Chapter 13 : Earth's Icy Biosphere

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Studies of Earthly ice-bound microbes are relevant to the evolution and persistence of life on extraterrestrial bodies. Great diversity of icy environments make up Earth's cold biosphere. This chapter describes research conducted in laboratories on the newly discovered life associated with permanent Antarctic lake ice, glaciers and ice sheets (polar and temperate), and sub-glacial Antarctic lakes. Molecular-based approaches to microbial ecology yield data that measure the natural evolutionary relationships between microorganisms. The chapter illustrates the phylogenetic relatedness, based on 16S rDNA identity, between bacteria recovered in the laboratories and by others from Antarctica and permanently cold nonpolar locales. As indicated, these psychrophilic and psychrotrophic isolates originate from locations ranging from aquatic and marine ecosystems to terrestrial soils and glacial ice, with little in common between these environments except that all are permanently cold or frozen. Such information, coupled with a dedicated effort to further investigate microbial diversity within the planet's frozen realms, will provide the perspective necessary to understand the evolution and ecological impacts of microbial ecosystems residing within Earth's icy biosphere.

Citation: Priscu J, Christner B. 2004. Earth's Icy Biosphere, p 130-145. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch13
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Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Lake Bonney 16S rDNA summary comparing lake ice sequences with water column sequences. The ice sample was collected about 2 m beneath the surface of the 4-m-thick permanent ice cover; the 4.5- and 13-m samples were from the east lobe, and the 25-m sample was from the west lobe of Lake Bonney. See Priscu et al (1997) for hydrographie characteristics of the water column of these lake basins and Priscu et al. (1998) for details of the ice column. GP, gram positive.

Citation: Priscu J, Christner B. 2004. Earth's Icy Biosphere, p 130-145. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch13
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of microbial assemblages collected 2 m beneath the surface of the east lobe Lake Bonney ice cover, (a) and (b) represent low- and high-magnification images of cyanobacterial filaments attached to lithogenic material; (c) a single cyanobacterial filament attached to a surface, (d) small unknown organic filaments attached to a surface. Images were obtained by cryogenic SEM (JEOL-6100 SEM with an Oxford Instruments cryogenic preparation stage) on particles captured by 0.2-µm filtration of melted ice.

Citation: Priscu J, Christner B. 2004. Earth's Icy Biosphere, p 130-145. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch13
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Figure 3

The cryoconite hole environment in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. In summer, sediment collects on glacial surfaces, and exposure to solar irradiation produces (a) melt pools within the ice, which may subsequently freeze on the surface (b) and completely freeze during the winter. The cryoconite hole illustrated in (c) was located on the Canada glacier and was completely frozen when sampled in January 2001. (d) A comparison of cores retrieved from the cryoconite hole (left) with a core from the adjacent glacial ice. Note the dense layer of sediment and organic material present within the bottom 5 cm of the cryoconite hole core.

Citation: Priscu J, Christner B. 2004. Earth's Icy Biosphere, p 130-145. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch13
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Figure 4

Global locations of existing glacial ice sheets and caps (denoted by shading). At each geographical location, the nearest terrestrial or marine ecosystem that would most likely contribute the majority of airborne particles are very different.

Citation: Priscu J, Christner B. 2004. Earth's Icy Biosphere, p 130-145. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch13
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Figure 5

Incorporation of [H]thymidine into trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-precipitable material and the number of CFU mL for the glacial isolate sp. Trans 1 after 9 months at -15°C. Cells in logarithmic growth were suspended in distilled water with 1 µCi of [H]thymidine, frozen rapidly at -70°C, and incubated at -15°C for an extended period. Under these circumstances, cells were able to conduct a low level of macromolecular synthesis, but this activity was not sufficient for reproductive growth. For more details, see Christner 2002.

Citation: Priscu J, Christner B. 2004. Earth's Icy Biosphere, p 130-145. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch13
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Figure 6

Phylogenetic analysis of bacteria obtained in microbiological surveys of permanently cold and frozen environments. Isolates from cold habitats are shown in bold, followed by the source environment and geographical location. The 16S rDNA sequences corresponding to nucleotides 27-1492 of the 16S rDNA were aligned based on secondary structure and used to construct this neighbor-joining tree. The scale bar represents 0.1 fixed substitutions per nucleotide position. GP, gram positive.

Citation: Priscu J, Christner B. 2004. Earth's Icy Biosphere, p 130-145. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch13
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Table 1

Summary of the bacterial cell number and organic carbon contribution from Antarctic subglacial lakes and the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets

Citation: Priscu J, Christner B. 2004. Earth's Icy Biosphere, p 130-145. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch13

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