Chapter 9 : Distinguishing Pathovars from Nonpathovars:

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Distinguishing Pathovars from Nonpathovars: , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817688/9781555812683_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817688/9781555812683_Chap09-2.gif


Pneumococcal organisms cause disease, most often outside its normal colonization site (the nasopharynx), and the colonization can be prolonged in many individuals. The chronic nature of the carriage and disease occurrence at the same nonsterile site of carriage render such a group of organisms even more difficult to classify as true pathovars. In this chapter, is discussed as an example of such a group. The prevalence of chronic gastric colonization with in human populations is high, but only about 10% of infected persons will progress to develop a gastric disease in their lifetime. Most of the strain-typing approaches have relied on genotypic methods, which have been generally applied to demonstrate a relationship between gastroduodenal disease and strain type. The most common strain-typing method appears to be the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of selected genes, usually , , and the urease genes. The genomic sequence data have provided a better understanding of the population structure of this organism in the stomach, which is important in addressing whether or not isolates can be differentiated into pathovars and nonpathovars. With infections, environmental exposures—including diet, antibiotics, food preservatives, and other chemicals that alter stomach pH, release of reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates, and inflammatory response in the stomach—could contribute to selective pressures on colonizing populations of .

Citation: Riley L. 2004. Distinguishing Pathovars from Nonpathovars: , p 229-248. In Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817688.ch9
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Alm, R. A.,, L. S. Ling,, D. T. Moir,, B. L. King,, E. D. Brown,, P. C. Doig,, D. R. Smith,, B. Noonan,, B. C. Guild,, B. L. deJonge,, G. Carmel,, P. J. Tummino,, A. Caruso,, M. Uria-Nickelsen,, D. M. Mills,, C. Ives,, R. Gibson,, D. Merberg,, S. D. Mills,, Q. Jiang,, D. E. Taylor,, G. F. Vovis,, and T. J. Trust. 1999. Genomic sequence comparison of two unrelated isolates of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 397: 176 180.
2. Ando, T.,, R. M. Peek,, D. Pride,, S. M. Levine,, T. Takata,, Y. C. Lee,, K. Kusugami,, A. van der Ende,, E. J. Kuipers,, J. G. Kusters,, and M. J. Blaser. 2002. Polymorphisms of Helicobacter pylori HP0638 reflect geographic origin and correlate with cagA status. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 239 246.
3. Appelmelk, B. J.,, R. Negrini,, A. P. Moran,, and E. J. Kuipers. 1997. Molecular mimicry between Helicobacter pylori and the host. Trends Microbiol. 5: 70 73.
4. Asahi, M.,, T. Azuma,, S. Ito,, Y. Ito,, H. Suto,, Y. Nagai,, M. Tsubokawa,, Y. Tohyama,, S. Maeda,, M. Omata,, T. Suzuki,, and C. Sasakawa. 2000. Helicobacter pylori CagA protein can be tyrosine phosphorylated in gastric epithelial cells. J. Exp. Med. 191: 593 602.
5. Ashour, A. A. R.,, G. B. Collares,, E. N. Mendes,, V. R. de Gusmão,, D. M. de Magalhães Queiroz,, P. P. Magalhães,, A. S. T. de Carvalho,, C. A. de Oliveira,, A. M. M. F. Nogueira,, G. A. Rocha,, and A. M. C. Rocha. 2001. iceA genotypes of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Brazilian children and adults. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1746 1750.
6. Aspinall, G. O.,, and M. A. Monteiro. 1996. Lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori strains P466 and MO19: structures of the O antigen and core oligosaccharide regions. Biochemistry 35: 2498 2504.
7. Atherton, J. C.,, R. M. Peek, Jr.,, K. T. Tham,, T. L. Cover,, and M. J. Blaser. 1997. Clinical and pathological importance of heterogeneity in vacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin gene of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 112: 92 99.
8. Backert, S.,, E. Ziska,, V. Brinkmann,, U. Zimny-Arndt,, A. Fauconnier,, P. R. Jungblut,, M. Naumann,, and T. F. Meyer. 2000. Translocation of the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein in gastric epithelial cells by a type IV secretion apparatus. Cell Microbiol. 2: 155 164.
9. Blaser, M. J. 1999. Hypothesis: the changing relationships of Helicobacter pylori and humans: implications for health and disease. J. Infect. Dis. 179: 1523 1530.
10. Blaser, M. J.,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, H. Kleanthous,, T. L. Cover,, R. M. Peek,, P. H. Chyou,, G. N. Stemmermann,, and A. Nomura. 1995. Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Res. 55: 2111 2115.
11. Boneca, I. G.,, H. de Reuse,, J.-C. Epinat,, M. Pupin,, A. Labigne,, and I. Moszer. 2003. A revised annotation and comparative analysis of Helicobacter pylori genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 31: 1704 1714.
12. Censini, S.,, C. Lange,, Z. Xiang,, J. Crabtree,, P. Ghiara,, M. Borodovsky,, R. Rappuoli,, and A. Covacci. 1996. Cag A pathogenicity island of Helicobacter pylori encodes type I-specific and disease-associated virulence factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 14648 14653.
13. Churin, Y.,, E. Kardalinou,, T. F. Meyer,, and M. Naumann. 2001. Pathogenicity island-dependent activation of Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 in Helicobacter pylori infection. Mol. Microbiol. 40: 815 823.
14. Colding, H.,, S. H. Hartzen,, H. Roshanisefat,, L. P. Andersen,, and K. A. Krogfelt. 1999. Molecular methods for typing of Helicobacter pylori and their applications. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 24: 193 199.
15. Covacci, A.,, S. Censini,, M. Bugnoli,, R. Petracca,, D. Burroni,, G. Macchia,, A. Masson,, E. Papini,, Z. Xiang,, N. Figura,, and R. Rappuoli. 1993. Molecular characterization of the 128-kDa immunodominant antigen of Helicobacter pylori associated with cytotoxicity and duodenal ulcer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 5791 5795.
16. Cover, T. L. 1996. The vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori. Mol. Microbiol. 20: 241 246.
17. Donati, M.,, E. Storni,, L. D’Apote,, S. Moreno,, A. Tucci,, L. Poli,, and R. Cevenini. 1999. PCR-based restriction pattern typing of the vacA gene provides evidence for a homogeneous group among Helicobacter pylori strains associated with peptic ulcer disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 912 915.
18. Dooley, C. P.,, H. Cohen,, P. L. Fitzgibbons,, M. Bauer,, M. D. Appleman,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, and M. J. Blaser. 1989. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 1562 1566.
19. El-Omar, E. M.,, M. Carrington,, W.-H. Chow,, K. E. L. McColl,, J. H. Bream,, H. A. Young,, J. Herrera,, J. Lissowska,, C.-C. Yuan,, N. Rothman,, G. Lanyon,, M. Martin,, J. F. Fraumeni,, and C. S. Rabkin. 2000. Interleukin-1 polymorphisms associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Nature 404: 398 402.
20. Forman, D.,, D. G. Newell,, F. Fullerton,, J. W. G. Yarnell,, A. R. Stacey,, N. Wald,, and F. Sitas. 1991. Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. Br. Med. J. 2: 377 380.
21. Fujimoto, S.,, B. Marshall,, and M. J. Blaser. 1994. PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism typing of Helicobacter pylori. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 331 334.
22. Fujisawa, T.,, T. Kumagai,, T. Akamatsu,, K. Kiyosawa,, and Y. Matsunaga. 1999. Changes in seroepidemiological pattern of Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis A virus over the last 20 years in Japan. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 94: 2094 2099.
23. Ge, Z.,, and D. E. Taylor. 1998. Helicobacter pylori—molecular genetics and diagnostic typing. Br. Med. Bull. 54: 31 38.
24. Go, M. F. 2002. Review article: natural history and epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16(Suppl.): 3 15.
25. Graham, D. Y.,, and Y. Yamaoka. 2000. Disease-specific Helicobacter pylori virulence factors: the unfulfilled promise. Helicobacter 5(Suppl.): S3 S9.
26. Graham, D. Y.,, H. M. Malaty,, D. G. Evans,, D. J. Evans, Jr.,, P. D. Klein,, and E. Adam. 1991. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population in the United States. Effect of age, race, and socioeconomic status. Gastroenterology 100: 1495 1501.
27. Graham, D. Y.,, P. D. Klein,, D. J. Evans, Jr.,, D. G. Evans,, L. C. Alpert,, A. R. Opekun,, and T. W. Boutton. 1987. Campylobacter pylori detected noninvasively by the 13C-urea breath test. Lancet i: 1174 1177.
28. Graham, D. Y.,, R. M. Genta,, D. P. Graham,, and J. E. Crabtree. 1996. Serum CagA antibodies in asymptomatic subjects and patients with peptic ulcer: lack of correlation of IgG antibody in patients with peptic ulcer or asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori gastritis. J. Clin. Pathol. 49: 829 832.
29. Hamlet, A.,, A.-C. Thoreson,, O. Nilsson,, A.-M. Svennerholm,, and L. Olbe. 1999. Duodenal Helicobacter pylori infection differs in cagA genotype between asymptomatic subjects and patients with duodenal ulcers. Gastroenterology 116: 259 268.
30. Han, S. R.,, H. C. Zschausch,, H. G. Meyer,, T. Schneider,, M. Loos,, S. Bhakdi,, and M. J. Maeurer. 2000. Helicobacter pylori: clonal population structure and restricted transmission within families revealed by molecular typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3646 3651.
31. International Agency for Research on Cancer. 1994. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 61. Schistosomes, Liver Flukes and Helicobacter pylori. IARC Press, Lyon, France.
32. Israel, D. A.,, N. Salama,, C. N. Arnold,, S. F. Moss,, T. Ando,, H. P. Wirth,, K. T. Tham,, M. Camorlinga,, M. J. Blaser,, S. Falkow,, and R. M. Peek, Jr. 2001. Helicobacter pylori strain-specific differences in genetic content, identified by microarray, influence host inflammatory responses. J. Clin. Investig. 107: 611 620.
33. Israel, D. A.,, N. Salama,, U. Krishna,, U. M. Rieger,, J. C. Atherton,, S. Falkow,, and R. M. Peek, Jr. 2001. Helicobacter pylori genetic diversity within the gastric niche of a single human host. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 14625 14630.
34. Keates, S.,, A. C. Keates,, M. Warny,, R. M. Peek Jr.,, P. G. Murray,, and C. P. Kelly. 1999. Differential activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in AGS gastric epithelial cells by cag + and cag Helicobacter pylori. J. Immunol. 163: 5552 5559.
35. Keates, S.,, Y. S. Hitti,, M. Upton,, and C. P. Kelly. 1997. Helicobacter pylori infection activates NF-kappa-B in gastric epithelial cells. Gastroenterology 113: 1099 1109.
36. Kim, J. G.,, H. D. Cho,, J. H. Cho,, D. H. Lee,, and Y. J. Cha. 1998. Infection with Helicobacter pylori expressing the cagA gene is not associated with an increased risk of developing peptic ulcer diseases in Korean patients. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 33: 923 927.
37. Klein, P. D.,, R. H. Gilman,, R. Leon-Barua,, F. Diaz,, E. O. Smith,, and D. Y. Graham. 1994. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Peruvian children between 6 and 30 months of age. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 89: 2196 2200.
38. Kosunen, T. U. A.,, A. Aromaa,, P. Knekt,, A. Salomaa,, H. Rautelin,, and O. P. Heinonen. 1997. Helicobacter antibodies in 1973 and 1994 in the adult population of Vammala, Finland. Epidemiol. Infect. 119: 29 34.
39. Kuipers, E. J.,, A. M. Uyterlinde,, A. S. Pena,, R. Roosendaal,, G. Pals,, G. F. Nelis,, H. P. M. Festen,, and S. G. M. Meuwissen. 1995. Long-term sequelae of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Lancet 345: 1525 1528.
40. Kuipers, E. J.,, A. S. Pena,, G. Van Kamp,, A. M. Uyterlinde,, G. Pals,, N. F. M. Pels,, E. Kurz-Pohlmann,, and S. G. M. Meuwissen. 1993. Seroconversion for Helicobacter pylori. Lancet 342: 328 331.
41. Kuipers, E. J.,, D. A. Israel,, J. G. Gisters,, M. M. Gerrits,, J. Weel,, A. van der Ende,, R. W. M. van der Hulst,, H. P. Wirth,, J. Hook-Nikanne,, S. A. Thompson,, and M. J. Blaser. 2000. Quasispecies development of Helicobacter pylori observed in paired isolates obtained years apart from the same host. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 273 282.
42. Kuniyasu, H.,, W. Yasui,, H. Yokozaki,, and E. Tahara. 2000. Helicobacter pylori infection and carcinogenesis of the stomach. Langenbecks Arch. Surg. 385: 69 74.
43. Lax, A. J.,, and W. Thomas. 2002. How bacteria could cause cancer: one step at a time. Trends Microbiol. 10: 293 299.
44. Logan, R. P. H.,, and D. E. Berg. 1996. Genetic diversity of Helicobacter pylori. Lancet 348: 1462 1463.
45. Louw, J. A.,, M. S. Kidd,, A. F. Kummer,, K. Taylor,, U. Kotze,, and D. Hanslo. 2001. The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection, the virulence genotypes of the infecting strain and gastric cancer in the African setting. Helicobacter 6: 268 273.
46. Maeda, S.,, K. Ogura,, H. Yoshida,, F. Kanai,, T. Ikenoue,, N. Kato,, Y. Shiratori,, and M. Omata. 1998. Major virulence factors, VacA and CagA, are commonly positive in Helicobacter pylori isolates in Japan. Gut 42: 338 343.
47. Marshall, B. J.,, J. A. Armstrong,, D. B. McGechie,, and R. J. Glancy. 1985. Attempt to fulfill Koch’s postulates for pyloric Campylobacter. Med. J. Aust. 142: 436 439.
48. Marshall, D. G.,, A. Chua,, P. W. N. Keeling,, D. J. Sullivan,, D. C. Coleman,, and C. J. Smyth. 1995. Molecular analysis of Helicobacter pylori populations in antral biopsies from individual patients using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 10: 317 323.
49. Marshall, D. G.,, S. O. Hynes,, D. C. Coleman,, C. A. O’Moran,, C. J. Smyth,, and A. P. Moran. 1999. Lack of a relationship between Lewis antigen expression and cagA, CagA, vacA, and VacA status of Irish Helicobacter isolates. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 24: 79 90.
50. Miehlke, S.,, J. Yu,, M. Schuppler,, C. Frings,, C. Kirsch,, N. Negraszus,, A. Morgner,, M. Stolte,, C. Ehninger,, and E. Bayerdorffer. 2001. Helicobacter pylori vacA, iceA, and cagA status and pattern of gastritis in patients with malignant and benign gastroduodenal disease. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 96: 1008 1013.
51. Miehlke, S.,, R. Thomas,, O. Guiterrez,, D. Y. Graham,, and M. F. Go. 1999. DNA fingerprinting of single colonies of Helicobacter pylori from gastric cancer patients suggests infection with a single predominant strain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 245 247.
52. Mitchell, H. M.,, S. L. Hazell,, Y. Y. Li,, and P. J. Hu. 1996. Serological response to specific Helicobacter pylori antigens: antibody against CagA antigen is not predictive of gastric cancer in a developing country. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 91: 1785 1788.
53. Miyaji, H.,, Y. Kohli,, T. Azuma,, Y. Ito,, M. Hirai,, T. Kato,, M. Kuriyama,, and Y. Abe. 1995. Endoscopic cross-infection with Helicobacter pylori. Lancet 345: 464.
54. Monstein, H. J.,, and K. Ellnebo-Svedlund. 2002. Molecular typing of Helicobacter pylori by virulence-gene based multiplex PCR and RT-PCR analysis. Helicobacter 7: 287 296.
55. Montecucco, C.,, and R. Rappuoli. 2001. Living dangerously: how Helicobacter pylori survives in the human stomach. Mol. Cell Biol. 2: 457 466.
56. Moriai, T.,, and N. Hirahara. 1999. Clinical course of acute gastric mucosal lesions caused by acute infection with Helicobacter pylori. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 456 458.
57. Nishiya, D.,, T. Shomoyama,, S. Fukuda,, T. Yoshimura,, M. Tanaka,, and A. Munakata. 2000. Evaluation of the clinical relevance of the iceA1 gene in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 35: 36 39.
58. Nomura, A.,, G. N. Stemmermann,, P. H. Chyou,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, and M. J. Blaser. 1995. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk for duodenal and gastric ulceration. Ann. Intern. Med. 120: 977 981.
59. Nomura, A.,, G. N. Stemmermann,, P. H. Chyou,, I. Kato,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, and M. J. Blaser. 1991. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma among Japanese-Americans in Hawaii. N. Engl. J. Med. 325: 1132 1136.
60. Nomura, A. M. Y.,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, J. Lee,, G. Stemmermann,, and M. J. Blaser. 2002. Relation between Helicobacter pylori cagA status and risk of peptic ulcer disease. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155: 1054 1059.
61. On, S. L. 2001. Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects, and immediate concerns. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90: 1S 15S.
62. Owen, R. J.,, and J. Xerry. 2003. Tracing clonality of Helicobacter pylori infecting family members from analysis of DNA sequences of three housekeeping genes ( ureI, atpA and ahpC), deduced amino acid sequences, and pathogenicity-associated markers ( cagA and vacA). J. Med. Microbiol. 52: 515 524.
63. Owen, R. J.,, T. M. Peters,, R. Varea,, E. L. Teare,, and S. Saverymuttu. 2001. Molecular epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in England: prevalence of cag pathogenicity island markers and IS605 presence in relation to patient age and severity of gastric disease. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 30: 65 71.
64. Park, S. M.,, J. Park,, T. S. Shimoyama,, M. Fukuda,, T. Tanaka,, Y. Mikami,, Y. Saito,, and A. Munakata. 1996. High prevalence of the CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strains in Japanese asymptomatic patients and gastric cancer patients. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 32: 465 468.
65. Parsonnet, J.,, G. D. Friedman,, D. P. Vandersteen,, Y. Chang,, J. H. Vogelman,, N. Orentreich,, and R. K. Sibley. 1991. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 325: 1127 1131.
66. Parsonnet, J.,, M. J. Blaser,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, N. Hargrett-Bean,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1992. Symptoms and risk factors of Helicobacter pylori infection in a cohort of epidemiologists. Gastroenterology 102: 41 46.
67. Parsonnet, J.,, S. Hansen,, L. Rodriguez,, A. B. Gelb,, R. A. Warnke,, E. Jellum,, N. Orentreich,, J. H. Vogelman,, and G. D. Friedman. 1994. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 330: 1267 1271.
68. Peek, R. M., Jr.,, L. J. van Doorn,, J. P. Donahue,, K. T. Tham,, C. Figueiredo,, M. J. Blaser,, and G. G. Miller. 2000. Quantitative detection of Helicobacter pylori gene expression in vivo and relationship to gastric pathology. Infect. Immun. 68: 5488 5495.
69. Peek, R. M., Jr.,, S. A. Thompson,, J. P. Donahue,, K. T. Tham,, J. C. Atherton,, M. J. Blaser,, and G. G. Miller. 1998. Adherence to gastric epithelial cells induces expression of a Helicobacter pylori gene, iceA, that is associated with clinical outcome. Proc. Assoc. Am. Physicians 110: 531 544.
70. Replogle, M. L.,, S. L. Glaser,, R. A. Hiatt,, and J. Parsonnet. 1995. Biologic sex as a risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in healthy young adults. Am. J. Epidemiol. 142: 856 863.
71. Roma-Giannikou, E.,, A. Karameris,, B. Balatsos,, J. Panayiotou,, Z. Manika,, C. Van-Vliet,, T. Rokkas,, N. Skandalis,, and C. Kattamis. 2003. Intrafamilial spread of Helicobacter pylori: a genetic analysis. Helicobacter 8: 15 20.
72. Salama, N.,, K. Guillemin,, T. K. McDaniel,, G. Sherlock,, L. Tompkins,, and S. Falkow. 2000. A whole-genome microarray reveals genetic diversity among Helicobacter pylori strains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 14668 14673.
73. Salama, S. M.,, Q. Jiang,, N. Chang,, R. W. Sherbaniuk,, and D. E. Taylor. 1995. Characterization of chromosomal DNA profiles from Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from sequential gastric biopsy specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2496 2497.
74. Segal, E. D.,, J. Cha,, J. Lo,, S. Falkow,, and L. S. Tompkins. 1999. Altered states: involvement of phosphorylated CagA in the induction of host cellular growth changes by Helicobacter pylori. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 14559 14564.
75. Sharma, S. A.,, M. K. R. Tummuru,, M. J. Blaser,, and L. D. Kerr. 1998. Activation of IL-8 gene expression by Helicobacter pylori is regulated by transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B in gastric epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 160: 2401 2407.
76. Shortridge, V. D.,, G. G. Stone,, R. K. Flamm,, J. Beyer,, J. Versalovic,, D. W. Graham,, and S. K. Tanaka. 1997. Molecular typing of Helicobacter pylori isolates from a multicenter U.S. clinical trial by ureC restriction fragment length polymorphism. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 471 473.
77. Simoons-Smit, M.,, B. J. Appelmelk,, T. Verboom,, R. Negrini,, J. L. Penner,, G. O. Aspinall,, A. P. Moran,, S. F. Fei,, B. S. Shi,, W. Rudnica,, A. Savio,, and J. de Graaff. 1996. Typing of Helicobacter pylori with monoclonal antibodies against Lewis antigens in lipopolysaccharide. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2196 2200.
78. Smith, S. I.,, S. Miehlke,, K. S. Oyedeji,, A. A. Arigbabu,, and A. O. Coker. 2002. Fingerprinting of Nigerian Helicobacter pylori isolates by plasmid profile and PCR. J. Basic Microbiol. 42: 45 53.
79. Straus, E. W.,, H. Patel,, J. Chang,, R. M. Gupta,, V. Sottile,, J. Scirica,, G. Tarabay,, S. Iyer,, S. Samuel,, and R. D. Raffaniello. 2002. H. pylori infection and genotyping in patients undergoing upper endoscopy at inner city hospitals. Dig. Dis. Sci. 47: 1575 1581.
80. Taylor, D. E.,, M. Eaton,, N. Chang,, and S. M. Salama. 1992. Construction of a Helicobacter pylori genome map and demonstration of diversity at the genome level. J. Bacteriol. 174: 6800 6806.
81. Taylor, D. N.,, and M. J. Blaser. 1991. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection. Epidemiol. Rev. 13: 42 59.
82. Tomb, J.-F.,, O. White,, A. R. Kerlavage,, R. A. Clayton,, G. G. Sutton,, R. D. Fleischmann,, K. A. Ketchum,, H. P. Klenk,, S. Gill,, B. A. Dougherty,, K. Nelson,, J. Quackenbush,, L. Zhou,, E. F. Kirkness,, S. Peterson,, B. Loftus,, D. Richardson,, R. Dodson,, H. G Khalak,, A. Glodek,, K. McKenney,, L. M. Fitzgerald,, N. Lee,, M. D. Adams,, and J. C. Venter. 1997. The complete genome sequence of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 388: 539 547.
83. van der Ende, A.,, E. A. J. Rauws,, M. Feller,, C. J. J. Mulder,, G. N. J. Tytgat,, and J. Dankert. 1996. Heterogeneous Helicobacter pylori isolates from members of a family with a history of peptic ulcer disease. Gastroenterology 111: 638 647.
84. van Doorn, L. J.,, C. Figueiredo,, F. Megraud,, S. Pena,, P. Midolo,, Q. de Magalhaes,, M. Dulciene,, F. Carneiro,, B. Vanderborght,, M. da G,. F. Pegado,, R. Sanna,, W. de Boer,, P. M. Schneeberger,, P. Correa,, E. K. W. Ng,, J. Atherton,, M. J. Blaser,, and W. G. V. Quint. 1999. Geographic distribution of vacA allelic types of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 116: 823 830.
85. van Doorn, L. J.,, C. Figueiredo,, R. Rossau,, G. Jannes,, M. van Asbroek,, J. C. Sousa,, F. Carneiro,, and W. G. Quint. 1998. Typing of Helicobacter pylori vacA gene and detection of cagA gene by PCR and reverse hybridization. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1271 1276.
86. van Doorn, L. J.,, C. Figueiredo,, R. Sanna,, A. Plaisier,, P. Schneeberger,, W. de Boer,, and W. Quint. 1998. Clinical relevance of the cagA, vacA, and iceA status of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 115: 58 66.
87. Vincent, P.,, F. Gottrand,, P. Pernes,, M. O. Husson,, M. D. Lecomte-Houcke,, D. Turck,, and H. Leclerc. 1994. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in cohabiting children: epidemiology of a cluster, with special emphasis on molecular typing. Gut 35: 313 316.
88. Warren, J.,, and B. Marshall. 1983. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. Lancet i: 1273 1275.
89. Weel, J. F.,, R. W. M. van der Hulst,, Y. Gerrits,, P. Roorda,, M. Feller,, J. Dankert,, G. N. J. Tytgat,, and A. van der Ende. 1996. The interrelationship between cytotoxin-associated gene A, vacuolating cytotoxin, and Helicobacter pylori-related diseases. J. Infect. Dis. 173: 1171 1175.
90. Wong, B. C.,, Y. Yin,, D. E. Berg,, H. H. Xia,, J. Z. Zhang,, W. H. Wang,, W. M. Wong,, X. R. Huang,, V. S. Tang,, and S. K. Lam. 2001. Distribution of distinct vacA, cagA and iceA alleles in Helicobacter pylori in Hong Kong. Helicobacter 6: 317 324.
91. Yamaoka, Y.,, D. H. Kwon,, and D. Y. Graham. 2000. A Mr 34,000 proinflammatory outer membrane protein ( oipA) of Helicobacter pylori. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 7533 7538.
92. Yamaoka, Y.,, H. M. T. el-Zimaity,, O. Gutierrez,, N. Figura,, J. K. T. Kodama,, K. Kashima,, and D. Y. Graham. 1999. Relationship between the cagA 3′ repeat region of Helicobacter pylori gastric histology, and susceptibility to low pH. Gastroenterology 117: 342 349.
93. Yamaoka, Y.,, S. Kikuchi,, H. M. el-Zimaity,, O. Gutierrez,, M. S. Osato,, and D. Y. Graham. 2002. Importance of Helicobacter pylori oipA in clinical presentation, gastric inflammation, and mucosal interleukin 8 production. Gastroenterology 123: 414 424.
94. Zheng, P. Y.,, J. Hua,, K. G. Yeoh,, and B. Ho. 2000. Association of peptic ulcer with increased expression of Lewis antigens but not cagA, iceA, and vacA in Helicobacter pylori isolates in an Asian population. Gut 47: 18 22.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error