Chapter 31 : Antimicrobials

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To date, the vast majority of clinically relevant antibiotics, including antibacterials, antifungals, and antitumor drugs, have been either natural products or derived from natural products. One of the key points raised in this chapter is that screening for bioactive natural products in the present and future should include new approaches to find new natural chemical scaffolds on which to build future antibiotics. New parenteral drugs that can successfully treat life-threatening, broadly antibiotic-resistant systemic infections are the most critical need. The first issue to be addressed is what constitutes microbial diversity in the context of natural products. Important to the tenet of the chapter is the fact that a new diterpene was just recently discovered from , demonstrating that even after years of screening actinomycetes, new scaffolds can be found from these organisms. The chapter focuses on bacterial diversity with respect to natural product antibiotics, and fungal diversity with respect to natural product antibiotics. There are several very attractive approaches for new antibacterial natural products that are based generally on the success of clavulanic acid as the β-lactamase inhibitor component of the two-component antibacterial drug, Augmentin. The major natural product antitumor drugs are listed in the chapter.

Citation: Strohl W. 2004. Antimicrobials, p 336-355. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch31
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Table 1

Major groups of antibacterial, antifungal, and bioactive antibiotics; their source; and the year their discovery was publicly disclosed in the literature or the patent literature

Citation: Strohl W. 2004. Antimicrobials, p 336-355. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch31
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Table 2

Biogenic classes of natural product antibiotics and examples of producing microorganisms

Citation: Strohl W. 2004. Antimicrobials, p 336-355. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch31
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Table 3

Prolificity and structural diversity of natural products by microorganisms

Citation: Strohl W. 2004. Antimicrobials, p 336-355. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch31
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Table 4

Clinical and lead experimental natural product-derived anticancer drugs

Citation: Strohl W. 2004. Antimicrobials, p 336-355. In Bull A (ed), Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817770.ch31

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