Chapter 28 : Dendritic Cells in Host Immunity to

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Dendritic Cells in Host Immunity to , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817657/9781555812959_Chap28-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817657/9781555812959_Chap28-2.gif


Since their identification by Steinman and Cohn over 30 years ago, dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to play a central role in the initiation and control of the protective host immune response to pathogens. Recent advances in the understanding of the interactions between DCs and and how these interactions affect the course of immune activation and induction of protection against infection are reviewed. Phagocytosis of particulate material and intact organisms occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Engagement of costimulatory molecules by CD28 expressed on the surface of the T cells leads to recruitment of membrane rafts containing kinases and adapters to the immunological synapse, thus amplifying by up to 100-fold the signaling process started by T-cell receptor engagement. The importance of this cytokine in regulating the immune response is highlighted by the observation that individuals with germ line mutations in genes of the interleukin-12 (IL-12) receptor and signaling pathway (that result in defective activity) have an increased risk of contracting mycobacterial diseases, including tuberculosis. Despite increasing knowledge about the interaction between and DCs in vitro, relatively little is known about the sequence of events during infection with in vivo. Researchers have recently initiated studies to compare the number and function of blood DCs in human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative adults with various clinical presentations of tuberculosis (TB).

Citation: Mendelson M, Kaplan G, Hanekom W. 2005. Dendritic Cells in Host Immunity to , p 451-462. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch28
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

(A) Electron micrograph of an in vitro-matured monocyte- derived DC showing the characteristic dendritic processes (arrows). (B) Monocyte-derived DC infected with (arrow), with a higher-magnification view (insert) showing replicating bacilli (arrows).

Citation: Mendelson M, Kaplan G, Hanekom W. 2005. Dendritic Cells in Host Immunity to , p 451-462. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

The outcome of infection of DCs by may depend on the capacity of the infecting strain to induce DC maturation. In the figure, infection with strain A induces suboptimal DC maturation, thereby inducing a weak Th1 response. The immature state of the infected DC augments the action of Tr cells, allowing active disease and subsequent persistence. Strain B, in contrast, induces optimal DC maturation and a strong Th1 response, leading to control of the infection and reducing the chance of active disease.

Citation: Mendelson M, Kaplan G, Hanekom W. 2005. Dendritic Cells in Host Immunity to , p 451-462. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch28
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Albert, M. L.,, S. F. Pearce,, L. M. Francisco,, B. Sauter,, P. Roy,, R. L. Silverstein,, and N. Bhardwaj. 1998. Immature dendritic cells phagocytose apoptotic cells via αvβ5 and CD36, and cross-present antigens to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 188: 1359 1368.
2. Albert, M. L.,, B. Sauter,, and N. Bhardwaj. 1998. Dendritic cells acquire antigen from apoptotic cells and induce class Irestricted CTLs. Nature 392: 86 89.
3. Angelini, G.,, S. Gardella,, M. Ardy,, M. R. Ciriolo,, G. Filomeni,, G. Trapani,, F. Clarke,, R. Sitia,, and A. Rubartelli. 2002. Antigen-presenting dendritic cells provide the reducing extracellular microenvironment required for T lymphocyte activation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 1491 1496.
4. Banchereau, J.,, and R. L. Steinman. 1998. Dendritic cells and control of immunity. Nature 392: 245 252.
5. Banchereau, J.,, F. Briere,, C. Caux,, J. Davoust,, S. Lebecque,, Y. J. Yiu,, B. Pulendran,, and K. Palucka. 2000. Immunobiology of dendritic cells. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 18: 767 811.
6. Banchereau, J.,, S. Paczesny,, P. Blanco,, L. Bennett,, V. Pascual,, J. Fay,, and A. K. Palucka. 2003. Dendritic cells: controllers of the immune system and a new promise for immunotherapy. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 987: 180 187.
7. Barnes, P. F.,, S. J. Fong,, P. J. Brennan,, P. E. Twomey,, A. Mazumder,, and R. L. Modlin. 1990. Local production of tumour necrosis factor and IFN-γ in tuberculous pleuritis. J. Immunol. 145: 149 151.
8. Barnes, P. F.,, S. D. Mistry,, C. L. Cooper,, C. Pirmez,, T. H. Rea,, and R. L. Modlin. 1989. Compartmentalization of a CD4 + T lymphocyte subpopulation in tuberculous pleuritis. J. Immunol. 142: 1114 1119.
9. Bhatt, K.,, S. P. Hickman,, and P. Salgame. 2004. A new approach to modeling early lung immunity in murine tuberculosis. J. Immunol. 172: 2748 2751.
10. Bodnar, K. A.,, N. V. Serbina,, and J. A. Flynn. 2001. Fate of Mycobaterium tuberculosis within murine dendritic cells. Infect. Immun. 69: 800 809.
11. Boom, W. H. 1999. γδ T cells and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbes Infect. 1: 187 195.
11.a. Boom, W. H.,, D. H. Canaday,, S. A. Fulton,, A. J. Gehring,, R. E. Rojas,, and M. Torres. 2003. Human immunity to M. tuberculosis: T cell subsets and antigen processing. Tuberculosis 83: 98 106.
12. Brightbill, H. D.,, D. H. Libraty,, S. R. Krutzik,, R. B. Yang,, J. T. Belisle,, J. R. Bieharski,, M. Maitland,, M. V. Norgard,, S. E. Plevy,, S. T. Smale,, D. M. Caraday. S. A. Fulton, W. H. Boom, A. J. Gehring, R. E. Rojas, and M. Torres. 1999. Host defense mechanism triggered by microbial lipoprtoteins through Toll-like receptors. Science 285: 732 736.
13. Caragol, I.,, M. Raspall,, C. Fieschi,, J. Feinberg,, M. N. Larrosa,, M. Hernandez,, C. Figueras,, J.-M. Bertran,, J.-L. Casanova,, and T. Espanol. 2003. Clinical tuberculosis in 2 of 3 siblings with interleukin-12 receptor β1 deficiency. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 302 306.
14. Chen, C. H.,, T. L. Wang,, C. F. Hung,, Y. Yang,, R. A. Young,, D. M. Pardoll,, and T. C. Wu. 2000. Enhancement of DNA vaccine potency by linkage of antigen gene to an HSP70 gene. Cancer Res. 60: 1035 1042.
15. Cranmer, L. D.,, K. T. Trevor,, and E. M. Hersh. 2003. Clinical applications of dendritic cell vaccination in the treatment of cancer. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 53: 275 306.
16. Del Hoyo, G. M.,, P. Martin,, H. H. Vargas,, S. Ruiz,, C. F. Arlas,, and C. Ardavin. 2002. Characterization of a common precursor population for dendritic cells. Nature 415: 1043 1047.
17. Dhodapkar, M. V.,, R. M. Steinman,, J. Krasovsky,, C. Munz,, and N. Bhardwaj. 2001. Antigen-specific inhibition of effector T-cell function in humans after injection of immature dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 193: 233 238.
18. Dieu, M. C.,, B. Vandervliet,, A. Vicari,, J. M. Bridon,, E. Oldham,, S. Ait-Yahia,, F. Briere,, A. Zlotnik,, S. Lebecque,, and C. Caux. 1998. Selective recruitment of immature and mature dendritic cells by distinct chemokines expressed in different anatomic sites. J. Exp. Med. 188: 373 386.
19. Dillon, S. M.,, J. F. Griffin,, D. N. Hart,, J. D. Watson,, and M. A. Baird. 1998. A long-lasting interferon-gamma response is induced to a single inoculation of antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. Immunology 95: 132 140.
20. Dow, S. W.,, A. Roberts,, J. Vyas,, J. Rodgers,, R. R. Rich,, I. Orme,, and T. A. Potter. 2000. Immunization with f-Met peptides induces immune reactivity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tubercle Lung Dis. 80: 5 13.
21. Ebner, S.,, G. Ratzinger,, B. Kroshbacher,, M. Schmuth,, A. Weiss,, D. Reider,, R. A. Kroczek,, M. Herold,, C. Heufler,, P. Fritsch,, and N. Romani. 2001. Production of interleukin- 12 by human monocyte derived dendritic cells is optimal when the stimulus is given at the onset of maturation and is further enhanced by interleukin-4. J. Immunol. 166: 633 641.
22. Emoto, M.,, Y. Emoto,, and I. B. Buchwalow. 1999. Induction of IFN-gamma-producing CD4 + natural killer T cells by Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guérin. Eur. J. Immunol. 29: 650 659.
23. Enering, A. J.,, M. Cella,, D. Fluitsma,, M. Brockhaus,, E. C. Hoefsmit,, A. Lanzavecchia,, and J. Pieters. 1997. The mannose receptor functions as a high capacity and broad specificity antigen receptor in human dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 2417 2425.
24. Engelmayer, J.,, M. Larsson,, M. Subklewe,, A. Chahroudi,, W. I. Cox,, R. M. Steinman,, and N. Bhardwaj. 1999. Vaccinia virus inhibits the maturation of human dendritic cells: A novel mechanism of immune evasion. J. Immunol. 163: 6762 6768.
25. Fanger, N. A.,, K. Wardwell,, L. Shen,, T. F. Tedder,, and P. M. Guyre. 1996. Type I (CD64) and type II (CD32) Fc γ receptor-mediated phagocytosis by human blood dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 157: 541 548.
26. Figdor, C. G.,, Y. van Kooyk,, and G. J. Adema. 2002. C-type lectin receptors on dendritic cells and Langerhans cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2: 77 84.
27. Flesch, I. E.,, and S. H. Kaufmann. 1992. Role of cytokines in tuberculosis. Immunobiology 189: 316 339.
28. Flynn, J. L.,, and J. Chan. 2001. Immunology of tuberculosis. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 19: 93 129.
29. Fonteneau, J. F.,, M. Gilliet,, M. Larsson,, I. Dasilva,, C. Munz,, Y.-J. Liu,, and N. Bhardwaj. 2003. Activation of influenza virus-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells: a new role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in adaptive immunity. Blood 101: 3520 3526.
30. Forster, R.,, A. Schubel,, D. Breitfield,, E. Kremmer,, I. Renner-Muller,, E. Wolf,, and M. Lipp. 1999. CCR7 coordinates the primary immune response by establishing functional microenvironments in secondary lymphoid organs. Cell 99: 23 33.
31. Fortsch, D.,, M. Rollinghoff,, and S. Stenger. 2000. IL-10 converts human dendritic cells into macrophage-like cells with increased antibacterial activity against virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Immunol. 165: 978 987.
32. Gantner, B. N.,, R. M. Simmons,, S. J. Canavera,, S. Akira,, and D. M. Underhill. 2003. Collaborative induction of inflammatory responses by Dectin-1 and Toll-like receptor 2. J. Exp. Med. 197: 1107 1117.
33. Geijtenbeek, T. B. H.,, R. Torensma,, S. J. van Vliet,, G. C. van Duijnhoven,, G. J. Adema,, Y. van Kooyk,, and C. G. Figdor. 2000. Identification of DC-SIGN, a novel dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 receptor that supports primary immune responses. Cell 100: 575 585.
34. Geijtenbeek, T. B. H.,, S. L. van Vliet,, E. A. Koppel,, M. Sanchez-Hernandez,, M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls,, B. Appelmelk,, and Y. van Kooyk. 2003. Mycobacteria target DC-SIGN to suppress dendritic cell function. J. Exp. Med. 197: 7 17.
35. Giacomini, E.,, E. Iona,, L. Ferroni,, M. Miettinen,, L. Fattorini,, G. Orefici,, I. Julkunen,, and E. M. Coccia. 2001. Infection of human macrophages and dendritic cells with Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces a differential cytokine gene expression that modulates T-cell response. J. Immunol. 166: 7033 7041.
36. Gonzalez-Juarrero, M.,, T. S. Shim,, A. Kipnis,, A. P. Junqueira- Kipnis,, and I. Orme. 2003. Dynamics of macrophage cell populations during murine pulmonary tuberculosis. J. Immunol. 171: 3128 3135.
37. Gonzalez-Juarrero, M.,, J. Turner,, R. J. Basaraba,, J. T. Belisle,, and I. M. Orme. 2002. Florid pulmonary inflammatory responses in mice vaccinated with Antigen-85 pulsed dendritic cells and challenged by aerosol with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Cell Immunol. 220: 13 19.
38. Gumperz, J. E.,, and M. B. Brenner. 2001. CD1-specific T cells in microbial immunity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 13: 471 478.
39. Gunn, M. D.,, K. Tangemann,, C. Tam,, J. G. Cyster,, S. D. Rosen,, and L. T. Williams. 1998. A chemokine expressed in lymphoid high endothelial venules promotes the adhesion and chemotaxis of naive T lymphocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 258 263.
40. Hanekom, W. A.,, M. Mendillo,, C. Manca,, P. A. Haslett,, M. R. Siddiqui,, C. Barry III,, and G. Kaplan. 2002. Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro. J. Infect. Dis. 188: 257 266.
41. Henderson, R. A.,, S. C. Watkins,, and J. A. Flynn. 1997. Activation of human dendritic cells following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Immunol. 159: 635 433.
42. Hertz, C. J.,, S. M. Kiertscher,, P. J. Godowski,, D. A. Bouis,, M. V. Norgard,, M. D. Roth,, and R. L. Modlin. 2001. Microbial lipopeptides stimulate dendritic cell maturation via Toll-like receptor 2. J. Immunol. 166: 2444 2450.
43. Holt, P. G.,, S. Haining,, D. J. Nelson,, and J. S. Sedgwick. 1994. Origin of steady-state turnover of class II MHC-bearing dendritic cells in the epithelium of the conducting airways. J. Immunol. 153: 256 261.
44. Inaba, K.,, M. Inaba,, M. Naito,, and R. M. Steinman. 1993. Dendritic cell progenitors phgocytose particulates, including bacillus Calmette-Guérin organisms, and sensitize mice to mycobacterial antigens. J. Exp. Med. 178: 479 488.
45. Inaba, K.,, and R. M. Steinman. 1985. Protein-specific helper T lymphocyte formation initiated by dendritic cells. Science 229: 475 479.
46. Inaba, K.,, and R. M. Steinman. 1984. Resting and sensitized T lymphocytes exhibit distinct stimulatory (antigen-presenting cell) requirements for growth and lymphokine release. J. Exp. Med. 160: 1717 1735.
47. Ingulli, E.,, A. Mondino,, A. Khoruts,, and M. K. Jenkins. 1997. In vivo detection of dendritic cell antigen presentation to CD4 + T cells. J. Exp. Med. 185: 2133 2141.
48. Iwashiro, M.,, R. J. Messer,, K. E. Peterson,, I. M. Stromnes,, T. Sugie,, and K. J. Hasenkrug. 2001. Immunosuppression by CD4 + regulatory T cells induced by chronic retroviral infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 98: 9226 9230.
49. Iyonaga, K.,, K. M. McCarthy,, and E. S. Schneeberger. 2002. Dendritic cells and the recruitment of a granulomatous immune response in the lung. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 26: 671 679.
50. Jarrossay, D.,, G. Napolitani,, M. Colonna,, F. Sallusto,, and A. Lanzavecchia,, A. 2001. Specialization and complementarity in microbial molecule recognition by human myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 31: 3388 3393.
51. Jiang, W.,, W. L. Swiggard,, C. Heufler,, M. Peng,, A. Mirza,, R. M. Steinman,, and M. C. Nussenzweig. 1995. The receptor DEC-205 expressed by dendritic cells and thymic epithelial cells is involved in antigen processing. Nature 375: 151 155.
52. Jiao, X.,, R. Lo-Man,, P. Guermonprez,, L. Fiette,, E. Deriaud,, S. Burgaud,, B. Gicquel,, N. Winter,, and C. Leclerc. 2002. Dendritic cells are host cells for mycobacteria in vivo that trigger innate and acquired immunity. J. Immunol. 168: 1294 1301.
53. Kadowaki, N.,, S. Antoneko,, J. Y. Lau,, and Y. J. Liu. 2000. Natural interferon-α/β-producing cells link innate and adaptive immunity. J. Exp. Med. 192: 219 226.
54. Kadowaki, N.,, S. Ho,, S. Antonenko,, R. de Waal Malefyt,, R. A. Kastelein,, F. Bazan,, and J. Yong-Liu. 2001. Subsets of human dendritic cells express different toll-like receptors and respond to different microbial antigens. J. Exp. Med. 194: 863 869.
55. Kalinski, P.,, J. H. Schuitemaker,, C. M. Hilkens,, E. A. Wierenga,, and M. L. Kapsenberg. 1999. Final maturation of dendritic cells is associated with impaired responsiveness to IFN-gamma and to bacterial IL-12 inducers: decreased ability of mature dendritic cells to produce IL-12 during the interaction with Th cells. J. Immunol. 162: 3231 3236.
56. Kim, T. W.,, C. F. Hung,, D. Boyd,, J. Juang,, L. He,, J. W. Kim,, J. M. Hardwick,, and T. C. Wu. 2003. Enhancing DNA vaccine potency by combining a strategy to prolong dendritic cell life with intracellular targeting strategies. J. Immunol. 171: 2970 2976.
57. Kim, T. W.,, C. F. Hung,, M. Ling,, J. Juang,, L. He,, J. M. Hardwick,, S. Kumar,, and T. C. Wu. 2003. Enhancing DNA vaccine potency by coadministration of DNA encoding antiapoptotic proteins. J. Clin. Investig. 112: 109 117.
58. Kriehumber, E.,, S. Breiteneder-Gerleff,, M. Groeger,, T. W. Kim,, C. F. Hung,, D. Boyd,, J. Juang,, L. He,, J. W. Kim,, J. M. Hardwick,, and T. C. Wu. 2001. Isolation and characterization of dermal lymphatic and blood endothelial cells reveal stable and functionally specialized cell lineages. J. Exp. Med. 194: 797 808.
59. Lanzavecchia, A.,, and F. Sallusto. 2001. Regulation of T-cell immunity by dendritic cells. Cell 106: 263 266.
60. Latchumanan, V. K.,, B. Singh,, P. Sharma,, and K. Natarajan. 2002. Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens induce the differentiation of dendritic cells from bone marrow. J. Immunol. 169: 6856 6864.
61. Lopez, B.,, D. Aguilar,, H. Orozco,, M. Burger,, C. Espitia,, V. Ritacco,, L. Barrera,, K. Kremer,, R. Hernandez-Pando,, K. Huygen,, and D. van Soolingen. 2003. A marked difference in pathogenesis and immune response induced by different Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 133: 30 37.
62. Lukas, N. W.,, S. W. Chensue,, R. M. Strieter,, V. K. Latchumanan,, B. Singh,, P. Sharma,, and K. Natajaran. 1994. Inflammatory granuloma formation is mediated by TNF-alpha-inducible intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J. Immunol. 152: 5883 5889.
63. Manca, C.,, L. Tsenova,, C. E. Barry III,, A. Bergtold,, S. Freeman,, P. A. Haslett,, P. Musser,, V. H. Freedman,, and G. Kaplan. 1999. Mycobacterium tuberculosis CDC1551 induces a more vigorous host repsonse in vivo and in vitro, but is not more virulent than other clinical isolates. J. Immunol. 162: 6740 6746.
64. Manca, C.,, L. Tsenova,, A. Bergtold,, S. Freeman,, M. Tovey,, J. M. Musser,, C. E. Barry III,, V. H. Freedman,, and G. Kaplan. 2001. Virulence of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolate in mice is determined by failure to induce Th1 type immunity and is associated with induction of IFN α/β. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 5752 5757.
65. Matsuno, K.,, T. Ezaki,, S. Kudo,, and Y. Uehara. 1996. A life stage of particle-laden rat dendritic cells in vivo: their terminal division, active phagocytosis and translocation from the liver to hepatic lymph. J. Exp. Med. 183: 1865 1878.
66. McShane, H.,, S. Behboudi,, N. Goonetilleke,, R. Brookes,, and A. V. Hill. 2002. Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced by dendritic cells pulsed with both CD8 +- and CD4 +-T-cell epitopes from antigen 85A. Infect. Immun. 70: 1623 1626.
67. McWilliam, A. S.,, D. Nelson,, J. A. Thomas,, and P. G. Holt. 1994. Rapid dendritic cell recruitment is a hallmark of the acute inflammatory response at mucosal surfaces. J. Exp. Med. 179: 1331 1336.
68. Means, T. K.,, B. W. Jones,, A. B. Schromm,, B. A. Shurtleff,, J. A. Smith,, J. Keane,, D. T. Golenbrock,, S. N. Vogel,, and M. J. Fenton. 2001. Differential effects of a Toll-like receptor antagonist on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced macrophage responses. J. Immunol. 166: 4074 4082.
69. Means, T. K.,, S. Wang,, E. Lien,, A. Yoshimura,, D. T. Golenbock,, and M. J. Fenton. 1999. Human Toll-like receptors mediate cellular activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Immunol. 163: 3920 3927.
70. Moll, H. 1993. Epidermal Langerhans cells are critical for immunoregulation of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Immunol. Today 14: 383 387.
71. Nelson, D. J.,, and P. G. Holt. 1995. Defective regional immunity in the respiratory tract of neonates is attributable to hyporesponsiveness of local dendritic cells to activation signals. J. Immunol. 155: 3517 3524.
72. Peters, W.,, and J. D. Ernst. 2003. Mechanisms of cell recruitment in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Microbes Infect. 5: 151 158.
73. Peters, W.,, H. M. Scott,, H. F. Chambers,, J. L. Flynn,, I. F. Charo,, and J. D. Ernst. 2001. Chemokine receptor 2 serves an early and essential role in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 7958 7963.
74. Pinkus, G.,, S. Pinkus,, J. L. Langhoff,, E. Matsumura,, F. Yamashiro,, S. Mosialos,, and J. W. Said. 1997. Fascin, a sensitive new marker for Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin’s disease. Evidence for a dendritic or B cell derivation. Am. J. Pathol. 150: 543 562.
75. Pope, M. 2003. Dendritic cells as a conduit to improve HIV vaccines. Curr. Mol. Med. 3: 229 242.
76. Prigozy, T. I.,, P. A. Sieling,, D. Clemens,, P. L. Stewart,, S. M. Behar,, S. A. Porcelli,, M. B. Brenner,, R. L. Modlin,, and M. Kronenberg. 1997. The mannose receptor delivers lipoglycan antigens to endosomes for presentation to T cells by CD1b molecules. Immunity 6: 187 197.
77. Reis e Sousa, C.,, P. D. Stahl,, and J. M. Austyn. 1993. Phagocytosis of antigens by Langerhans cells in vitro. J. Exp. Med. 178: 509 19.
78. Robbiani, D. F.,, R. A. Finch,, D. Jager,, W. A. Muller,, A. C. Sartorelli,, and G. J. Randolph. 2000. The leukotriene C4 transporter MRP1 regulates CCL19 (MIP3beta, ELC)-dependent mobilization of dendritic cells to lymph nodes. Cell 103: 757 768.
79. Roper, W. H.,, and J. J. Waring. 1955. Primary serofibrinous pleural effusion in military personnel. Am. Rev. Tuberc. 71: 616 634.
80. Rubartelli, A.,, A. Poggi,, and M. R. Zocchi. 1997. The selective engulfment of apoptotic bodies by dendritic cells is mediated by the α(v)β3 integrin and requires intracellular and extracellular calcium. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 1893 1900.
81. Sallusto, F.,, M. Cella,, C. Danieli,, and A. Lanzavecchia. 1995. Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate antigen to the MHC class II compartment. Downregulation by cytokines and bacterial products. J. Exp. Med. 182: 389 400.
82. Sallusto, F.,, P. Schaerli,, P. Loetscher,, P. Schaniel,, D. Lenig,, C. R. Mackay,, S. Qin,, and A. Lanzavecchia. 1998. Rapid and coordinated switch in chemokine receptor expression during dendritic cell maturation. Eur. J. Immunol. 28: 2760 2769.
83. Sertl, K.,, T. Takemura,, E. Tschachler,, V. J. Ferrans,, M. A. Kaliner,, and E. M. Shevach. 1986. Dendritic cells with antigen-presenting capability reside in airway epithelium, lung parenchyma, and visceral pleura. J. Exp. Med. 163: 436 451.
84. Siegal, F. P.,, M. Kadowaki,, P. A. Shodell,, P. A. Fitzgerald- Bocarsly,, K. Shah,, S. Ho,, S. Antonenko,, and Y. J. Liu. 1999. The nature of the peripheral type I interferon-producing cells in human blood. Science 284: 1835 1839.
85. Steinman, R. M. 2001. Dendritic cells and the control of immunity: enhancing the efficiency of antigen presentation. Mt. Sinai J. Med. 68: 106 166.
86. Steinman, R. M.,, and Z. A. Cohn. 1973. Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. I. Morphological, quantitation, tissue distribution. J. Exp. Med. 137: 1142 1162.
87. Steinman, R. M.,, and T. M. Moran,. 2004. Dendritic cells, p. 269 284. In W. M. Rom, and S. M. Garay (ed.), Tuberculosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
88. Steinman, R. M.,, and M. C. Nussenzweig. 2002. Avoiding horror autotoxicus: the importance of dendritic cells in peripheral T-cell tolerance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 351 358.
89. Stenger, S.,, K. R. Niazi,, and R. L. Modlin, 1998. Downregulation of CD1 on antigen-presenting cells by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Immunol. 161: 3582 3588.
90. Sturgill-Koszycki, S.,, P. H. Schlesinger,, P. Chakraborty,, P. L. Haddix,, H. L. Collins,, A. K. Fok,, R. D. Allen,, S. L. Gluck,, J. Heuser,, and D. G. Russell. 1994. Lack of acidification in Mycobacterium phagosomes produced by exclusion of the vesicular proton-ATP ase. Science 263: 678 681.
91. Tailleux, L.,, O. Neyrolles,, S. Honore-Bouakline,, E. Perret,, F. Sanchez,, J.-P. Abastado,, P. H. Lagrange,, J. C. Gluckman,, M. Rosenzwajg,, and J.-L. Herrman. 2003. Constrained intracellular survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 170: 1939 1948.
92. Tailleux, L.,, O. Schwartz,, J. L. Herrmann,, E. Pivert,, M. Jackson,, A. Amara,, L. Legres,, D. Dreher,, L. P. Nicod,, J. C. Gluckman,, P. H. Lagrange,, B. Gicquel,, and O. Neyrolles. 2003. DC-SIGN is the major Mycobacterium tuberculosis receptor on human dendritic cells. J. Exp. Med. 197: 121 127.
93. Tan, M. C.,, A. M. Mommaas,, J. W. Drijfhout,, R. Jordens,, J. J. Onderwater,, D. Verwoerd,, A. A. Mulder,, A. N. van der Heiden,, D. Scheidegger,, L. C. Oomen,, T. H. Ottenhoff,, A. Tulp,, J. J. Neefjes,, and F. Koning. 1997. Mannose receptor- mediated uptake of antigens strongly enhances HLA class II-restricted antigen presentation by cultured dendritic cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 27: 2426 2435.
94. Tascon, R. E.,, C. S. Soares,, S. Ragno,, E. Stavropoulos,, E. M. Hirst,, and M. J. Colston. 2000. Mycobacterium tuberculosis- activated dendritic cells induce protective immunity in mice. Immunology 99: 473 480.
95. Thoma-Uszynski, S.,, S. M. Kiertscher,, M. T. Ochoa,, D. A. Bouis,, M. V. Norgard,, K. Miyake,, P. J. Godowski,, M. D. Roth,, and R. L. Modlin. 2000. Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on human dendritic cells triggers induction of IL-12, but not IL-10. J. Immunol. 165: 3804 3810.
96. Thoma-Uszynski, S.,, S. Stenger,, O. Takeuchi,, M. T. Ochoa,, M. Engele,, P. A. Sieling,, P. F. Barnes,, M. Rollinghoff,, P. L. Bolcskei,, M. Wagner,, S. Akira,, M. V. Norgard,, J. T. Belisle,, P. J. Godowski,, B. R. Bloom,, and R. L. Modlin. 2001. Induction of direct antimicrobial activity through mammalian Toll-like receptors. Science 291: 1544 1547.
97. Thurnher, M.,, R. Ramoner,, G. Gastl,, C. Radmayr,, G. Bock,, M. Herold,, H. Klocker,, and G. Bartsch. 1997. Bacillus Calmette Guérin mycobacteria stimulate human blood dendritic cells. Int. J. Cancer 70: 128 134.
98. Tschernig, T.,, A. S. Debertin,, F. Paulsen,, W. J. Kleemann,, and R. Pabst. 2001. Dendritic cells in the mucosa of the human trachea are not regularly found in the first year of life. Thorax 56: 427 431.
99. Tsuji, S.,, M. Matsumoto,, O. Takeuchi,, S. Akira,, I. Azuma,, A. Hayashi,, K. Toyoshima,, and T. Seya. 2000. Maturation of human dendritic cells by cell wall skeleton of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin: involvement of Tolllike receptors. Infect. Immun. 68: 6883 6890.
100. Turley, S. J.,, K. Inaba,, W. S. Garrett,, M. Ebersold,, J. Unternaehrer,, R. M. Steinman,, and I. Mellman. 2000. Transport of peptide-MHC class II complexes in developing dendritic cells. Science 288: 522 527.
101. Uehira, K.,, R. Amakawa,, T. Ito,, K. Tajima,, S. Naitoh,, Y. Ozaki,, T. Shimizu,, K. Yamaguchi,, Y. Uemura,, H. Kitajima,, S. Yonezu,, and S. Fukuhara. 2002. Dendritic cells are decreased in blood and accumulated in granuloma in tuberculosis. Clin. Immunol. 105: 296 303.
101.a. Ulrichs, T.,, and S. H. E. Kaufmann,. 2004. Cell mediated immune response, p. 251 262. In W. M. Rom, and S. M. Garay (ed.), Tuberculosis. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa.
102. Underhill, D.,, and A. Ozinsky. 2002. Toll-like receptors: key mediators of microbe detection. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 14: 103 110.
103. Underhill, D.,, A. Ozinsky,, K. D. Smith,, and A. Aderem. 1999. Toll-like receptor-2 mediates mycobacteria-induced proinflammatory signaling in macrophages. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 14459 14463.
104. Urban, B. C.,, D. J. Ferguson,, A. Pain,, N. Wilcox,, M. Plebanski,, J. M. Austyn,, and D. J. Roberts. 1999. Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes modulate the maturation of dendritic cells. Nature 400: 73 77.
105. Van Overtvelt, L.,, N. Vanderheyde,, V. Verhasselt,, J. Ismaili, L. de Vos,, M. Goldman,, F. Willems,, and B. Vray. 1999. Trypanosoma cruzi infects human dendritic cells and prevents their maturation: inhibition of cytokines, HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules. Infect. Immun. 67: 4033 4040.
106. Willimann, K.,, D. F. Legler,, M. Loetscher,, R. S. Roos,, M. B. Delgado,, I. Clark-Lewis,, M. Baggiolini,, and B. Moser. 1998. The chemokine SLC is expressed in T-cell areas of lymph nodes and mucosal lymphoid tissues and attracts activated T cells via CCR7. Eur. J. Immunol. 6: 2025 2034.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error