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Chapter 6 : A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals

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Abstract:

This chapter explores the virology and host evolution of animals which have evolved from Fungi or depended on Fungi for their evolution. It focuses on the emergence of early animals and their viruses. Furthermore, some of the characteristic virus-tissue associations known for mammals are seen for aquatic animals and their viruses. However, it often appears that there are some specific examples in which specific viruses are able to persist and inapparently infect younger forms of specific hosts. In these cases, the persistently infected hosts often function as reservoirs for viruses that cause disease in other, sometimes related species. The evolutionary reentry of some viruses (reoviruses, parvoviruses, and birnaviruses) which were present in ancestral lineages (such as Fungi) but had been absent from less distant basal metazoan predecessors (worms and basal deuterostomes) are discussed. The currently accepted view concerning the function of the adaptive immune response is that a surprisingly complex system has evolved to control parasitic invasion, especially by viruses.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals, p 177-221. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch6
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Figures

Image of Figure 6.1
Figure 6.1

Phylogenetic relationship of the lambda-like recombinases found in nematode and aquatic animal genomes. Based on data from T. J. Goodwin and R. T. Poulter, 2067–2082, 2001.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals, p 177-221. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.2
Figure 6.2

Phylogenetic relationship of Cer elements from the nematode Abbreviations: MULV, ; HFV, ; MMTV, ; HERV-K, human ERV-K; HIV-1, Based on data from E. W. Ganko, K. T. Fielman, and J. F. McDonald, 2066–2074, 2001.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals, p 177-221. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.3
Figure 6.3

Phylogenetic relationship of picorna-like viruses isolated from the oceans to known picornaviruses. Abbreviations: HaRNAV, RNA virus; CrPV, ; DCV, ; HRV, ; PV, ; ERBV, ; FMDV, ; AiV, ; EMCV, ; PTV, ; SV, ; VESV, ; RHDV, ; MCDV, ; RTSV, ; PYFV, ; BBWV2, ; CPMV, ; ToRSV, ; PVY, ; RGMV, ; SPMMV, ; WSMV, Reprinted from A. I. Culley, A. S. Lang, and C. A. Suttle, 1054–1057, 2003, with permission.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals, p 177-221. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.4
Figure 6.4

Dendrogram of LTR regions of DIRS-1-, Ty1-, and Ty3-related elements. Based on data from T. J. Goodwin and R. T. Poulter, 2067–2082, 2001.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals, p 177-221. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch6
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Image of Figure 6.5
Figure 6.5

Phylogenetic relationship of adenoviruses based on their DNA polymerase regions. Redrawn from M. Benkő, P. Élő, K. Ursu, W. Ahne, S. E. LaPatra, D. Thomson, and B. Harrach, 10056–10059, 2002, with permission.

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals, p 177-221. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch6
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References

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17. Bowen, N. J.,, and J. F. McDonald. 1999. Genomic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans reveals ancient families of retroviral-like elements. Genome Res. 9: 924 935.
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 6.1

DNA viruses of poikilothermic vertebrates

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals, p 177-221. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch6
Generic image for table
Table 6.2

RNA viruses of poikilothermic vertebrates

Citation: Villarreal L. 2005. A Virus Odyssey from Worms to Fish: Viruses of Early Animals and Aquatic Animals, p 177-221. In Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817626.ch6

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