Chapter 15 : Control of Mycobacterial Transcription

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This chapter talks about the controlling elements of mycobacterial transcriptional initiation. However, DNA conformation, transcriptional elongation, and termination are important events in the synthesis of RNAs from DNA templates, and there are recent articles that discuss these important areas in mycobacteria. Transcriptional initiation can be divided into several steps, starting with the initial binding of RNA polymerase (RNAP) to the upstream regulatory region of the gene being transcribed. The occurrence of multiple factors in suggests the presence of varied promoter sequences and structures. σ factors play a major role in the early steps of prokaryotic transcription as they direct RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binding to cognate promoter sites and thereby confer specificity of transcription initiation. Bacteria use other regulatory proteins, in addition to alternative σ factors, that change RNAP promoter specificity in response to external signals. Bacteria have evolved many mechanisms to deal with environmental stresses such as heat shock, oxidative stress, and nutrient limitation.

Citation: Smith I, Bishai W, Nagaraja V. 2005. Control of Mycobacterial Transcription, p 219-231. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch15
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Figure 1

Mycobacterial promoter consensus sequences. This figure shows a compilation of 80 mycobacterial promoter sequences in which the transcriptional initiation nucleotides have been determined. The −10 and −35 recognition sequences refer to the 6-nucleotide sequences that interact, respectively, with regions 4.2 and 1.4 of σ factors. The most frequently occurring bases at each position are listed, and the number in the subscript gives the frequency of occurrence. R, W, S, and M have the same meaning as in Table 1 ; i.e., R denotes A or G, S denotes C or G, M denotes A or C, and W denotes A or T; +1 indicates the transcription-initiating nucleotide. Two classes of mycobacterial promoters were identified. The first class, comprising 69 promoters, illustrated in the second line from the top, shows consensus sequences resembling those of , which are shown in the top line. The second class of mycobacterial promoters, with 11 examples, shows a high G+C content, and its consensus sequences are presented in the bottom line.

Citation: Smith I, Bishai W, Nagaraja V. 2005. Control of Mycobacterial Transcription, p 219-231. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch15
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Generic image for table
Table 1

Binding sites for mycobacterial transcriptional regulatory proteins

Citation: Smith I, Bishai W, Nagaraja V. 2005. Control of Mycobacterial Transcription, p 219-231. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch15

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