1887

Chapter 9 : Pathogens of Dogs

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Pathogens of Dogs, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817824/9781555812669_Chap09-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817824/9781555812669_Chap09-2.gif

Abstract:

Most dogs used in research are purpose bred, of very high quality and with low pathogen status, and are purchased from reputable dealers. Canine adenoviruses (CAV) are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses of the family . CAV-1 causes infectious canine hepatitis, while both CAV-1 and CAV-2 are two of many causes of infectious tracheobronchitis or ‘‘kennel cough’’. Canine distemper virus (CDV) belong to the morbillivirus group, along with rinderpest and others. Other than rabies virus, which is zoonotic, CDV is the most serious viral disease of dogs. While clinical disease can be induced with parainfluenza virus type 2 (PV2) alone, clinical signs are more severe when other pathogens, such as , are also present. is the most important species, and is most commonly associated with disease in dogs. Toxins liberated by the bacteria facilitate invasion and disrupt cellular processes. Few reports have described effects of on research involving dogs. Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi capable of parasitizing keratinized structures such as the superficial skin, hair, and nails. Clinical signs of infection are most common in dogs less than one year of age. Parasites that occur in different hosts are generally considered different species. spp. are elongate, and have a head, thorax which bears four pairs of short legs, and an elongate abdomen that is transversely striated.

Citation: Baker D. 2003. Pathogens of Dogs, p 239-279. In Natural Pathogens of Laboratory Animals. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817824.ch9
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817824.chap9
1. Adair, B. M. 1979. Differences in cytopathology between canine adenovirus serotypes. Br. Vet. J. 135: 328 330.
2. Aguirre, G.,, L. Carmichael,, and S. Bistner. 1975. Corneal endothelium in viral induced anterior uveitis. Ultrastructural changes following canine adenovirus type 1 infection. Arch. Ophthalmol. 93: 219 224.
3. Appel, M.,, S. L. Bistner,, M. Menegus,, D. A. Albert,, and L. E. Carmichael. 1973. Pathogenicity of low-virulence strains of two canine adenovirus types. Am. J. Vet. Res. 34: 543 550.
4. Carmichael, L. E.,, B. L. Medic,, S. L. Bistner,, and G. D. Aguirre. 1975. Viral-antibody complexes in canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) ocular lesions: leukocyte chemotaxis and enzyme release. Cornell Vet. 65: 331 351.
5. Cornwell, H. J.,, S. D. Paterson,, I. A. McCandlish,, H. Thompson,, and N. G. Wright. 1983. Immunity to canine adenovirus respiratory disease: effect of vaccination with an inactivated vaccine. Vet. Rec. 113: 509 512.
6. Curtis, R.,, and K. C. Barnett. 1981. Canine adenovirus-induced ocular lesions in the Afghan hound. Cornell Vet. 71: 85 95.
7. Emery, J. B.,, J. A. House,, and W. R. Brown. 1978. Cross-protective immunity to canine adenovirus type 2 by canine adenovirus type 1 vaccination. Am. J. Vet. Res. 39: 1778 1783.
8. Hamelin, C.,, P. Jouvenne,, and R. Assaf. 1985. Association of a type-2 canine adenovirus with an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease among a large dog congregation. J. Diarrhoeal Dis. Res. 3: 84 87.
9. Hu, R. L.,, G. Huang,, W. Qiu,, Z. H. Zhong,, X. Z. Xia,, and Z. Yin. 2001. Detection and differentiation of CAV-1 and CAV-2 by polymerase chain reaction. Vet. Res. Commun. 25: 77 84.
10. Kiss, I.,, K. Matiz,, E. Bajmoci,, M. Rusvai,, and B. Harrach. 1996. Infectious canine hepatitis: detection of canine adenovirus type 1 by polymerase chain reaction. Acta Vet. Hung. 44: 253 258.
11. Kobayashi, Y.,, K. Ochiai,, and C. Itakura. 1993. Dual infection with canine distemper virus and infectious canine hepatitis virus (canine adenovirus type 1) in a dog. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 55: 699 701.
12. Macartney, L.,, H. M. Cavanagh,, and N. Spibey. 1988. Isolation of canine adenovirus-2 from the faeces of dogs with enteric disease and its unambiguous typing by restriction endonuclease mapping. Res. Vet. Sci. 44: 9 14.
13. Maxson, T. R.,, K. M. Meurs,, L. B. Lehmkuhl,, A. L. Magnon,, S. E. Weisbrode,, and C. E. Atkins. 2001. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for viruses in paraffin-embedded myocardium from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy or myocarditis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62: 130 135.
14. Olson, P.,, B. Klingeborn,, and A. Hedhammar. 1988. Serum antibody response to canine parvovirus, canine adenovirus-1, and canine distemper virus in dogs with known status of immunization: study of dogs in Sweden . Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 1460 1466.
15. Pratelli, A.,, V. Martella,, G. Elia,, M. Tempesta,, F. Guarda,, M. T. Capucchio,, L. E. Carmichael,, and C. Buonavoglia. 2001. Severe enteric disease in an animal shelter associated with dual infections by canine adenovirus type 1 and canine coronavirus. J. Vet. Med. B 48: 385 392.
16. Quan, S. F.,, M. L. Witten,, R. Grad,, C. G. Ray,, and R. J. Lemen. 1991. Changes in lung mechanics and histamine responsiveness after sequential canine adenovirus 2 and canine parainfluenza 2 virus infection in beagle puppies. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 10: 236 243.
17. Quan, S. F.,, M. L. Witten,, R. Grad,, R. E. Sobonya,, C. G. Ray,, N. N. Dambro,, and R. J. Lemen. 1990. Acute canine adenovirus 2 infection increases histamine airway reactivity in beagle puppies. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 141: 414 420.
18. Ramsey, I.,, D. Gunn-Moore,, and S. Shaw,. 2001. The haemopoietic and lymphoreticular systems, p. 65 88. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.), Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
19. Shahrabadi, M. S.,, and T. Yamamoto. 1975. Cytoplasmic inclusions in canine cells infected with infectious canine laryngotracheitis (ICL) adenovirus. Can. J. Microbiol. 21: 1421 1427.
20. Smith, K. O.,, W. D. Gehle,, and W. T. Kniker. 1970. Serologic evidence that infectious canine hepatitis virus commonly infects humans and is related to human adenovirus type 8. J. Immunol. 105: 1036 1039.
21. Spibey, N.,, and H. M. Cavanagh. 1989. Molecular cloning and restriction endonuclease mapping of two strains of canine adenovirus type 2. J. Gen. Virol. 70: 165 172.
22. Tennant, B., 2001. The alimentary tract, p. 129 150. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.) , Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
23. Tennant, B., 2001. The liver, pancreas and spleen, p. 175 184. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.), Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
24. Thompson, H.,, H. J. Cornwell,, N. G. Wright,, and R. S. Campbell. 1972. Canineadenovirus in organ cultures. Res. Vet. Sci. 13: 191 193.
25. Willoughby, K.,, and S. Dawson,. 2001. The respiratory tract, p. 89 115. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.) , Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
26. Witten, M. L.,, J. L. McKee,, R. C. Lantz,, A. M. Hays,, S. F. Quan,, R. E. Sobonya,, and R. J. Lemen. 1993. Fractal and morphometric analysis of lung structures after canine adenovirusinduced bronchiolitis in beagle puppies. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 16: 62 68.
27. Wright, N. G. 1976. Canine adenovirus: its role in renal and ocular disease: a review. J. Small Anim. Pract. 17: 25 33.
28. Wright, N. G.,, and H. J. Cornwell. 1983. Experimental canine adenovirus glomerulonephritis: histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural features of the early glomerular changes. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 64: 312 319.
29. Wright, N. G.,, A. S. Nash,, and H. J. Cornwell. 1981. experimental canine adenovirus glomerulonephritis: persistence of glomerular lesions after oral challenge. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 62: 183 189.
30. Wright, N. G.,, H. Thompson,, and H. J. Cornwell. 1971. Canine adenovirus pneumonia. Res. Vet. Sci. 12: 162 167.
31. Zee, Y. C., 1999. Adenoviridae, p. 346 349. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
1. Horsburgh, B. C.,, and T. D. Brown. 1995. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the S protein gene from two geographically distinct strains of canine coronavirus. Virus Res. 39: 63 74.
2. Mainka, S. A.,, X. Qiu,, T. He,, and M. J. Appel. 1994. Serologic survey of giant pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca), and domestic dogs and cats in the Wolong Reserve, China. J. Wildl. Dis. 30: 86 89.
3. Mochizuki, M.,, M. Hashimoto,, and T. Ishida. 2001. Recent epidemiological status of canine viral enteric infections and Giardia infection in Japan. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 63: 573 575.
4. Naylor, M. J.,, G. A. Harrison,, R. P. Monckton,, S. McOrist,, P. R. Lehrbach,, and E. M. Deane. 2001. Identification of canine coronavirus strains from feces by S gene nested PCR and molecular characterization of a new Australian isolate. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39: 1036 1041.
5. Naylor, M. J.,, R. P. Monckton,, P. R. Lehrbach,, and E. M. Deane. 2001. Canine coronavirus in Australian dogs. Aust. Vet. J. 79: 116 119.
6. Pratelli, A.,, D. Buonavoglia,, V. Martella,, M. Tempesta,, A. Lavazza,, and C. Buonavoglia. 2000. Diagnosis of canine coronavirus infection using nested-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 84: 91 94.
7. Pratelli, A.,, G. Elia,, V. Martella,, A. Palmieri,, F. Cirone,, A. Tinelli,, M. Corrente,, and C. Buonavoglia. 2002. Prevalence of canine coronavirus antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in dogs in the south of Italy. J. Virol. Methods 102: 67 71.
8. Pratelli, A.,, V. Martella,, G. Elia,, M. Tempesta,, F. Guarda,, M. T. Capucchio,, L. E. Carmichael,, and C. Buonavoglia. 2001. Severe enteric disease in an animal shelter associated with dual infections by canine adenovirus type 1 and canine coronavirus. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B 48: 385 392.
9. Stott, J. L., 1999. Coronaviridae, p. 418 429. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
10. Tennant, B., 2001. The alimentary tract, p. 129 150. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.) , Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
11. Tennant, B. J.,, R. M. Gaskell,, and C. J. Gaskell. 1994. Studies on the survival of canine coronavirus under different environmental conditions. Vet. Microbiol. 42: 255 259.
12. Tennant, B. J.,, R. M. Gaskell,, R. C. Jones,, and C. J. Gaskell. 1993. Studies on the epizootiology of canine coronavirus. Vet. Rec. 132: 7 11.
13. Tennant, B. J.,, R. M. Gaskell,, D. F. Kelly,, S. D. Carter,, and C. J. Gaskell. 1991. Canine coronavirus infection in the dog following oronasal inoculation. Res. Vet. Sci. 51: 11 18.
1. Alldinger, S.,, A. Wunschmann,, W. Baumgartner,, C. Voss,, and E. Kremmer. 1996. Up-regulation of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression in the central nervous system of dogs with spontaneous canine distemper virus encephalitis. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 92: 273 280.
2. Axthelm, M. K.,, and S. Krakowka. 1987. Canine distemper virus-induced thrombocytopenia. Am. J. Vet. Res. 48: 1269 1275.
3. Baumgartner, W.,, R. W. Boyce,, S. Alldinger,, M. K. Axthelm,, S. E. Weisbrode,, S. Krakowka,, and K. Gaedke. 1995. Metaphyseal bone lesions in young dogs with systemic canine distemper virus infection. Vet. Microbiol. 44: 201 209.
4. Bolt, G.,, T. D. Jensen,, E. Gottschalck,, P. Arctander,, M. J. Appel,, R. Buckland,, and M. Blixenkron-Moller. 1997. Genetic diversity of the attachment (H) protein gene of current field isolates of canine distemper virus. J. Gen. Virol. 78: 367 372.
5. Dubielzig, R. R.,, R. J. Higgins,, and S. Krakowka. 1981. Lesions of the enamel organ of developing dog teeth following experimental inoculation of gnotobiotic puppies with canine distemper virus. Vet. Pathol. 18: 684 689.
6. Evans, M. B.,, T. O. Bunn,, H. T. Hill,, and K. B. Platt. 1991. Comparison of in vitro replication and cytopathology caused by strains of canine distemper virus of vaccine and field origin. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 3: 127 132.
7. Frisk, A. L.,, W. Baumgartner,, and A. Grone. 1999. Dominating interleukin-10 mRNA expression induction in cerebrospinal fluid cells of dogs with natural canine distemper virus induced demyelinating and nondemyelinating CNS lesions. J. Neuroimmunol. 97: 102 109.
8. Frisk, A. L.,, M. Konig,, A. Moritz,, and W. Baumgartner. 1999. Detection of canine distemper virus nucleoprotein RNA by reverse transcription-PCR using serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid from dogs with distemper. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3634 3643.
9. Fu, S. C.,, R. Mozzi,, S. Krakowka,, R. J. Higgins,, and L. A. Horrocks. 1980. Plasmalogenase and phospholipase A1, A2, and L1 activities in white matter in canine distemper virus-associated demyelinating encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 49: 13 18.
10. Gemma, T.,, C. Kai,, and T. Mikami. 1995. Suppression of canine parvovirus growth in CRFK cells by canine distemper virus. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 57: 535 537.
11. Glaus, T.,, C. Griot,, A. Richard,, U. Althaus,, N. Herschkowitz,, and M. Vendevelde. 1990. Ultrastructural and biochemical findings in brain cell cultures infected with canine distemper virus. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 80: 59 67.
12. Grone, A.,, S. Alldinger,, and W. Baumgartner. 2000. Interleukin−1β, −6, −12 and tumor necrosis factor-a expression in brains of dogs with canine distemper virus infection. J. Neuroimmunol. 110: 20 30.
13. Guo, A.,, and C. Lu. 2000. Canine distemper virus causes apoptosis of Vero cells. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B 47: 183 190.
14. Higgins, R. J.,, G. Child,, and M. Vendevelde. 1989. Chronic relapsing demyelinating encephalomyelitis associated with persistent spontaneous canine distemper virus infection. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 77: 441 444.
15. Higgins, R. J.,, S. Krakowka,, A. E. Metzler,, and A. Koestner. 1981. Canine distemper virus-associated cardiac necrosis in the dog. Vet. Pathol. 18: 472 486.
16. Howard, J. M.,, B. S. Eckert,, and L. Y. Bourguignon. 1983. Comparison of cytoskeletal organization in canine distemper virusinfected and uninfected cells. J. Gen. Virol. 64: 2379 2385.
17. Iwatsuki, K.,, M. Okita,, F. Ochikubo,, T. Gemma,, Y. S. Shin,, N. Miyashita,, T. Mikami,, and C. Kai. 1995. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lymphoid organs of dogs naturally infected with canine distemper virus. J. Comp. Pathol. 113: 185 190.
18. Krakowka, S.,, E. A. Hoover,, A. Koestner,, and K. Ketring. 1977. Experimental and naturally occurring transplacental transmission of canine distemper virus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 38: 919 922.
19. Krakowka, S.,, and A. Koestner. 1976. Agerelated susceptibility to infection with canine distemper virus in gnotobiotic dogs. J. Infect. Dis. 134: 629 632.
20. Loffler, S.,, F. Lottspeich,, F. Lanza,, D. O. Azorsa,, V. ter Meulen,, and J. Schneider- Schaulies. 1997. CD9, a tetraspan transmembrane protein, renders cells susceptible to canine distemper virus. J. Virol. 71: 42 49.
21. Mee, A. P.,, J. A. Dixon,, J. A. Hoyland,, M. Davies,, P. L. Selby,, and E. B. Mawer. 1998. Detection of canine distemper virus in 100% of Paget’s disease samples by in situ-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Bone 23: 171 175.
22. Mee, A. P.,, C. May,, D. Bennett,, and P. T. Sharpe. 1995. Generation of multinucleated osteoclast-like cells from canine bone marrow: effects of canine distemper virus. Bone 17: 47 55.
23. Miry, C.,, R. Ducatelle,, H. Thoonen,, and J. Hoorens. 1983. Immunoperoxidase study of canine distemper virus pneumonia. Res. Vet. Sci. 34: 145 148.
24. Mori, T.,, Y. S. Shin,, M. Okita,, N. Hirayama,, N. Miyashita,, T. Gemma,, C. Kai,, and T. Mikami. 1994. The biological characterization of field isolates of canine distemper virus from Japan. J. Gen. Virol. 75: 2403 2408.
25. Morrell, V. 1994. Canine distemper virus. Serengeti’s big cats going to the dogs. Science 264: 1664.
26. Murphy, F. A.,, E. P. J. Gibbs,, M. C. Horzinek,, and M. J. Studdert. 1999. Veterinary Virology, 3rd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
27. Olson, P.,, H. Finnsdóttir,, B. Klingeborn, and Å . Hedhammar. 1997. Duration of antibodies elicited by canine distemper virus vaccinations in dogs. Vet. Rec. 141: 654 655.
28. Pearce-Kelling, S.,, W. J. Mitchell,, B. A. Summers,, and M. J. Appel. 1991. Virulent and attenuated canine distemper virus infects multiple dog brain cell types in vitro. Glia 4: 408 416.
29. Ramsey, I.,, D. Gunn-Moore,, and S. Shaw,. 2001. The haemopoietic and lymphoreticular systems, p. 65 88. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.) , Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
30. Schobesberger, M.,, A. Zurbriggen,, M. G. Doherr,, H. Weissenbock,, M. Vandevelde,, H. Lassmann,, and C. Griot. 2002. Demyelination precedes oligodendrocyte loss in canine distemper virus-induced encephalitis . Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 103: 11 19.
31. Shapshak, P.,, M. C. Graves,, and D. T. Imagawa. 1987. Autologous and allogenic antibody responses to canine distemper virus isolates from dogs with chronic neurologic diseases. Viral Immunol. 1: 45 54.
32. Soma, T.,, H. Ishii,, M. Hara,, S. Yamamoto,, T. Yoshida,, T. Kinoshita,, and K. Nomura. 2001. Comparison of immunoperoxidase plaque staining and neutralizing tests for canine distemper virus. Vet. Res. Commun. 25: 311 325.
33. Tipold, A.,, P. Moore,, A. Zurbriggen,, I. Burgener,, G. Barben,, and M. Vandevelde. 1999. Early T cell response in the central nervous system in canine distemper virus infection. Acta Neuropathol. 97: 45 56.
34. Tipold, A.,, M. Vandevelde,, R. Wittek,, P. Moore,, A. Summerfield,, and A. Zurbriggen. 2001. Partial protection and intrathecal invasion of CD8 + T cells in acute canine distemper virus infection. Vet. Microbiol. 83: 189 203.
35. Vandevelde, M.,, B. Kristensen,, K. G. Braund,, C. E. Greene,, L. J. Swango,, and B. F. Hoerlein. 1980. Chronic canine distemper virus encephalitis in mature dogs. Vet. Pathol. 17: 17 28.
36. von Messling, V.,, G. Zimmer,, G. Herrler,, L. Haas,, and R. Cattaneo. 2001. The hemagglutinin of canine distemper virus determines tropism and cytopathogenicity. J. Virol. 75: 6418 6427.
37. Weisbrode, S. E.,, and S. Krakowka. 1979. Canine distemper virus-associated hypocalcemia. Am. J. Vet. Res. 40: 147 149.
38. Willoughby, K.,, and S. Dawson,. 2001. The respiratory tract, p. 89 115. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.) , Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
39. Zee, Y. C., 1999. Paramyxoviridae, p. 403 411. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
40. Zurbriggen, A.,, and M. Vandevelde. 1983. Canine distemper virus-induced glial cell changes in vitro. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl.) 62: 51 58.
1. Appel, M.,, and D. A. Bemis. 1978. The canine contagious respiratory disease complex (kennel cough). Cornell Vet. 68: 70 75.
2. Appel, M. J.,, and D. H. Percy. 1970. SV-5- like parainfluenza virus in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 156: 1778 1781.
3. Baty, D. U.,, J. A. Southern,, and R. E. Randall. 1991. Sequence comparison between the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes of simian, canine and human isolates of simian virus 5. J. Gen. Virol. 72: 3103 3107.
4. Baumgartner, W. K.,, S. Krakowka,, A. Koestner,, and J. Evermann. 1982. Acute encephalitis and hyrdrocephalus in dogs caused by canine parainfluenza virus. Vet. Pathol. 19: 79 92.
5. Binn, L. N.,, and E. C. Lazar. 1970. Comments on epizootiology of parainfluenza SV-5 in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 156: 1774 1777.
6. Crandell, R. A.,, W. B. Brumlow,, and V. E. Davison. 1968. Isolation of a parainfluenza virus from sentry dogs with upper respiratory disease. Am. J. Vet. Res. 29: 2141 2147.
7. Dambro, N. N.,, R. Grad,, M. L. Witten,, S. F. Quan,, R. E. Sobonya,, C. G. Ray,, L. Devine,, and R. J. Lemen. 1992. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology reflects airway inflammation in beagle puppies with acute bronchiolitis. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 12: 213 220.
8. Evermann, J. F.,, S. Krakowka,, A. J. Mc- Keirnan,, and W. Baumgartner. 1981. Properties of an encephalitogenic canine parainfluenza virus. Arch. Virol. 68: 165 172.
9. Evermann, J. F.,, J. D. Lincoln,, and A. J. McKeirnan. 1980. Isolation of a paramyxovirus from the cerebrospinal fluid of a dog with posterior paresis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 177: 1132 1134.
10. Goswami, K. K.,, L. S. Lange,, D. N. Mitchell,, K. R. Cameron,, and W. C. Russell. 1984. Does simian virus 5 infect humans? J. Gen. Virol. 65: 1295 1303.
11. Lemen, R. J.,, S. F. Quan,, M. L. Witten,, R. E. Sobonya,, C. G. Ray,, and R. Grad. 1990. Canine parainfluenza type 2 bronchiolitis increases histamine responsiveness in beagle puppies. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 141: 199 207.
12. Mayr, A. 1989. Infections which humans in the household transmit to dogs and cats. Zentbl. Bakteriol. Mikrobiol. Hyg. Abt B 187: 508 526.
13. McCandlish, I. A.,, H. Thompson,, H. J. Cornwell,, and N. G. Wright. 1978. A study of dogs with kennel cough. Vet. Rec. 102: 293 301.
14. Murphy, F. A.,, E. P. J. Gibbs,, M. C. Horzinek,, and M. J. Studdert. 1999. Veterinary Virology, 3rd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
15. Myers, L. J.,, K. E. Nusbaum,, L. J. Swango,, L. N. Hanrahan,, and E. Sartin. 1988. Dysfunction of sense of smell caused by canine parainfluenza virus infection in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 188 190.
16. Quan, S. F.,, R. J. Lemen,, M. L. Witten,, D. L. Sherrill,, R. Grad,, R. E. Sobonya,, and C. G. Ray. 1990. Changes in lung mechanics and reactivity with age after viral bronchiolitis in beagle puppies. J. Appl. Physiol. 69: 2034 2042.
17. Quan, S. F.,, M. L. Witten,, N. N. Dambro,, and R. J. Lemen. 1991. Canine parainfluenza type 2 and Bordetella bronchiseptica infection produces increased bronchoalveolar lavage thromboxane concentrations in beagle puppies. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 44: 171 175.
18. Quan, S. F.,, M. L. Witten,, R. Grad,, C. G. Ray,, and R. J. Lemen. 1991. Changes in lung mechanics and histamine responsiveness after sequential canine adenovirus 2 and canine parainfluenza 2 virus infection in beagle puppies. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 10: 236 243.
19. Randall, R. E.,, and D. F. Young. 1988. Comparison between parainfluenza virus type 2 and simian virus 5: monoclonal antibodies reveal major antigenic differences. J. Gen. Virol. 69: 2051 2060.
20. Randall, R. E.,, D. F. Young,, K. K. Goswami,, and W. C. Russell. 1987. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to simian virus 5 and their use in revealing antigenic differences between human, canine and simian isolates. J. Gen. Virol. 68: 2769 2780.
21. Tsurudome, M.,, M. Nishio,, H. Komada,, H. Bando,, and Y. Ito. 1989. Extensive antigenic diversity among human parainfluenza type 2 virus isolates and immunological relationships among paramyxoviruses revealed by monoclonal antibodies. Virology 171: 38 48.
22. Ueland, K. 1990. Serological, bacteriological and clinical observations on an outbreak of canine infectious tracheobronchitis in Norway. Vet. Rec. 126: 481 483.
23. Vieler, E.,, W. Herbst,, W. Baumgartner,, and S. Breuker. 1994. Isolation of a parainfluenza virus type 2 from the prostatic fluid of a dog. Vet. Rec. 135: 384 385.
24. Wagener, J. S.,, L. Minnich,, R. Sobonya,, L. M. Taussig,, C. G. Ray,, and V. Fulginiti. 1983. Parainfluenza type II infection in dogs. A model for viral lower respiratory tract infection in humans. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 127: 771 775.
25. Wagener, J. S.,, R. Sobonya,, L. Minnich,, and L. M. Taussig. 1984. Role of canine parainfluenza virus and Bordetella bronchiseptica in kennel cough. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45: 1862 1866.
26. Young, D. F.,, R. E. Randall,, J. A. Hoyle,, and B. E. Souberbielle. 1990. Clearance of a persistent paramyxovirus infection is mediated by cellular immune responses but not by serumneutralizing antibody. J. Virol. 64: 5403 5411.
27. Zee, Y. C., 1999. Paramyxoviridae, p. 403 411. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.) , Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
1. Agungpriyono, D. R.,, K. Uchida,, H. Tabaru,, R. Yamaguchi,, and S. Tateyama. 1999. Subacute massive necrotizing myocarditis by canine parvovirus type 2 infection with diffuse leukoencephalomalacia in a puppy. Vet. Pathol. 36: 77 80
2. Bauder, B.,, A. Suchy,, C. Gabler,, and H. Weissenbock. 2000. Apoptosis in feline panleukopenia and canine parvovirus enteritis. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B 47: 775 784.
3. Brown, M. R.,, and K. S. Rogers. 2001. Neutropenia in dogs and cats: a retrospective study of 261 cases. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 37: 131 139.
4. Cohn, L. A.,, J. M. Rewerts,, D. McCaw,, G. D. Boon,, C. Wagner-Mann, , and C. D. Lothrop, Jr. 1999. Plasma granulocyte colonystimulating factor concentrates in neutropenic, parvoviral enteritis-infected puppies. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 13: 581 586.
5. Favrot, C.,, T. Olivry,, S. M. Dunston,, F. Degorce-Rubiales,, and J. S. Guy. 2000. Parvovirus infection of keratinocytes as a cause of canine erythema multiforme. Vet. Pathol. 37: 647 649.
6. Gemma, T.,, C. Kai,, and T. Mikami. 1995. Suppression of canine parvovirus growth in CRFK cells by canine distemper virus. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 57: 535 537.
7. Gordon, J. C.,, and E. J. Angrick. 1986. Canine parvoviruses: environmental effects on infectivity. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 1464 1467.
8. Kennedy, M. A.,, V. S. Mellon,, G. Caldwell,, and L. N. Potgieter. 1995. Virucidal efficacy of the newer quaternary ammonium compounds. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 31: 254 258.
9. Krakowka, S.,, R. G. Olsen,, M. K. Axthelm,, J. Rice,, and K. Winters. 1982. Canine parvovirus infection potentiates canine distemper encephalitis attributable to modified live-virus vaccine. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 180: 137 139.
10. Macartney, L.,, I. A. McCandlish,, H. Thompson,, and H. J. Cornwell. 1984. Canine parvovirus enteritis I: Clinical, haematological and pathological features of experimental infection. Vet. Rec. 115: 201 210.
11. Maxson, T. R.,, K. M. Meurs,, L. B. Lehmkuhl,, A. L. Magnon,, S. E. Weisbrode,, and C. E. Atkins. 2001. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for viruses in paraffin-embedded myocardium from dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy or myocarditis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62: 130 135.
12. Mochizuki, M.,, M. Horiuchi,, H. Hiragi,, M. C. San Gabriel,, N. Yasuda,, and T. Uno. 1996. Isolation of canine parvovirus from a cat manifesting clinical signs of feline panleukopenia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2101 2105.
13. Murphy, F. A.,, E. P. J. Gibbs,, M. C. Horzinek,, and M. J. Studdert. 1999. Veterinary Virology, 3rd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
14. Nakamura, K.,, M. Sakamoto,, Y. Ikeda,, E. Sato,, K. Kawakami,, T. Miyazawa,, Y. Tohya,, E. Takahashi,, T. Mikami,, and M. Mochizuki. 2001. Pathogenic potential of canine parvovirus types 2a and 2c in domestic cats. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8: 663 668.
15. Nelson, D. T.,, S. L. Eustis,, J. P. Mc-Adaragh,, and I. Stotz. 1979. Lesions of spontaneous canine viral enteritis. Vet. Pathol. 16: 680 686.
16. Olson, P.,, B. Klingeborn, and Å . Hedhammar. 1988. Serum antibody response to canine parvovirus, canine adenovirus-1, and canine distemper virus in dogs with known status of immunization: study of dogs in Sweden. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 1460 1466.
17. Otto, C. M.,, T. M. Rieser,, M. B. Brooks,, and M. W. Russell. 2000. Evidence of hypercoagulability in dogs with parvoviral enteritis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 217: 1500 1504.
18. Pratelli, A.,, A. Cavalli,, V. Martella,, M. Tempesta,, N. Decaro,, L. E. Carmichael,, and C. Buonavoglia. 2001. Canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccination: comparison of neutralizing antibody responses in pups after inoculation with CPV2 or CPV2b modified live virus vaccine. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8: 612 615.
19. Rallis, T. S.,, L. G. Papazoglou,, K. K. Adamama-Moraitou,, and N. N. Prassinos. 2000. Acute enteritis or gastroenteritis in young dogs as a predisposing factor for intestinal intussusception: a retrospective study. J. Vet. Med. Ser. A 47: 507 511.
20. Rodriguez, F.,, A. Fernandez,, A. Espinosa de los Monteros,, P. Wohlsein,, and H. E. Jensen. 1998. Acute disseminated candidiasis in a puppy associated with parvoviral infection. Vet. Rec. 142: 434 436.
21. Schunck, B.,, W. Kraft,, and D. Truyen. 1995. A simple touch-down polymerase chain reaction for the detection of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus in feces. J. Virol. Methods 55: 427 433.
22. Singh, B. R.,, R. C. Yadav,, S. P. Singh,, and V. D. Sharma. 1998. Coagglutination test: a simple and rapid immunodiagnostic test for parvovirus infection in dogs. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 36: 622 624.
23. Tennant, B., 2001. The alimentary tract, p. 129 150. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.) , Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
24. Truyen, U. 1999. Emergence and recent evolution of canine parvovirus. Vet. Microbiol. 69: 47 50.
25. Truyen, U.,, G. Platzer,, and C. R. Parrish. 1996. Antigenic type distribution among canine parvoviruses in dogs and cats in Germany. Vet. Rec. 138: 365 366.
26. Vihinen-Ranta, M.,, A. Kalela,, P. Makinen,, L. Kakkola,, V. Marjomaki,, and M. Vuento. 1998. Intracellular route of canine parvovirus entry. J. Virol. 72: 802 806.
27. Vlemmas, I.,, P. Wohlsein,, G. Trautwein,, G. Kanakudis,, and T. Tsangaris. 1990. Experimental parvovirus infection of puppies: immunohistochemical findings. Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wochenschr. 103: 422 425.
28. Yang, T. J. 1987. Parvovirus-induced regression of canine transmissible venereal sarcoma. Am. J. Vet. Res. 48: 799 800.
29. Zee, Y. C., 1999. Parvoviridae, p. 333 339. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
1. Appel, M.,, and D. A. Bemis. 1978. The canine contagious respiratory disease complex (kennel cough). Cornell Vet. 68: 70 75.
2. Batey, R. G.,, and A. F. Smits. 1976. The isolation of Bordetella bronchiseptica from an outbreak of canine pneumonia. Aust. Vet. J. 52: 184 186.
3. Bemis, D. A.,, L. E. Carmichael,, and M. J. Appel. 1977. Naturally occurring respiratory disease in a kennel caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica. Cornell Vet. 67: 282 293.
4. Bemis, D. A.,, H. A. Greisen,, and M. J. Appel. 1977. Pathogenesis of canine bordetellosis. J. Infect. Dis. 135: 753 762.
5. Bemis, D. A.,, and J. R. Kennedy. 1981. An improved system for studying the effect of Bordetella bronchiseptica on the ciliary activity of canine tracheal epithelial cells. J. Infect. Dis. 144: 349 357.
6. Bemis, D. A.,, and S. A. Wilson. 1985. Influence of potential virulence determinants on Bordetella bronchiseptica-induced ciliostasis. Infect. Immunol. 50: 35 42.
7. Bey, R. F.,, F. J. Shade,, R. A. Goodnow,, and R. C. Johnson. 1981. Intranasal vaccination of dogs with liver avirulent Bordetella bronchiseptica: correlation of serum agglutination titer and the formation of secretory IgA with protection against experimentally induced infectious tracheobronchitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 42: 1130 1132.
8. Biberstein, E. L.,, and D. C. Hirsh,. 1999. Bordetella, p. 148 150. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
9. Binns, S. H.,, A. J. Speakman,, S. Dawson,, M. Bennett,, R. M. Gaskell,, and C. A. Hart. 1998. The use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to examine the epidemiology of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolated from cats and other species. Epidemiol. Infect. 120: 201 208.
10. Garlinghouse, L. E., Jr.,, R. F. DiGiacomo, , G. L. Van Hoosier, Jr.,, and J. Condon. 1981. Selective media for Pasteurella multocida and Bordetella bronchiseptica. Lab. Anim. Sci. 31: 39 42.
11. Goodnow, R. A.,, S. C. Causey,, S. J. Geary,, and W. S. Wren. 1983. Comparison of an infective avirulent and canine virulent Bordetella bronchiseptica. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 207 211.
12. Gueirard, P.,, C. Weber,, A. Le Coustumier,, and N. Guiso. 1995. Human Bordetella bronchiseptica infection related to contact with infected animals: persistence of bacteria in host. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2002 2006.
13. Keil, D. J.,, and B. Fenwick. 1999. Evaluation of canine Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting and ribotyping. Vet. Microbiol. 66: 41 51.
14. Le Blay, K.,, P. Gueirard,, N. Guiso,, and R. Chaby. 1997. Antigenic polymorphism of the lipopolysaccharides from human and animal isolates of Bordetella bronchiseptica. Microbiology 143: 1433 1441.
15. McCandlish, I. A.,, H. Thompson,, H. J. Cornwell,, and N. G. Wright. 1978. A study of dogs with kennel cough. Vet. Rec. 102: 293 301.
16. Sacco, R. E.,, K. B. Register,, and G. E. Nordholm. 2000. Restriction endonuclease analysis discriminates Bordetella bronchiseptica isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 4387 4393.
17. Willoughby, K.,, and S. Dawson,. 2001. The respiratory tract, p. 89 115. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.), Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
18. Zeligs, B. J.,, J. D. Zeligs,, and J. A. Bellanti. 1986. Functional and ultrastructural changes in alveolar macrophages from rabbits colonized with Bordetella bronchiseptica. Infect. Immun. 53: 702 706.
1. Carmichael, L. E.,, and J. C. Joubert. 1988. Transmission of Brucella canis by contact exposure. Cornell Vet. 78: 63 73.
2. Carmichael, L. E.,, and R. M. Kenney. 1968. Canine abortion caused by Brucella canis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 152: 605 616.
3. Carmichael, L. E.,, and R. M. Kenney. 1970. Canine brucellosis: the clinical disease, pathogenesis, and immune response. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 156: 1726 1734.
4. Dawkins, B. G.,, S. V. Machotka,, D. Suchmann,, and R. M. McLaughlin. 1982. Pyogranulomatous dermatitis associated with Brucella canis infection in a dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 181: 1432 1433.
5. Dillon, A. R.,, and R. A. Henderson. 1981. Brucella canis in a uterine stump abscess in a bitch. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 178: 987 988.
6. England, G. 2001. The reproductive tract and neonate, p. 185 195. In I. Ramsey and B. Tennant (ed.), Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
7. George, L.,, and L. Carmichael. 1984. Antisperm response in male dogs with chronic Brucella canis infections. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45: 274 281.
8. Harris, A. M.,, M. L. Horton,, R. M. Letscher,, E. E. McConnell,, and A. E. New. 1974. Enzootic Brucella canis: an occult disease in a research canine colony. Lab. Anim. Sci. 24: 796 799.
9. Henderson, R. A.,, B. F. Hoerlein,, T. T. Kramer,, and M. E. Meyer. 1974. Discospondylitis in three dogs infected with Brucella canis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 165: 451 455.
10. Johnson, C. A.,, R. W. Bull,, and R. G. Schirmer. 1983. Peripheral lymphocyte function in dogs with Brucella canis infection. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 4: 425 431.
11. Kerwin, S. C.,, D. D. Lewis,, T. N. Hribernik,, B. Partington,, G. Hosgood,, and B. E. Eilts. 1992. Diskospondylitis associated with Brucella canis infection in dogs: 14 cases (1980-1991). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 201: 1253 1257.
12. Kulakov, I. K.,, M. M. Zheludkov,, T. A. Tolmacheva,, N. V. Alekseeva,, I. N. Kovalev,, A. G. Skavronskaia,, A. L. Gintsburg,, I. P. Mikhailova,, V. V. Kalmykov,, and K. V. Shumilov. 2000. Use of molecularbiological methods for identifying Brucella in a comparative analysis of strains, isolated from sick dogs. Mol. Genet. Mikrobiol. Virusol. 4: 7 12.
13. Moore, J. A.,, and B. N. Gupta. 1970. Epizootiology, diagnosis, and control of Brucella canis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 156: 1737 1740.
14. Moore, J. A.,, and T. J. Kakuk. 1967. Male dogs naturally infected with Brucella canis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 155: 1352 1358.
15. Pickerill, P. A.,, and L. E. Carmichael. 1972. Canine brucellosis: control programs in commercial kennels and effect on reproduction. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 160: 1607 1615.
16. Rhoades, H. E.,, and G. M. Mesfin. 1980. Brucella canis infection in a kennel. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin. 75: 595 599.
17. Riecke, J. A.,, and H. E. Rhoades. 1975. Brucella canis isolated from the eye of a dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 166: 583 384.
18. Rumley, R. L.,, and S. W. Chapman. 1986. Brucella canis: an infectious cause of prolonged fever of undetermined origin. South. Med. J. 79: 626 628.
19. Serikawa, T.,, T. Muraguchi,, J. Yamada,, and H. Takada. 1981. Long-term observation of canine brucellosis: excretion of Brucella canis into urine of infected male dogs. Jikken Dobutsu 30: 7 14.
20. Serikawa, T.,, H. Takada,, Y. Kondo,, T. Muraguchi,, and J. Yamada. 1984. Multiplication of Brucella canis in male reproductive organs and detection of autoantibody to spermatozoa in canine brucellosis. Dev. Biol. Stand. 56: 295 305.
21. Smeak, D. D.,, M. L. Olmstead,, and R. B. Hohn. 1987. Brucella canis osteomyelitis in two dogs with total hip replacement. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 191: 986 990.
22. Walker, R. L., 1999. Brucella, p. 198 203. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
23. Wooley, R. E.,, P. L. Hitchcock,, J. L. Blue,, M. A. Neuman,, J. Brown, , and E. B. Shotts, Jr. 1978. Isolation of Brucella canis from a dog seronegative for brucellosis. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 173: 387 388.
24. Ying, W.,, M. Q. Nguyen,, and J. A. Jahre. 1999. Brucella canis endocarditis: case report. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 1593 1594.
1. Akhtar, S. Q.,, and F. Huq. 1989. Effect of Campylobacter jejuni extracts and culture supernatants on cell culture. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 92: 80 85.
2. Aragon, V.,, K. Chao,, and L. A. Dreyfus. 1997. Effect of cytolethal distending toxin on Factin assembly and cell division in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Infect. Immun. 65: 3774 3780.
3. Bulgin, M. S.,, A. C. Ward,, N. Sriranganathan,, and P. Saras. 1984. Abortion in the dog due to Campylobacter species. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45: 555 556.
4. Denis, M.,, C. Soumet,, K. Rivoal,, G. Ermel,, D. Blivet,, G. Salvat,, and P. Colin. 1999. Development of a m-PCR assay for simultaneous identification of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 29: 406 410.
5. Everest, P. H.,, A. T. Cole,, C. J. Hawkey,, S. Knutton,, H. Goossens,, J. P. Butzler,, J. M. Ketley,, and P. H. Williams. 1993. Roles of leukotriene B 4, prostaglandin E 2, and cyclic AMP in Campylobacter jejuni-induced intestinal fluid secretion. Infect. Immun. 61: 4885 4887.
6. Fernandez, H.,, and R. Martin. 1991. Campylobacter intestinal carriage among stray and pet dogs. Rev. Saude Publica 25: 473 475.
7. Florin, I.,, and F. Antillon. 1992. Production of enterotoxin and cytotoxin in Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated in Costa Rica. J. Med. Microbiol. 37: 22 29.
8. Fox, J. G.,, M. C. Claps,, N. S. Taylor,, K. O. Maxwell,, J. I. Ackerman,, and S. B. Hoffman. 1988. Campylobacter jejuni/coli in commercially reared beagles: prevalence and serotypes. Lab. Anim. Sci. 38: 262 265.
9. Fox, J. G.,, K. O. Maxwell,, and J. I. Ackerman. 1984. Campylobacter jejuni associated diarrhea in commercially reared beagles. Lab. Anim. Sci. 34: 151 155.
10. Fox, J. G.,, R. Moore,, and J. I. Ackerman. 1983. Campylobacter jejuni-associated diarrhea in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 183: 1430 1433.
11. Hanel, I.,, F. Schulze,, H. Hotzel,, and E. Schubert. 1998. Detection and characterization of two cytotoxins produced by Campylobacter jejuni strains. Zentbl. Bakteriol. 288: 131 143.
12. Hindiyeh, M.,, S. Jense,, S. Hohmann,, H. Benett,, C. Edwards,, W. Aldeen,, A. Croft,, J. Daly,, S. Mottice,, and K. C. Carroll. 2000. Rapid detection of Campylobacter jejuni in stool specimens by an enzyme immunoassay and surveillance for Campylobacter upsaliensis in the greater Salt Lake City area. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3076 3079.
13. Hirsh, D. C., 1999. Spiral organisms I: Campylobacter- Arcobacter-Lawsonia (Digestive tract), p. 89 92. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
14. Ho, T. W.,, S. T. Hsieh,, I. Nachamkin,, H. J. Willison,, K. Sheikh,, J. Kiehlbauch,, K. Flanigan,, J. C. McArthur,, D. R. Cornblath,, G. M. McKhann,, and J. W. Griffin. 1997. Motor nerve terminal degeneration provides a potential mechanism for rapid recovery in acute motor axonal neuropathy after Campylobacter infection. Neurology 48: 717 724.
15. Konkel, M. E.,, M. R. Monteville,, V. Rivera- Amill,, and L. A. Jones. 2001. The pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni-mediated enteritis. Curr. Issues Intest. Microbiol. 2: 55 71.
16. Macartney, L.,, R. R. Al-Mashat,, D. J. Taylor,, and I. A. McCandlish. 1988. Experimental infection of dogs with Campylobacter jejuni. Vet. Rec. 122: 245 249.
17. Misawa, N.,, K. Hirayama,, K. Itoh,, and E. Takahashi. 1995. Detection of alpha- and betahemolytic- like activity from Campylobacter jejuni. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 729 731.
18. Monfort, J. D.,, J. P. Donahoe, , H. F. Stills, Jr.,, and S. Bech-Nielsen. 1990. Efficacies of erythromycin and chloramphenicol in extinguishing fecal shedding of Campylobacter jejuni in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 196: 1069 1072.
19. Monfort, J. D., , H. F. Stills, Jr.,, and S. Bech-Nielsen. 1989. Effects of sample holding time, temperature, and atmosphere on the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from dogs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1419 1420.
20. Moreno, G. S.,, P. L. Griffiths,, I. F. Connerton,, and R. W. Park. 1993. Occurrence of campylobacters in small domestic and laboratory animals. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 75: 49 54.
21. Nair, G. B.,, R. K. Sarkar,, S. Chowdhury,, and S. C. Pal. 1985. Campylobacter infection in domestic dogs. Vet. Rec. 116: 237 238.
22. Odendaal, M. W.,, K. G. de Cramer,, M. L. van der Walt,, A. D. Botha,, and P. M. Pieterson. 1994. First isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from the vaginal discharge of three bitches after abortion in South Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 61: 193 195.
23. Olson, P.,, and K. Sandstedt. 1987. Campylobacter in the dog: a clinical and experimental study. Vet. Rec. 121: 99 101.
24. O’Sullivan, A. M.,, C. J. Dore,, S. Boyle,, C. R. Coid,, and A. P. Johnson. 1988. The effect of campylobacter lipopolysaccharide on fetal development in the mouse. J. Med. Microbiol. 26: 101 105.
25. Prescott, J. F.,, I. K. Barker,, K. I. Manninen,, and O. P. Miniats. 1981. Campylobacter jejuni colitis in gnotobiotic dogs. Can. J. Comp. Med. 45: 377 383.
26. Rivera-Amill, V.,, B. J. Kim,, J. Seshu,, and M. E. Konkel. 2001. Secretion of the virulenceassociated Campylobacter invasion antigens from Campylobacter jejuni requires a stimulatory signal. J. Infect. Dis. 183: 1607 1616.
27. Steinhauserova, I.,, K. Fojtikova,, and J. Klimes. 2000. The incidence and PCR detection of Campylobacter upsaliensis in dogs and cats. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 31: 209 212.
28. Tennant, B., 2001. The alimentary tract, p. 129 150. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.), Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
29. Torre, E.,, and M. Tello. 1993. Factors influencing fecal shedding of Campylobacter jejuni in dogs without diarrhea. Am. J. Vet. Res. 54: 260 262.
30. Torres, O.,, and J. R. Cruz. 1993. Protection against Campylobacter diarrhea: role of milk IgA antibodies against bacterial surface antigens. Acta Paediatr. 82: 835 838.
31. Wallis, M. R. 1994. The pathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni. Br. J. Biomed. Sci. 51: 57 64.
32. Zhu, J.,, R. J. Meinersmann,, K. L. Hiett,, and D. L. Evans. 1999. Apoptotic effect of outermembrane proteins from CampylobacterIjejuni on chicken lymphocytes. Curr. Microbiol. 38: 244 249.
1. Bergman, R. L.,, L. Medleau,, K. Hnilica,, and E. Howerth. 2002. Dermatophyte granulomas caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a dog. Vet. Dermatol. 13: 51 54.
2. Bibel, D. J.,, and J. R. LeBrun. 1975. Effect of experimental dermatophyte infection on cutaneous flora. J. Investig. Dermatol. 64: 119 123.
3. Biberstein, E. L., 1999. Dermatophytes, p. 214 219. In D. C. Hirsh, and Y. C. Zee (ed.), Veterinary Microbiology. Blackwell Science, Inc., Malden, Mass.
4. Blake, J. S.,, M. V. Dahl,, M. J. Herron,, and R. D. Nelson. 1991. An immunoinhibitory cell wall glycoprotein (mannon) from Trichophyton rubrum. J. Investig. Dermatol. 96: 657 661.
5. Cabanes, F. J.,, M. L. Abarca,, M. R. Bragulat,, and G. Castella. 1996. Seasonal study of the fungal biota of the fur of dogs. Mycopathologia 133: 1 7.
6. Das, M.,, H. Mukhtar, , B. J. Del Tito, Jr.,, D. L. Marcelo, , and D. R. Bickers. 1986. Clotrimazole, an inhibitor of benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and its subsequent glucuronidation, sulfation, and macromolecular binding in BALB/ c mouse cultured keratinocytes. J. Investig. Dermatol. 87: 4 10.
7. Komarek, J.,, and Z. Wurst. 1989. Dermatophytes in clinically healthy dogs and cats. Vet. Med. (Praha) 34: 59 63.
8. Mason, I.,, R. Bond,, D. A. Gunn-Moore,, and A. Sparkes,. 2001. The skin, p. 197 218. In I. Ramsey, and B. Tennant (ed.), Manual of Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, England.
9. Moriello, K. A. 2001. Diagnostic techniques for dermatophytosis. Clin. Tech. Small Anim. Pract. 16: 219 224.
10. Sparkes, A. H.,, T. J. Gruffydd-Jones,, S. E. Shaw,, A. I. Wright,, and C. R. Stokes. 1993. Epidemiological and diagnostic features of canine and feline dermatophytosis in the United Kingdom from 1956 to 1991. Vet. Rec. 133: 57 61.
11. Stevens, D. A. 1989. The interface of mycology and endocrinology. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 27: 133 140.
12. Tan, J. S. 1997. Human zoonotic infections transmitted by dogs and cats. Arch. Intern. Med. 157: 1933 1943.
1. Aizawa, T.,, R. Kano,, Y. Nakamura,, S. Watanabe,, and A. Hasegawa. 1999. Molecular heterogeneity in clinical isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis from dogs. Vet. Microbioli. 70: 67 75.
2. Akerstedt, J.,, and I. Vollset. 1995. Malassezia pachydermatis with special reference to canine skin disease. Br. Vet. J. 152: 269 281.
3. Bond, R.,, C. M. Elwood,, R. M. Littler,, L. Pinter,, and D. H. Lloyd. 1998. Humoral and cell-mediated responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs and dogs with Malassezia dermatitis. Vet Rec. 143: 381 384.
4. Bond, R.,, E. A. Ferguson,, C. F. Curtis,, J. M. Craig,, and D. H. Lloyd. 1996. Factors associated with elevated cutaneous Malassezia pachydermatis populations in dogs with pruritic skin disease. J. Small Anim. Pract. 37: 103 107.
5. Bond, R.,, A. I. Lamport,, and D. H. Lloyd. 2000. Colonisation status of Malassezia pachydermatis on the hair and in the hair follicle of healthy beagle dogs. Res. Vet. Sci. 68: 291 293.
6. Bond, R.,, L. E. Saijonmaa-Koulumies,, and D. H. Lloyd. 1995. Population sizes and frequency of Malassezia pachydermatis at skin and mucosal sites on healthy dogs. J. SmallIAnim. Pract. 36: 147 150.
7. Chang, H. J.,, H. L. Miller,, N. Watkins,, M. J. Arduino,, D. A. Ashford,, G. Midgley,, S. M. Aguero,, R. Pinto-Powell,, C. F. von Reyn,, W. Edwards,, M. M. McNeil,, and W. R. Jarvis. 1998. An epidemic of Malassezia pachydermatis in an intensive care nursery associated with colonization of health care workers’ dogs. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 706 711.
8. Coutinho, S. D.,, and C. R. Paula. 2000. Proteinase, phospholipase, hyaluronidase, and chondroitin-sulphatase production by Malassezia pachydermatis. Med. Mycol. 38: 73 76.
9. Gabal, M. A. 1988. Preliminary studies on the mechanism of infection and characterization of Malassezia pachydermatis in association with canine otitis externa. Mycopathologia 104: 93 98.
10. Gedek, B.,, K. Brutzel,, R. Gerlach,, F. Netzer,, H. Rocken,, H. Unger,, and J. Symoens. 1979. The role of Pityrosporum pachydermatis in otitis externa of dogs: evaluation of a treatment with miconazole. Vet. Rec. 104: 138 140.
11. Kennis, R. A., , E. J. Rosser, Jr.,, N. B. Olivier, , and R. W. Walker. 1996. Quantity and distribution of Malassezia organisms on the skin of clinically normal dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 208: 1048 1051.
12. Kiss, G.,, S. Radvanyi,, and G. Szigeti. 1996. Characteristics of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from canine otitis externa. Mycoses 39: 313 321.
13. Mancianti, F.,, A. Rum,, S. Nardoni,, and M. Corazza. 2000. Extracellular enzymatic activity of Malassezia spp. isolates. Mycopathologia 149: 131 135.
14. Masuda, A.,, T. Sukegawa,, N. Mizumoto,, H. Tani,, T. Miyamoto,, K. Sasai,, and E. Baba. 2000. Study of lipid in the ear canal in canine otitis externa with Malassezia pachydermatis. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62: 1177 1182.
15. Masuda, A.,, T. Sukegawa,, H. Tani,, T. Miyamoto,, K. Sasai,, Y. Morikawa,, and E. Baba. 2001. Attachment of Malassezia pachydermatis to the ear dermal cells in canine otitis externa. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 63: 667 669.
16. Morris, D. O. 1999. Malassezia dermatitis and otitis. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 29: 1303 1310.
17. Morris, D. O.,, D. J. Clayton,, K. J. Drobatz,, and P. J. Felsburg. 2002. Response to Malassezia pachydermatis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from clinically normal and atopic dogs. Am. J Vet. Res. 63: 358 362.
18. Morris, D. O.,, N. B. Olivier,, and E. J. Rosser. 1998. Type-1 hypersensitivity reactions to Malassezia pachydermatis extracts in atopic dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 59: 836 841.
19. Plant, J. D.,, W. S. Rosenkrantz,, and C. E. Griffin. 1992. Factors associated with and prevalence of high MalasseziaIpachydermatis numbers on dog skin. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 201: 879 882.
20. Romano, A.,, E. Segal,, and M. Blumenthal. 1978. Canaliculitis with isolation of Pityrosporum pachydermatis. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 62: 732 734.
21. Salkin, I. F.,, W. B. Stone,, and M. A. Gordon. 1980. Association of Malassezia ( Pityrosporum) pachydermatis with sarcoptic mange in New York State. J. Wildl. Dis. 16: 509 514.
22. Takahashi, M.,, T. Ushijima,, and Y. Ozaki. 1984. Biological activity of Pityrosporum. I. Enhancement of resistance in mice stimulated by Pityrosporum against Salmonella typhimurium. Immunology 51: 697 702.
23. Takahashi, M.,, T. Ushijima,, and Y. Ozaki. 1986. Biological activity of Pityrosporum. II. Antitumor and immune stimulating effect of PityrosporumIin mice. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 77: 1093 1097.
1. Baker, K. P. 1970. Observations on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of demodicosis in dogs. Vet. Rec. 86: 90 91.
2. Barriga, O. O.,, N. W. al-Khalidi,, S. Martin,, and M. Wyman. 1992. Evidence of immunosuppression by Demodex canis. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 32: 37 46.
3. Barta, O.,, C. Waltman,, P. P. Oyekan,, R. K. McGrath,, and T. N. Hribernik. 1983. Lymphocyte transformation suppression caused by pyoderma—failure to demonstrate it in uncomplicated mange. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 6: 9 18.
4. Brockis, D. C. 1994. Otitis externa due to Demodex canis. Vet. Rec. 135: 409 410.
5. Burrows, A. K. 2000. Generalised demodicosis in the dog: the unresponsive or recurrent case. Aust. Vet. J. 78: 244 246.
6. Caswell, J. L.,, J. A. Yager,, W. M. Parker,, and P. F. Moore. 1997. A prospective study of the immunophenotype and temporal changes in the histologic lesions of canine demodicosis. Vet. Pathol. 34: 279 287.
7. Day, M. J. 1997. An immunohistochemical study of the lesions of demodicosis in the dog. J. Comp. Pathol. 116: 203 216.
8. DeBoer, D. J.,, P. J. Ihrke,, and A. A. Stannard. 1988. Circulating immune complex concentrations in selected cases of skin disease in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 143 146.
9. Gothe, R. 1989. Demodicosis of dogs—a factorial disease? Berl. Muench. Tieraerztl. Wochenschr. 102: 293 297.
10. Greve, J. H.,, and S. M. Gaafar. 1966. Natural transmission of Demodex canis in dogs. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 148: 1043 1045.
11. Hirsh, D. C.,, B. B. Baker,, N. Wiger,, S. G. Yaskulski,, and B. I. Osburn. 1975. Suppression of in vitro lymphocyte transformation by serum from dogs with generalized demodicosis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 36: 1591 1595.
12. Hsu, W. H.,, and D. D. Schaffer. 1988. Effects of topical application of amitraz on plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 130 131.
13. Kraiss, A. 1987. Proliferating ability of the lymphocytes of demodectic dogs during immune cell-stimulating therapy. Tieraerztl. Prax. 15: 63 66.
14. Latimer, K.S .,, K. W. Prasse,, E. A. Mahaffey,, D. L. Dawe,, M. D. Lorenz,, and J. R. Duncan. 1983. Neutrophil movement in selected canine skin disease. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 601 605.
15. Lemarie, S. L.,, C. S. Foil,, and D. W. Horohov. 1994. Evaluation of interleukin-2 production and interleukin-2 receptor expression in dogs with generalized demodicosis. Proc. Am Acad. Vet. Dermatol. 10: 26 27.
16. Nayak, D. C.,, S. B. Tripathy,, P. C. Dey,, S. K. Ray,, D. N. Mohanty,, G. S. Parida,, S. Biswal,, and M. Das. 1997. Prevalence of canine demodicosis in Orissa (India). Vet. Parasitol. 73: 347 352.
17. Paulik, S.,, J. Mojzisova,, V. Bajova,, D. Baranova,, and I. Paulikova. 1996. Evaluation of canine lymphocyte blastogenesis prior and after in vitro suppression by dog demodicosis serum using ethidium bromide fluorescence assay. Vet. Med. (Praha) 41: 7 12.
18. Paulik, S.,, J. Mojzisova,, V. Bajova,, D. Baranova,, and I. Paulikova. 1996. Lymphocyte blastogenesis to concanavalin A in dogs with localized demodicosis according to duration of clinical disease. Vet. Med. (Praha) 41: 245 249.
19. Shaw, S. E.,, and A. P. Foster. 2000. Treatment of canine adult-onset demodicosis. Aust. Vet.J. 78: 243 244.