Chapter 18 : Genome-Scale Analysis of Virulence Plasmids: the Contribution of Plasmid-Borne Virulence Genes to Enterobacterial Pathogenesis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Genome-Scale Analysis of Virulence Plasmids: the Contribution of Plasmid-Borne Virulence Genes to Enterobacterial Pathogenesis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817732/9781555812652_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817732/9781555812652_Chap18-2.gif


This chapter discusses the genome-scale analysis of virulence plasmids: the contribution of plasmid-borne virulence genes to enterobacterial pathogenesis. The spectrum of diseases caused by and other enteric bacteria is due to the acquisition of a variety of specific virulence genes harbored on plasmids, on bacteriophages, or within distinct chromosomal DNA segments termed pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that are absent from the genomes of commensal strains. A study showed that StcE is secreted by the plasmid-encoded type II apparatus, and its expression is regulated by chromosomally encoded Ler, which also controls expression of LEE genes that have key roles in the attaching and effacing phenotype of O157:H7. The chapter emphasizes that virulence plasmids of the enteric bacterial pathogens have evolved by acquiring either individual genes or blocks of genes from bacteriophages and other conjugative plasmids by transposition mechanisms. Many of the remnants of such acquisition events are evident in the sequences of the virulence plasmids of , the pathogenic , and . Genome sequencing will provide many of the virulence plasmids, with the advantage of economy of effort and expense, since no separate experiments are needed when the plasmids are present in the genomic DNA preparation at the time of library construction. Collection of sequences that will be made available by the worldwide genome sequencing effort should provide a basis for devising new therapeutic solutions to some of the outstanding problems of infectious diseases, including the further transmission of drug resistance.

Citation: Venkatesan M, Burland V. 2004. Genome-Scale Analysis of Virulence Plasmids: the Contribution of Plasmid-Borne Virulence Genes to Enterobacterial Pathogenesis, p 393-411. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch18
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Phylogenetic relationships of Rep proteins from various plasmids. Rep proteins, shown here with their GenBank identifiers, were compared using the ClustalW method by Megalign (DNASTAR). The sequences were aligned using multiple alignment parameters of gap penalty 10 and gap length penalty 10. Proteins mentioned in the text are in bold type.

Citation: Venkatesan M, Burland V. 2004. Genome-Scale Analysis of Virulence Plasmids: the Contribution of Plasmid-Borne Virulence Genes to Enterobacterial Pathogenesis, p 393-411. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Afif, H.,, N. Allali,, M. Couturier,, and L. Van Melderen. 2001. The ratio between CcdA and CcdB modulates the transcriptional repression of the ccd poison-antidote system. Mol. Microbiol. 41: 73 82.
2. Ahmer, B. M.,, M. Tran,, and F. Hcffron. 1999. The virulence plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium is self-transmissible. Bacteriol. 181: 1364 1368.
3. Ahmer, B. M.,, J. van Reeuwijk,, C. D. Timmcrs,, P. J. Valentine,, and F. Heffron. 1998. Salmonella typhimurium encodes an SdiA homolog, a putative quorum sensor of the LuxR family, that regulates genes on the virulence plasmid. J. Bacteriol. 180: 1185 1193.
4. Babu, M. M.,, S. Kamalakkannan,, Y. V. Subrahmanyam,, and K. Sankaran. 2002. Shigella apyrase—a novel variant of bacterial acid phosphatases? FEBS Lett. 512: 8 12.
5. Bahassi, E. M.,, M. H. O'Dea,, N. Allali,, J. Messens,, M. Gellert,, and M. Couturier. 1999. Interactions of CcdB with DNA gyrase. Inactivation of GyrA, poisoning of the gyrase-DNA complex, and the antidote action of CcdA. J. Biol. Chem. 274: 10936 10944.
6. Benjelloun-Touimi, Z.,, M. S. Tahar,, C. Montecucco,, P. J. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 1998. SepA, the 110 kDa protein secreted by Shigella flexneri: two-domain structure and proteolytic activity. Microbiology 144: 1815 1822.
7. Berlutti, F.,, M. Casalino,, C. Zagaglia,, P. A. Fradiani,, P. Visca, and M, Nicoletti. 1998. Expression of the virulence plasmid-carried apyrase gene (apy) of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri is under the control of H-NS and the VirF and VirB regulatory cascade. Infect. Immun. 66: 4957 4964.
8. Bernard, P.,, K. E. Kezdy,, L. Van Melderen,, J. Steyaert,, L. Wyns,, M. L. Pato,, P. N. Higgins,, and M. Couturier. 1993. The F plasmid CcdB protein induces efficient ATP-dependent DNA cleavage by gyrase. J. Mol. Biol. 234: 534 541.
9. Bourdet-Sicard, R.,, C. Egile,, P. J. Sansonetti,, and G. Tran Van Nhieu. 2000. Diversion of cytoskeletal processes by Shigella during invasion of epithelial cells. Microb. Infect. 2: 813 819.
10. Boyd, E. F.,, and D. L. Hartl. 1998. Salmonella virulence plasmid. Modular acquisition of the spv virulence region by an F-plasmid in Salmonella enterica subspecies I and insertion into the chromosome of subspecies II, IlIa, IV and VII isolates. Genetics 149: 1183 1190.
11. Blunder, W.,, A. S. Khan,, J. Hacker,, and H. Karch. 2001. Novel type of fimbriae encoded by the large plasmid of sorbitol- fermenting enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H(-). Infect. Immun. 69: 4447 4457.
12. Brunder, W.,, H. Schmidt,, M. Frosch,, and H. Karch. 1999. The large plasmids of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) arc highly variable genetic elements. Microbiology 145: 1005 1014.
13. Buchrieser, C.,, P. Glaser,, C. Rusniok,, H. Nedjari,, H. D'Hauteville,, F. Kunst,, P. Sansonetti, and C Parsot. 2000. The virulence plasmid pWRlOO and the repertoire of proteins secreted by the type III secretion apparatus of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 38: 760 771.
14. Burland, V.,, Y. Shao,, N. T. Perna,, G. Plunkett III,, H. J. Sofia,, and F. R. Blattner. 1998. The complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Nucleic Acids Res. 26: 4196 4204.
15. Buysse, J. M.,, C. K. Stover,, E. V. Oaks,, M. Venkatesan,, and D. J. Kopecko. 1987. Molecular cloning of invasion plasmid antigen (ipa) genes from Shigella flexneri: analysis of ipa gene products and genetic mapping. J. Bacteriol. 169: 2561 2569.
16. Chattoraj, D. K. 2000. Control of plasmid DNA replication by iterons: no longer paradoxical. Mol. Microbiol. 37: 467 476.
17. Cooper, T. F.,, and J. A. Hetnemann. 2000. Postsegregational killing does not increase plasmid stability but acts to mediate the exclusion of competing plasmids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 12643 12648.
18. Coster, T. S.,, C. W. Hoge,, L. L. VanDeVerg,, A. B. Hartman,, E. V. Oaks,, M. M. Venkatesan,, D. Cohen,, G. Robin,, A. Fontaine-Thompson,, P. J. Sansonctti,, and T. L. Hale. 1999. Vaccination against shigellosis with attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a strain SC602. Infect. Immun. 67: 3437 3443.
19. Czeezulin, J. R.,, S. Balepur,, S. Hicks,, A. Phillips,, R. Hall,, M. H. Kothary,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, and J. P. Nataro. 1997. Aggregative adherence fimbria II, a second fimbrial antigen mediating aggregative adherence in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 65: 4135 4145.
20. Czeezulin, J. R.,, T. S. Whittam,, I. R. Henderson,, F. Navarro- Garcia,, and J. P. Nataro. 1999. Phylogenetic analysis of enteroaggregative and diffusely adherent Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 67: 2692 2699.
21. Davis, M. A.,, L. Radnedge,, K. A. Martin,, F. Hayes,, B. Youngren,, and S. J. Austin. 1996. The PI ParA protein and its ATPase activity play a direct role in the segregation of plasmid copies to daughter ceils. Mol. Microbiol. 21: 1029 1036.
22. Dehio, C., M, C. Prevost, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1995. Invasion of epithelial cells by Shigella flexneri induces tyrosine phosphorylation of cortactin by a pp60c-src-mediated signalling pathway. EMBO J. 14: 2471 2482,
23. Demers, B.,, P. J. Sansonetti, and C Parsot. 1998. Induction of type III secretion in Shigella flexneri is associated with differentia) control of transcription of genes encoding secreted proteins. EMBO J. 17: 2894 2903.
24. Deng, W.,, Y. Li,, B. A. Vallance,, and B. B. Finlay. 2001. Locus of enterocyte effacement from Citrobacter rodentium: sequence analysis and evidence for horizontal transfer among attaching and effacing pathogens. Infect. Immun. 69: 6323 6335.
25. D'Hauteville, H.,, S. Khan,, D. J. Maskell,, A. Kussak,, A. Weintraub,, J. Mathison,, R. J. Ulevitch,, N. Wuscher,, C. Parsot,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 2002. Two msbB genes encoding maximal acylation of lipid A are required for invasive Shigella flexneri to mediate inflammatory rupture and destruction of the intestinal epithelium. J. Immunol. 168: 5240 5251.
26. Dionisio, F.,, I. Matie,, M. Radman,, O. R. Rodrigues,, and F. Taddei. 2002. Plasmids spread very fast in heterogeneous bacterial communities. Genetics 162: 1525 1532.
27. Donnenberg, M. S.,, J. Yu,, and J. B. Kaper. 1993. A second chromosomal gene necessary for intimate attachment of enteroparhogenic Escherichia coli to epithelial cells. J. Bacteriol. 175: 4670 4680.
28. Egile, C.,, H. d'Hautevillc,, C. Parsot,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1997. SopA, the outer membrane protease responsible for polar localization of IcsA in Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 23: 1063 1073.
29. Franch, T.,, M. Petersen,, E. G. Wagner,, J. P. Jacobsen,, and K. Gerdes. 1999. Antisense RNA regulation in prokaryotes: rapid RNA/RNA interaction facilitated by a general U-turn loop structure.;. Mol. Biol. 294: 1115 1125.
30. Galan, J. E.,, and A. Collmer. 1999. Type III secretion machines: bacterial devices for protein delivery into host cells. Science 284: 1322 1328.
31. Gerdes, K.,, J. Moller-Jensen,, and R. Bugge Jensen. 2000. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phytogeny. Mol. Microbiol. 37: 455 466.
32. Giron, J. A.,, A. S. Ho,, and G. K, Schoolnik. 1991. An inducible bundle-forming pilus of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Science 254: 710 713.
33. Goldberg, M. B. 2001. Actin-based motility of intracellular microbial pathogens. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 65: 595 626.
34. Groisman, E. A.,, and H. Ochman. 1996. Pathogenicity islands: bacterial evolution in quantum leaps. Cell 87: 791 794.
35. Gulig, P. A.,, H. Danbara,, D. G. Guiney,, A. J. Lax,, F. Norel,, and M. Rhen. 1993. Molecular analysis of spv virulence genes of the Salmonella virulence plasmids. Mol. Microbiol. 7: 825 830.
36. Hacker, J.,, and J. B. Kapcr. 2000. Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54: 641 679.
37. Hale, T. L.,, and D. F. Keren. 1992. Pathogenesis and immunology in shigellosis: applications for vaccine development. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 180: 117 137.
38. Hartman, A. B.,, M. Vcnkatesan,, E. V. Oaks,, and J. M. Buysse. 1990. Sequence and molecular characterization of a multicopy invasion plasmid antigen gene, ipaH, of Shigella flexneri. J. Bacteriol. 172: 1905 1915.
39. Hayes, F. 1998. A family of stability determinants in pathogenic bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 180: 6415 6418.
40. Hong, M.,, and S. M. Payne. 1997. Effect of mutations in Shigella flexneri chromosomal and plasmid-encoded lipopolysaccharide genes on invasion and serum resistance. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 779 791.
41. Hu, P.,, J. Elliott,, P. McCready,, E. Skowronski,, J. Garnes,, A. Kobayashi,, R. R. Brubaker,, and E. Garcia. 1998. Structural organization of virulence-associated plasmids of Yersinia pestis. J. Bacteriol. 180: 5192 5202.
42. Hueck, C. J. 1998. Type III protein secretion systems in bacterial pathogens of animals and plants. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62: 379 433.
43. Jin, Q.,, Z. Yuan,, J. Xu,, Y. Wang,, Y. Shen,, W. Lu,, J. Wang,, H. Liu,, J. Yang,, F. Yang,, X. Zhang,, J. Zhang,, G. Yang,, H. Wu,, D. Qu,, J. Dong,, L. Sun,, Y. Xue,, A. Zhao,, Y. Gao,, J. Zhu,, B. Kan,, K. Ding,, S. Chen,, H. Cheng,, Z. Yao,, B. He,, R. Chen,, D. Ma,, B. Qiang,, Y. Wen,, Y. Hou,, and J. Yu. 2002. Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri 2a: insights into pathogenicity through comparison with genomes of Escherichia coli K12 and 0 1 5 7 . Nucleic Acids Res. 30: 4432 4441.
44. Kajava, A. V. 1998. Structural diversity of leucine-rich repeat proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 277: 519 527.
45. Kane, C. D.,, R. Schuch,, W. A. Day Jr.,, and A. T. Maurelli. 2002. MxiE regulates intracellular expression of factors secreted by the Shigella flexneri 2a type III secretion system. J. Bacteriol. 184: 4409 4419.
46. Kato, A.,, and K. Mizobuchi, 1994. Evolution of the replication regions of Incl α and IncFIl plasmids by exchanging their replication control systems. DNA Res. 1: 201 212.
47. Kenny, B.,, R. DeVinney,, M. Stein,, D. J. Reinscheid,, E. A. Frey,, and B. B. Finlay. 1997. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) transfers its receptor for intimate adherence into mammalian cells. Cell 91: 511 520.
48. Kenny, B.,, L. C. Lai,, B. B. Finlay,, and M. S. Donnenberg. 1996. EspA, a protein secreted by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, is required to induce signals in epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 20: 313 323.
49. Khan, S. A. 2000. Plasmid rolling-circle replication: recent developments. Mol. Microbiol. 37: 477 484.
50. Kolb, F. A.,, H. M. Engdahl,, J. G. Slagter-Jager,, B. Ehresmann,, C. Ehresmann,, E. Westhof,, E. G. Wagner,, and P. Romby. 2000. Progression of a loop-loop complex to a four-way junction is crucial for the activity of a regulatory antisense RNA. EMBO J. 19: 5905 5915.
51. Lafont, F.,, G. Tran Van Nhieu,, K. Hanada,, P. Sansonetti,, and F. G. van der Goot. 2002. Initial steps of Shigella infection depend on the cholesterol/sphingolipid raft-mediated CD44-IpaB interaction. EMBO J. 21: 4449 4457.
52. Lan, R.,, B. Lumb,, D. Ryan,, and P. R. Reeves. 2001. Molecular evolution of large virulence plasmid in Shigella clones and entcroinvasive Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 69: 6303 6309.
53. Lathem, W. W.,, T. E. Grys,, S. E. Witowski,, A. G. Torres,, J. B. Kaper,, P. I. Tarr,, and R. A. Welch. 2002. StcE, a metalloprotease secreted by Escherichia coli 0157:H7, specifically cleaves CI esterase inhibitor. Mol. Microbiol. 45: 277 288.
54. Lesnick, M. L.,, N. E. Reiner,, J. Fierer,, and D. G. Guiney. 2001. The Salmonella spvB virulence gene encodes an enzyme that ADP-ribosylates actin and destabilizes the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 1464 1470.
55. Light, J.,, and S. Molin. 1983. Post-transcriptional control of expression of the rep A gene of plasmid Rl mediated by a small RNA molecule. EMBO J. 2: 93 98.
56. Lindler, L. E.,, G. V. Piano,, V. Burland,, G. F. Mayhew,, and F. R, Blattner. 1998. Complete DNA sequence and detailed analysis of the Yersinia pestis KIM5 plasmid encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen. Infect. Immun. 66: 5731 5742.
57. Maas, R.t C Wang, and W. K. Maas. 1997. Interactions of the RepAl protein with its replicon targets: two opposing roles in control of plasmid replication.;. Bacteriol. 179: 3823 3827.
58. Mahillon, J.,, C. Leonard,, and M. Chandler. 1999. IS elements as constituents of bacterial genomes. Res. Microbiol. 150: 675 687.
59. Makino, K.,, K. Ishii,, T. Yasunaga,, M. Hattori,, K. Yokoyama,, C. H. Yutsudo,, Y. Kubota,, Y. Yamaichi,, T. Iida,, K. Yamamoto,, T. Honda,, C. G. Han,, E. Ohtsubo,, M. Kasamatsu,, T. Hayashi,, S. Kuhara,, and H. Shinagawa. 1998. Complete nucleotide sequences of 93-kb and 3.3-kb plasmids of an cmerohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H7 derived from Sakai outbreak. DNA Res. 5: 1 9.
60. Matsui, H.,, C. M. Bacot,, W. A. Garlington,, T. J. Doyle,, S. Roberts,, and P. A. Gulig. 2001. Virulence plasmidborne spvB and spvC genes can replace the 90-kilobase plasmid in conferring virulence to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in subcutaneously inoculated mice. J. Bacteriol. 183: 4652 4658.
61. Maurelli, A. T.,, B. Baudry,, H. d'Hauteville,, T. L. Hale,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 1985. Cloning of plasmid DNA sequences involved in invasion of HeLa cells by Shigella flexneri. Infect. Immun. 49: 164 171.
62. Mavris, M.,, A. L. Page,, R. Tournebize,, B. Demers,, P. Sansonetti,, and C. Parsot. 2002. Regulation of transcription by the activity of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus. Mol. Microbiol. 43: 1543 1553.
63. McClelland, M.,, K. E. Sanderson,, J. Spieth,, S. W. Clifton,, P. Latrcille,, L. Courtney,, S. Porwollik,, J. Ali,, M. Dante,, F. Du,, S. Hou,, D. Layman,, S. Leonard,, C. Nguyen,, K. Scott,, A. Holmes,, N. Grcwal,, E. Mulvancy,, E. Ryan,, H. Sun,, L. Florea,, W. Miller,, T. Stoneking,, M. Nhan,, R. Waterston,, and R. K. Wilson. 2001. Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Nature 413: 852 856.
64. McVeigh, A.,, A. Fasano,, D. A, Scott, S. Jelacie, S. L. Moseley, D. C. Robertson, and S.J. Savarino. 2000. IS/4i4, an Escherichia coli insertion sequence with a heat-stable enterotoxin gene embedded in a transposase-like gene. Infect. Immun. 68: 5710 5715.
65. Moller-Jensen, J.,, R. B. Jensen,, J. Lowe,, and K. Gerdes. 2002. Prokaryotic DNA segregation by an actin-like filament. EMBO J. 21: 3119 3127.
66. Murray, P. R.,, K. S. Rosenthal,, G. S. Kobayashi,, and M. A. Pfaller,. 1998. The Enterobacteriaceae, p. 232 244. In M. Brown (ed.), Medical Microbiology, 3rd ed. Mosby Inc., Carlsbad, Calif..
67. Nakata, N., C Sasakawa, N. Okada, T. Tobe, I. Fukuda, T. Suzuki, K. Komatsu, and M. Yoshikawa. 1992. Identification and characterization of virK, a virulence-associated large plasmid gene essential for intercellular spreading of Shigella flexneri. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 2387 2395.
68. Nataro, J. P.,, Y. Deng,, D. R. Maneval,, A. L. German,, W. C. Martin,, and M. M. Levine. 1992. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli mediate adherence to HEp-2 cells and hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. Infect. Immun. 60: 2297 2304.
69. Nataro, J. P.,, and J. B. Kaper. 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 142 201.
70. Nataro, J. P.,, J. Seriwatana,, A. Fasano,, D. R. Maneval,, L. D. Guers,, F. Noriega,, F. Dubovsky,, M. M. Levine,, and J. G. Morris Jr.. 1995. Identification and cloning of a novel plasmid- encoded enterotoxin of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella strains. Infect. Immun. 63: 4721 4728.
71. Nhieu, G. T.,, and P. J. Sansoncetti. 1999. Mechanism of Shigella entry into epithelial cells. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2: 51 55.
72. Niki, H.,, and S. Hiraga. 1999. Subcellular localization of plasmids containing the oriC region of the Escherichia coli chromosome, with or without the sopABC partitioning system. Mol. Microbiol. 34: 498 503.
73. Nordstrom, K.,, and E. G. Wagner. 1994. Kinetic aspects of control of plasmid replication by antisense RNA. Trends Biochem. Sci. 19: 294 300.
74. Nordstrom, M.,, and K. Nordstrom. 1985. Control of replication of FH plasmids: comparison of the basic replicons and of the copB systems of plasmids R100 and Rl. Plasmid 13: 81 87.
75.Novick, R, P. 1987. Plasmid incompatibility. Microbiol. Rev. 51: 381395.
76. Ochman, H.,, J. G. Lawrence,, and E. A. Groisman. 2000. Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature 405: 299 304.
77. Osborn, A. M.,, F. M. da Silva Tatley,, L. M. Steyn,, R. W. Pickup,, and J. R. Saunders. 2000. Mosaic plasmids and mosaic replicons: evolutionary lessons from the analysis of genetic diversity in IncFII-related replicons. Microbiology 146: 2267 2275.
78. Parkhill, J.,, G. Dougan,, K. D. James,, N. R. Thomson,, D. Pickard,, J. Wain,, C. Churcher,, K. L. Mungall,, S. D. Bentley,, M. T. Holden,, M. Sebaihia,, S. Baker,, D. Basham,, K. Brooks,, T. Chillingworth,, P. Connerton,, A. Cronin,, P. Davis,, R. M. Davies,, L. Dowd,, N. White,, J. Farrar,, T. Felrwell,, N. Hamlin,, A. Haque,, T. T. Hien,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, A. Krogh,, T. S. Larsen,, S. Leather,, S. Moute,, P. O'Gaora,, C. Parry,, M. Quail,, K. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, K. Stevens,, S. Whitehead,, and B. G. Barrell. 2001. Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18. Nature 413: 848 852.
79. Parkhill, J.,, B. W. Wren,, N. R. Thomson,, R. W. Titball,, M. T. Holden,, M. B. Prentice,, M. Scbaihia,, K. D. James,, C. Churcher,, K. L. Mungall,, S. Baker,, D. Basham,, S. D. Bentley,, K. Brooks,, A. M. Cerdeno-Tarraga,, T. Chillingworth,, A. Cronin,, R. M. Davies,, P. Davis,, G. Dougan,, T. Feltwell,, N. Hamlin,, S. Holroyd,, K. Jagels,, A. V. Karlyshev,, S. Leather,, S. Moule,, P. C. Oyston,, M. Quail,, K. Rutherford,, M. Simmonds,, J. Skelton,, K. Stevens,, S. Whitehead,, and B. G. Barrell. 2001. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. Nature 413: 523 527.
80. Paton, A. W. and J. C Paton. 2002. Reactivity of convalescent- phase hemolytic-uremic syndrome patient sera with the megaplasmid-encoded TagA protein of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli Ol 57 J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 1395 1399.
81. Perna, N. T.,, G. Plunkett III,, V. Burland,, B. Mau,, J. D. Gtasner,, D. J. Rose,, G. F. Mayhcw,, P. S. Evans,, J. Gregor,, H. A. Kirkpatrick,, G. Posfai,, J. Hackett,, S. Klink,, A. Boutin,, Y. Shao,, L. Miller,, E. J. Grotbeck,, N. W. Davis,, A. Lim,, E. T. Dimalanta,, K. D. Potamousis,, J. Apodaca,, T. S. Anantharaman,, J. Lin,, G. Yen,, D. C. Schwartz,, R. A. Welch,, and F. R. Blattner. 2001. Genome sequence of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli Ot57:H7. Nature 409: 529 533.
82. Perry, R. D.,, S. C. Straley,, J. D. Fetherston,, D. J. Rose,, J. Gregor,, and F. R, Blattner. 1998. DNA sequencing and analysis of the low-Ca2+-response plasmid pCDl of Yersinia pestis KIM5. Infect. Immun. 66: 4611 4623.
83. Philpott, D. J.,, S. E. Girardin,, and P. J. Sansonetti. 2001. Innate immune responses of epithelial cells following infection with bacterial pathogens. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 13: 410 416.
84. Porter, M. E., and C J. Dorman. 2002. In vivo DNA-binding and oligomerization properties of the Shigella flexneri AraClike transcriptional regulator VirF as identified by random and site-specific mutagenesis. J. Bacteriol. 184: 531 539.
85. Pupo, G. M. R. Lan, and P. R. Reeves. 2000. Multiple independent origins of Shigella clones of Escherichia coli and convergent evolution of many of their characteristics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 10567 10572.
86. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, and E. L. Hartland. 2002. Escherichia coli as a cause of diarrhea. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 17: 467 475.
87. Saadi, S.,, W. K. Maas,, D. F. Hill,, and P. L. Bergquist. 1987. Nucleotide sequence analysis of RepFIC, a basic replicon present in IncFl plasmids P307 and F, and its relation to the RepA replicon of IncFIl plasmids. J. Bacteriol. 169: 1836 1846.
88. Sansonetti, P. J. 2001. Rupture, invasion and inflammatory destruction of the intestinal barrier by Shigella, making sense of prokaryote-eukaryote cross-talks. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25: 3 14.
89. Sasakawa, C.,, B. Adler,, T. Tobe,, N. Okada,, S. Nagai,, K. Komatsu,, and M. Yoshikawa. 1989. Functional organiza tion and nucleotide sequence of virulence region-2 on the large virulence plasmid in Shigella flexneri 2a. Mol. Microbiol. 3: 1191 1201.
90. Sayeed, S.,, L. Reaves,, L. Radnedge,, and S. Austin. 2000. The stability region of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri encodes an efficient postsegregational killing system. J. Bacteriol. 182: 2416 2421.
91. Scaletsky, L. C.,, M. S. Gatti,, J. F. da Silveira,, I. M. DeLuca,, E. Freymuller,, and L. R. Travassos. 1995. Plasmid coding for drug resistance and invasion of epithelial cells in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O111:H. Microb. Pathog. 18: 387 399.
92. Schuch, R.,, and A. T. Maurelli. 2001. MxiM and MxiJ, base elements of the Mxi-Spa type III secretion system of Shigella, interact with and stabilize the MxiD secretin in the cell envelope. J. Bacteriol. 183: 6991 6998.
93. Schuch, R.,, and A. T. Maurelli. 2001. Spa33, a cell surfaceassociated subunit of the Mxi-Spa type III secretory pathway of Shigella flexneri, regulates Ipa protein traffic. Infect. Immun. 69: 2180 2189.
94. Sherburne, C. K.,, T. D. Lawley,, M. W. Gilmour,, F. R. Blattner,, V. Burland,, E. Grotbeck,, D. J. Rose,, and D. E. Taylor. 2000. The complete DNA sequence and analysis of R27, a large InclII plasmid from Salmonella typhi that is temperature sensitive for transfer. Nucleic Acids Res. 28: 2177 2186.
95. Shibata, T.,, F. Takeshima,, F. Chen,, F. W. Alt,, and S. B. Snapper. 2002. Cdc42 facilitates invasion but not the actin-based motility of Shigella. Curr. Biol. 12: 341 345.
96. Skoudy, A.,, J. Mounier,, A. Aruffo,, H. Ohayon,, P. Gounon,, P. Sansonetti,, and G. Tran Van Nhieu. 2000. CD44 binds to the Shigella IpaB protein and participates in bacterial invasion of epithelial cells. Cell. Microbiol. 2: 19 33.
97. Smajs, D.,, and G. M. Weinstock. 2001. Genetic organization of plasmid CoIJs, encoding colicin Js activity, immunity, and release genes. J. Bacteriol. 183: 3949 3957.
98. Small, P. L.,, and S. Falkow. 1988. Identification of regions on a 230-kilobase plasmid from enteroinvasivc Escherichia coli that are required for entry into HEp-2 cells. Infect. Immun. 56: 225 229.
99. Snellings, N. J.,, M. Popek,, and L. E. Lindler. 2001. Complete DNA sequence of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:8 low-calcium-response plasmid reveals a new virulence plasmid-associated replicon. Infect. Immun. 69: 4627 4638.
100. Stevens, M. P.,, M. W. Wood,, L. A. Taylor,, P. Monaghan,, P. Hawes,, P. W. Jones,, T. S. Wallis,, and E. E. Galyov. 2002. An Inv/Mxi-Spa-like type III protein secretion system in Burkholderia pseudomallei modulates intracellular behaviour of the pathogen. Mol. Microbiol. 46: 649 659.
101. Stieglitz, H.,, S. Fosmire,, and P. E. Lipsky. 1988. Bacterial epitopes involved in the induction of reactive arthritis. Am. J. Med. 85: 56 58.
102. Suzuki, T.,, H. Mimuro,, H. Miki,, T. Takenawa,, T. Sasaki,, H. Nakanishi,, Y. Takai,, and C. Sasakawa. 2000. Rho family GTPase Cdc42 is essential for the actin-based motility of Shigella in mammalian cells. J. Exp. Med. 191: 1905 1920.
103. Suzuki, T., and C Sasakawa. 2001. Molecular basis of the intracellular spreading of Shigella. Infect. Immun. 69: 5959 5966.
104. Tamano, K.,, S. Aizawa,, E. Katayama,, T. Nonaka,, S. lmajoh- Ohmi,, A. Kuwae,, S. Nagai,, and C. Sasakawa. 2000. Supramolecular structure of the Shigella type III secretion machinery: the needle part is changeable in length and essential for delivery of effectors. EMBO J. 19: 3876 3887.
105. Tamano, K.,, S. Aizawa, and C, Sasakawa. 2002. Purification and detection of Shigella type III secretion needle complex. Methods Euzymol. 358: 385 392.
106. Tanaka, K.,, T. Rogi,, H. Hiasa,, D. M. Miao,, Y. Honda,, N. Nomura,, H. Sakai,, and T. Komano. 1994. Comparative analysis of functional and structural features in the primasedependent priming signals, G sites, from phages and plasmids. J. Bacteriol. 176: 3606 3613.
107. Tatsuno, I.,, M. Horie,, H. Abe,, T. Miki,, K. Makino,, H. Shinagawa,, H. Taguchi,, S. Kamiya,, T. Hayashi, and C Sasakawa. 2001. toxB gene on pO157 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Ol57:H7 is required for full epithelial cell adherence phenotype. Infect. Immun. 69: 6660 6669.
108. Tobc, T.,, T. Hayashi,, C. G. Han,, G. K. Schoolnik,, E. Ohtsubo,, and C. Sasakawa. 1999. Complete DNA sequence and structural analysis of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli adherence factor plasmid. Infect. Immun. 67: 5455 5462.
109. Tsuchiya, N.,, G. Husby,, R. C Williams Jr.,, H. Stieglitz,, P. E. Lipsky,, and R. D. Inman. 1990. Autoantibodies to the HLAB27 sequence cross-react with the hypothetical peptide from the arthritis-associated Shigella plasmid. J. Clin. Invest. 86: 1193 1203.
110. Uchiya, K. L, M. Tohsuji, T. Nikai, H. Sugihara, and C. Sasakawa. 1996. Identification and characterization of phoN-Sf, a gene on the large plasmid of Shigella flexneri 2a encoding a nonspecific phosphatase. J. Bacteriol. 178: 4548 4554.
111. Uga, H.,, F. Matsunaga,, and C. Wada. 1999. Regulation of DNA replication by iterons: an interaction between the oril and incC regions mediated by RepE-bound iterons inhibits DNA replication of mini-l; plasmid in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 18: 3856 3867.
112. Venkatesan, M. M.,, W. A. Alexander,, and C. Fernandez- Prada. 1996. A Shigella flexneri invasion plasmid gene, ipgH, with homology to 1S629 and sequences encoding bacterial sugar phosphate transport proteins. Gene 175: 23 27.
113. Venkatesan, M. M., J, M. Buysse, and A. B. Hartman. 1991. Sequence variation in two ipaH genes of Shigella flexneri 5 and homology to the LRG-likc family of proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 2435 2445.
114. Venkatesan, M. M. J. M. Buysse, and D.J. Kopecko. 1988. Characterization of invasion plasmid antigen genes (ipaBCD) from Shigella flexneri. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 9317 9321.
115. Venkatesan, M. M.,, J. M. Buysse,, and E. V. Oaks. 1992. Surface presentation of Shigella flexneri invasion plasmid antigens requires the products of the spa locus. J. Bacteriol. 174: 1990 2001.
116. Venkatesan, M. M.,, M. B. Goldberg,, D. J. Rose,, E. J. Grotbeck,, V. Burland,, and F. R. Blattner. 2001. Complete DNA sequence and analysis of the large virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri. Infect. Immun. 69: 3271 3285.
117. Watarai, M.,, S. Funato, and C Sasakawa. 1996. Interaction of Ipa proteins of Shigella flexneri with α5β1 integrin promotes entry of the bacteria into mammalian cells. J. Exp. Med. 183: 991 999.
118. Wei, J.,, M. B. Goldberg,, V. Burland,, M. M. Venkatesan,, W. Deng,, G. Foumier,, G. F. Mayhew,, G. Plunkett III,, D. J. Rose,, A. Darling,, B. Mau,, N. T. Perna,, S. M. Payne,, L. J. Runyen-Janecky,, S. Zhou,, D. C. Schwartz,, and F. R. Blattner. 2003. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomics of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T. Infect. Immun. 71: 4223.
119. Williamson, C. M.,, G. D. Baird,, and E. J. Manning. 1988. A common virulence region on plasmids from eleven serotypes of Salmonella. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 975 982.
120. Wu, R.,, X. Wang,, D. D. Womble,, and R. H. Rownd. 1992. Expression of the rep AI gene of IncFIl plasmid NR1 is translationally coupled to expression of an overlapping leader peptide. J. Bacteriol. 174: 7620 7628.


Generic image for table
Table 1.

Comparison of features of virulence plasmids and related prototypes

Citation: Venkatesan M, Burland V. 2004. Genome-Scale Analysis of Virulence Plasmids: the Contribution of Plasmid-Borne Virulence Genes to Enterobacterial Pathogenesis, p 393-411. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Replication, transfer, and maintenance functions

Citation: Venkatesan M, Burland V. 2004. Genome-Scale Analysis of Virulence Plasmids: the Contribution of Plasmid-Borne Virulence Genes to Enterobacterial Pathogenesis, p 393-411. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch18
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Sequenced small plasmids from pathogenic

Citation: Venkatesan M, Burland V. 2004. Genome-Scale Analysis of Virulence Plasmids: the Contribution of Plasmid-Borne Virulence Genes to Enterobacterial Pathogenesis, p 393-411. In Funnell B, Phillips G (ed), Plasmid Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817732.ch18

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error