Chapter 5 : Immune-Based Methods

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On infection with , antigen-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses are elicited in the host. This chapter reviews the recent advances toward the development of diagnostic tests for clinical and latent tuberculosis (TB) based on the identification of immunodominant antigens of and characterization of both the antibody and T-cell responses mounted by the host. The local in situ environment in the lung is different at these different stages; the bacterial loads vary, being significantly higher in individuals with cavitary lesions where the opportunity to replicate extracellularly exists. In recent years, several new antigens of have been cloned and evaluated for their serodiagnostic potential. The proteins present in culture filtrates of replicating in bacteriological media have been extensively evaluated based on the presumption that the same antigens would also be expressed by the in vivo replicating bacteria. The immune dysfunction caused by progressive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in high rates of reactivation of latent TB, an increased incidence of progression of infection to primary TB, and an accelerated course of disease progression. Cellular immune responses elicited on infection with involve the generation of both CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets.

Citation: Laal S, Skeiky Y. 2005. Immune-Based Methods, p 71-83. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch5
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Table 1

Reactivity of smear-positive and smear-negative TB patients with recombinant antigens

Citation: Laal S, Skeiky Y. 2005. Immune-Based Methods, p 71-83. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 2

Reactivity of HIV-infected TB patients with recombinant antigens

Citation: Laal S, Skeiky Y. 2005. Immune-Based Methods, p 71-83. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 3

T-cell antigens for use in diagnosis

Citation: Laal S, Skeiky Y. 2005. Immune-Based Methods, p 71-83. In Cole S, Eisenach K, McMurray D, Jacobs, Jr. W (ed), Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817657.ch5

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