Genetics 126: 575 582.
14. Meinhardt, F.,, R. Schaffrath,, and M. Larsen. 1997. Microbial linear plasmids. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 47: 329 336.
15. Rohe, M.,, K. Schrage,, and F. Meinhardt. 1991. The linear plasmid pMC3-2 from Morchella conica is structurally related to adenoviruses. Curr. Genet. 20: 527 533.
16. Hermanns, J.,, and H. D. Osiewacz. 1996. Induction of longevity by cytoplasmic transfer of a linear plasmid in Podospora anserina. Curr. Genet. 29: 250 256.
17. van der Gaag, M.,, A. J. Debets,, H. D. Osiewacz,, and R. F. Hoekstra. 1998. The dynamics of pAL2-1 homologous linear plasmids in Podospora anserina. Mol. Gen. Genet. 258: 521 529.
18. Hishinuma, F.,, and K. Hirai. 1991. Genome organization of the linear plasmid,pSKL, isolated from Saccharomyces kluyveri. Mol. Gen. Genet. 226: 97 106.
19. Klassen, R.,, L. Tontsidou,, M. Larsen,, and F. Meinhardt. 2001. Genome organization of the linear cytoplasmic element pPE1B from Pichia etchellsii. Yeast 18: 953 961.
20. Schmit, M. J.,, and K. Eisfeld. 1999. Killer viruses in S. cerevisiae and their general importance in understanding eucaryotic cell biology. Recent Res. Dev. Virol. 1: 525 545.
21. Wickner, R. B. 1996. Double-stranded RNA viruses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol. Rev. 60: 250 265.
22. Cogoni, C. 2001. Homology-dependent gene silencing mechanisms in fungi. Annu.Rev. Microbiol. 55: 381 406.
23. Pickford, A. S.,, and C. Cogoni. 2003. RNA-mediated gene silencing. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 60: 871 882.


Generic image for table
Table 5.1

Aquatic microorganisms and their viruses

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. Microscopic Aquatic Organisms and Their Viruses, p 143-176. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch5

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error