10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817831/9781555812409_Chap10-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817831/9781555812409_Chap10-2.gif


Epidemic encephalitis was first recognized in the form of von Economo’s encephalitis lethargica (EL) in the same decade as World War I and the great pandemic of influenza. More recently, enterovirus 71 (EV-71) has caused outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth (HFM) disease in association with a rapidly lethal brain stem encephalitis. Molecular techniques have clarified the relationships of the 66 enteroviruses now recognized. EV-70 and EV-71 have significant effects on the nervous system. Infection with EV-70 can result in the rapid appearance of an acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC). Among the nonpolio enteroviruses, echoviruses 30, 11, 7, and 9, EV-70 and EV-71, and coxsackievirus B5 are the most common neurotropic and neurovirulent agents. Recent studies, including clinical trials, have demonstrated the activity of the compound pleconaril against many clinically significant enteroviruses. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes the polyneuritis of Guillain-Barrė, other enteroviruses, and other viral causes of brain stem encephalitis. The disease was often characterized by the development of new manifestations after an apparently disease-free interval. Most significant among the late manifestations was postencephalitic Parkinsonism. Certain cases have had a relationship to viral infection, such as the fatigue associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection, or have followed viral infection, such as the postviral fatigue syndrome. In considering the potential role of viruses, Greenlee and Rose concluded that the chronic fatigue syndrome is a heterogeneous group of disorders and that "a complex relationship may exist between the physical, psychological, and social factors leading to chronic incapacitation."

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 10.1

Low-power view of myelin-stained section of the cervical spinal cord in acute poliomyelitis. There is pallor reflecting edema and inflammation selectively affecting the anterior horns (arrows).

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10.2

Low-power view of myelin-stained section of the medulla in acute bulbar poliomyelitis. Pallor of staining reflecting edema and inflammation is seen in focal regions of the reticular formation (arrows).

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10.3

Focus of neuronophagia in the tegmentum of the pons in acute poliomyelitis. Lymphocytic cuffing is seen around a small vessel, top right. Hematoxylin and eosin stain.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10.4

Perivascular cuffing in acute poliomyelitis. The section has been treated with an antibody to IgA and shows plasma containing IgA and lymphocytes in the perivascular space and neuropil. Counterstained with hematoxylin.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10.5

Case of EL with 1 week history; male aged 15 years. Periaqueductal region of midbrain with ependymal surface at top left. Intense congestion with red cell diapedesis and parenchymal inflammation. Hematoxylin and eosin.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10.6

Substantia nigra from same case as Fig. 10.5. Degenerate pigmented neurons are surrounded by inflammatory cells (arrows). Hematoxylin and eosin stain.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10.7

(a) Lower-power view of substantia nigra from the same case as Fig. 1.7. The few large neurons present represent the severely depleted neuronal population, (b) Normal substantia nigra for comparison. Luxol fast blue/cresyl violet stain.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Acheson, E. D. 1959. The clinical syndrome variously called benign myalgic encephalomyelitis, Iceland disease and epidemic neuromyasthenia. Am. J. Med. 26: 569 595.
2. Ahmed, E.,, J. A. Singleton,, and A. L. Franks. 2001. Influenza vaccination for healthy young adults. N. Engl. J. Med. 345: 1543 1547.
3. Aiba, H.,, M. Mochizuki,, M. Kimura,, and H. Hojo. 2001. Predictive value of serum interleukin-6 level in influenza virus associated encephalopathy. Neurology 57: 295 299.
4. Alexander, J. P., Jr.,, L. Baden,, M. A. Pallansch,, and L. J. Anderson. 1994. Enteroviral infections and neurologic disease-United States, 1977-1991. J. Infect. Dis. 169: 905 908.
5. Al-Mateen, M.,, M. Gibbs,, R. Dietrich,, W. G. Mitchell,, and J. H. Menkes. 1988. Encephalitis lethargica-like illness in a girl with mycoplasma infection. Neurology 38: 1155 1158.
6. Anonymous. 1970. Laboratory reports. Br. Med. J. 1: 311.
7. Baker, A. B.,, H. A. Matzke,, and J. R. Brown. 1950. Poliomyelitis. III. Bulbar poliomyelitis: a study of medullary function. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatr. 63: 257 281.
8. Blinzinger, K.,, J. Simon,, D. Magrath,, and L. Boulger. 1969. Poliovirus crystals within the endoplasmic reticulum of endothelial and mononuclear cells in the monkey spinal cord. Science 163: 1336 1337.
9. Blondel, B.,, G. Duncan,, T. Couderc,, E. Delpeyroux,, N. Pavio,, and F. Colbere-Garapin. 1998. Molecular aspects of poliovirus biology with a special focus on the interactions with nerve cells. J. Neurovirol. 4: 1 26.
10. Blunt, S. B.,, R. J. M. Lane,, N. Turjanski,, and G. D. Perkin. 1997. Clinical features and management of two cases of encephalitis lethargica. Movement Disorders 12: 354 359.
11. Bodian, D., 1972. Poliomyelitis, p. 2323 2344. In J. Minackler (ed.), Pathology of the Nervous System. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
12. Bodian, D.,, and H. A. Howe. 1940. An experimental study of the role of neurons in the dissemination of poliomyelitis virus in the nervous system. Brain 63: 135 162.
13. Bodian, D.,, and H. A. Howe. 1941. Experimental studies on intraneural spread of poliomyelitis virus. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 68: 248 267.
14. Brahdy, M. B.,, and M. Lenarsky. 1934 - Difficulty in swallowing in acute epidemic poliomyelitis. JAMA 103: 229 234.
15. Buzzard, E. F.,, and J. G. Greenfield. 1919. Lethargic encephalitis; its sequelae and morbid anatomy. Brain 42: 305 308.
16. Cappel, R.,, L. Thiry,, and G. Clinet. 1975. Viral antibodies in the CSF after acute CNS infections. Arch. Neurol. 32: 629 631.
17. Casals, J.,, J. T. S. Elizan,, and M. D. Yahr. 1998. Post-encephalitic Parkinsonism-a review. J. Neural Transm. 105: 645 676.
18. Center for Disease Control. 1981. Encephalitis Surveillance Annual Summary 1978. Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Ga.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Nonpolio enterovirus surveillance-United States, 1993-1996. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46: 748750.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999a. Outbreak of Hendra-like Virus-Malaysia and Singapore, 1998-1999. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 265269.
21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999b. Update: outbreak of Nipah Virus-Malaysia and Singapore, 1999. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 335337.
22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000a. Enterovirus surveillance-United States, 1997-1999. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49: 913916.
23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000b. Poliomyelitis prevention in the United States. Updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 49( RR-5): l22.
24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001a. Enterovirus type 13-United States, 2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 777780.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2001b. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication-West and Central Africa, 1999— 2000. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 50: 481485.
26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002a. Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51( RR-3): 131, plus inside and outside covers.
27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002b. Enterovirus Surveillance—United States, 2000-2001. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51: 10471049.
28. Chang, L.-Y.,, T.-Y. Lin,, K.-H. Hsu,, Y.-C. Huang,, K.-L. Lin,, C. Hsueh,, S.-R. Shih,, H.-C. Ning,, M.-S. Hwang,, H. S. Wang,, and C.-Y. Lee. 1999. Clinical features and risk factors of pulmonary edema after Enterovirus 71-related hand, foot and mouth disease. Lancet 354: 1682 1686.
29. Chong, H.-T.,, A. Kamarulzamen,, C.-T. Tan,, K.-J. Goh,, T. Thayaparan,, S. R. Kunjapan,, N.-K. Chew,, K.-B. Chua,, and S.-K. Lam. 2001. Treatment of acute Nipah encephalitis with ribavirin. Ann. Neurol. 49: 810 813.
30. Chua, K. B.,, K. J. Goh,, K. T. Wong,, A. Kamarulzaman,, P. S. K. Tan,, T. G. Ksiazek,, S. R. Zaki,, G. Paul,, S. K. Lam,, and C. T. Tan. 1999. Fatal encephalitis due to Nipah Virus among pig-farmers in Malaysia. Lancet 354: 1257 1259.
31. Chua, K. B.,, W. J. Bellini,, P. A. Rota,, B. H. Harcourt,, A. Tamin,, S. K. Lam,, T. G. Ksiazek,, R. E. Rollin,, S. R. Zaki,, W.-J. Shieh,, C. S. Goldsmith,, D. J. Gubler,, J. T. Roehrig,, B. Eaton,, A. R. Gould,, J. Olson,, H. Field,, P. Daniels,, A. E. Ling,, C. J. Peters,, L. J. Anderson,, and B. W. J. Mahy. 2000. Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science 288: 1432 1435.
32. Couch, R. B. 2000. Prevention and treatment of influenza. N. Engl.J.Med. 343: 1778 1787.
33. Cox, N. J.,, and K. Subbarao. 1999. Influenza A. Lancet 354: 1277 1282.
34. Dalakas, M. C 1995. The post-polio syndrome as an evolved clinical entity: definition and clinical description. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 753: 68 80.
35. Dalakas, M. C. 1999. Why drugs fail in post-polio syndrome. Lessons from another clinical trial. Neurology 53: 1166 1167.
36. Dalldorf, G.,, and J. L. Melnick,. 1965. Coxsackie viruses, p. 474 512. In F. L. Horsfall, and L. Tamin (ed.), Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 4th ed. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
37. Davenport, F., 1982. Influenza viruses, p. 373 396. In A. S. Evans (ed.), Viral Infections of Humans. Epidemiology and Control, 2nd ed. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
38. Davis, L. E.,, and M. Kornfeld. 1980. Influenza A virus and Reye's Syndrome in adults. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 43: 516 521.
39. Davis, L. E.,, K. S. Blisard,, and M. Kornfeld. 1990. The Influenza B virus mouse model of Reye's Syndrome: clinical, virologic, and morphologic studies of an encephalopathy. J. Neurol. Sci. 97: 221 231.
40. Debre, R., 1970. Lethargic encephalitis or von Economo's disease, p. 193 202. In R. Debre, and J. Cellars (ed.), Clinical Virology, The Evaluation and Management of Human Viral Infections. W. B. Saunders & Co., Philadelphia, Pa.
41. Delorme, L.,, and P. J. Middleton. 1979. Influenza A virus associated with acute encephalopathy. Am. J. Dis. Child. 133: 822 824.
42. Dick, G. W. A.,, A. M. Best,, A. J. Haddow,, and K. C. Smithburn. 1948. Meningoencephalomyelitis. A hitherto unknown virus affecting man. Lancet ii: 286 289.
43. Dowdle, W. R. 2001. Polio eradication: turning the dream into reality. ASM News 67: 397 402.
44. Editorial. 1970. Epidemic malaise. Br. Med. J. 1: 12.
45. Editorial. 1978. Epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br. Med. J. 2: 14361437.
46. Elliott, H. C. 1947. Studies on motor cells of spinal cord; poliomyelitis lesion in spinal motor nuclei in acute cases. Am. J. Pathol. 23: 313 325.
47. Enserink, M. 2000. Malaysian researchers trace Nipah Virus outbreak to bats (News). Science 289: 518 519.
48. Esiri, M. M. 1980. Poliomyelitis: immunoglobulin containing cells in the central nervous system in acute and convalescent phases of human disease. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 40: 42 48.
49. Esiri, M. M.,, and M. Swash. 1984 - Absence of herpes simplex virus antigen in brain in Encephalitis Lethargica. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 47: 1049 1050.
50. Farrar, J. J. 1999. Commentary. Nipah-Virus encephalitis-investigation of a new infection. Lancet 354: 1222 1223.
51. Flewett, T. H.,, and J. G. Hoult. 1958. Influenzal encephalopathy and post influenzal encephalitis. Lancet ii: 11 15.
52. Ford, D. J.,, S. L. Ropka,, G. H. Collins,, and B. Jubelt. 2002. The neuropathology observed in wild-type mice inoculated with human poliovirus mirrors human paralytic poliomyelitis. Microb. Pathog. 33: 97 107.
53. Frankova, V.,, A. Jirasek,, and B. Tumova. 1977. Type A influenza: postmortem virus isolations from different organs in human lethal cases. Arch. Virol. 53: 265 268.
54. Freistadt, M. S.,, D. A. Stoltz,, and K. E. Eberle. 1995. Role of poliovirus receptors in the spread of the infection. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 753: 37 47.
55. Fujii, Y.,, M. Kuriyama,, Y. Konishi,, and M. Sudo. 1992. MRI and SPECT in influenzal encephalitis. Pediatr. Neurol. 8: 133 136.
56. Fujimoto, S.,, M. Kobayashi,, O. Uemura,, M. Iwasa,, T. Ando,, T. Katoh,, C. Nakamura,, N. Maki,, H. Togari,, and Y. Wada. 1998. PCR on spinal fluid to show influenza associated acute encephalopathy or encephalitis. Lancet 352: 873 875.
57. Furtado, D. 1958. Encephalite par grippe asiatique. Rev. Neurol. 98: 192 205.
58. Gibbs, F. A.,, E. L. Gibbs,, P. R. Carpenter,, and H. W. Spies. 1962. Electroencephalographic study of patients with acute aseptic meningitis. Pediatrics 29: 181 186.
59. Gilbert, G. L.,, K. E. Dickson,, M.-J. Waters,, M. L. Kennett,, S. A. Land,, and M. Sneddon. 1988. Outbreak of Enterovirus 71 infection in Victoria, Australia, with a high incidence of neurologic involvement. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 7: 484 488.
60. Goh, K. J.,, C. T. Tan,, N. K. Chew,, R. S. K. Tan,, A. Kamarulzaman,, S. A. Sarji,, K. T. Wong,, B. J. J. Abdullah,, K. B. Chua,, and S. K. Lam. 2000. Clinical features of Nipah Virus Encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia. N. Engl. J. Med. 342: 1229 1235.
61. Greenlee, J. E.,, and J. W. Rose. 2000. Controversies in neurological infectious diseases. Semin. Neurol. 20: 375 386.
62. Grist, N. R.,, E. J. Bell,, and F. Assaad. 1978. Enterovirus in human diseases. Prog. Med. Virol. 24: 114 157.
63. Hall, A. J. 1924. Epidemic Encephalitis (Encephalitis Lethargica). John Wright and Sons Ltd., Bristol, United Kingdom.
64. Hall, C. B. 2001. Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus. N. Engl. J. Med. 344: 1917 1928. (Discussion, 345: 1132, 1133.)
65. Hallervorden, J. 1935. Anatomische Untersuchugen zur Pathogenese des postencephalitischen Parkinsonisms. D. Z. Nervenheilk. 136: 68 77.
66. Harada, K. 1966. Zur morphologischen Differenzierung hamorrhagischer Encephalitiden. D. Z. Nervenheilk. 188: 142 186.
67. Hayden, E. G.,, and P. Palese,. 1997. Influenza virus, p. 911 942. In D. G. Richman,, R. J. Whitley,, and E. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology. Churchill Livingstone, New York, N.Y.
68. Haynes, R. E.,, H. G. Cramblett,, and H. J. Kronfal. 1969. Echovirus 9 meningoencephalitis in infants and children. JAMA 208: 1657 1660.
69. Heathfield, K. W. G.,, R. Pilsworth,, J. Wall,, and J. A. N. Corseffis. 1967. Coxsackie B5 infections in Essex 1965 with particular reference to the nervous system. Q.J. Med. 36: 579 595.
70. Hirayama, K.,, H. Salazaki,, S. Murakami,, S. Yonezawa,, K. Fujimoto,, T. Seto,, K. Tanaka,, H. Hattori,, O. Matsuoka,, and R. Murata. 1999. Sequential MRI, SPECT and PET in respiratory syncytial virus encephalitis. Pediatr. Radiol. 29: 282 286.
71. Ho, M.,, E.-R. Chen,, K.-H. Hsu,, S.-J. Twu,, K.-T. Chen,, S.-F. Tsai,, J.-R. Wang,, and S.-R. Shih for the Taiwan Enterovirus Epidemic Working Group. 1999. An epidemic of enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 929 935.
72. Horstmann, D. M.,, and N. Yamada. 1968. Enterovirus infections of the central nervous system. Res. Publ. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 44: 236 253.
73. Hoult, J. G.,, and T. H. Flewett. 1960. Influenzal encephalopathy and post-influenzal encephalitis. Histological and other observations. Br. Med. J. 1: 1847 1850.
74. Howard, R. S.,, and A. J. Lees. 1987. Encephalitis lethargica. A report of four recent cases. Brain 110: 19 33.
75. Huang, C.-C.,, C.-C. Liu,, Y.-C. Chang,, C.-Y. Chen,, S.-T. Wang,, and T.-F. Yeh. 1999. Neurologic complications in children with Enterovirus 71 infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 341: 936 942.
76. Hung, T.-P.,, S.-M. Sung,, H.-C. Liang,, D. Landsborough,, and I. J. Green. 1976. Radiculomyelitis following acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Brain 99: 771 790.
77. Ishimaru, Y.,, S. Nakano,, K. Yamaoka,, and S. Takami. 1980. Outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease by Enterovirus 71. High incidence of complication disorders of central nervous system. Arch. Dis. Child. 55: 583 588.
78. Ito, Y.,, T. Ichiyama,, H. Kimura,, M. Shibata,, N. Ishiwada,, H. Kuroki,, S. Furukuwa,, and T. Morishima. 1999. Detection of influenza virus RNA by reverse transcription-PCR and proinflammatory cytokines in influenza-virus-associated encephalopathy. J. Med. Virol. 58: 420 425.
79. John, T. J. 2000. The final stages of the global eradication of polio. N. Engl. J. Med. 343: 806 807.
80. Jubelt, B.,, and J. C. Agre. 2000. Characteristics and management of post-polio syndrome. JAMA 284: 412 414.
81. Jubelt, B.,, G. Gallez-Hawkins,, O. Narayan,, and R. T. Johnson. 1980. Pathogenesis of human poliovirus infection in mice. I. Clinical and pathological studies. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 39: 138 148.
82. Kasai, T.,, T. Togashi,, and T. Morishima. 2000. Encephalopathy associated with influenza epidemics. Lancet 355: 1558 1559.
83. Kennedy, S. 1998. Morbillivirus infections in aquatic mammals. J. Comp. Pathol. 119: 201 225.
84. Kennett, M. L.,, C. J. Birch,, F. A. Lewis,, A. P. Yung,, S. A. Locarnini,, and I. D. Gust. 1974. Enterovirus-71 infection in Melbourne. Bull. W. H. O. 51: 609 615.
85. Kew, O.,, V. Morris-Glasgow,, M. Landaverde,, C. Burns,, J. Shaw,, Z. Garib,, J. Andre,, E. Blackman,, C. J. Freeman,, J. Jorba,, R. Sutter,, G. Tambini,, L. Venczel,, C. Pedreira,, F. Laender,, H. Shimuzu,, T. Yoneyama,, T. Miyamura,, H. van der Avoort,, M. S. Oberste,, D. Kilpatrick,, S. Cochi,, M. Pallansch,, and C. de Quadros. 2002. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type I vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science 296: 356 359.
86. Kiley, M.,, and M. M. Esiri. 2001. A contemporary case of encephalitis lethargica. Clin. Neuropathol. 20: 2 7.
87. Kimura, S.,, T. Kobayashi,, H. Osaka,, C. Shimizu,, S. Uebara,, and N. Ohtuki. 1995. Serial magnetic resonance imaging in postinfectious focal encephalitis due to influenza virus. J. Neurol. Sci. 131: 74 77.
88. Kono, R.,, A. Sasagawa,, H. Kodama,, N. Uchida,, Y. Akao,, J. Mukoyama,, and T. Fujreau. 1973. Neurovirulence of acute-haemorrhagic-conjunctivitis virus in monkeys. Lancet i: 61 63.
89. Krugman, S.,, and R. Ward. 1968. Enteroviral infections, p. 56 89. In Infectious Diseases of Children, 4th ed. CV Mosby Co., St. Louis, Mo.
90. Landry, M. L.,, S. N. S. Fonseca,, S. Cohen,, and C. W. Bogue. 1995. Fatal enterovirus type 71 infection: rapid diagnosis and diagnostic pitfalls. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14: 1095 1100.
91. Langmuir, A. D.,, D. J. Bregman,, L. T. Kurland,, N. Nathanson,, and M. Victor. 1984 - An epidemiologic and clinical evaluation of Guillain-Barre syndrome reported in association with the administration of Swine influenza vaccines. Am. J. Epidemiol. 119: 841 879.
92. Lee, K.-E.,, T. Umapathi,, C.-B. Tan,, H. T.-L. Tjia,, T.-S. Cua,, H. M.-L. Oh,, K.-M. Fock,, A. Kurup,, A. K.-Y. Tan,, and W.-L. Lee. 1999. The neurological manifestations of Nipah virus encephalitis, a novel paramyxovirus. Ann. Neurol. 46: 428 432.
93. Leitch, A. G. 1995. Neurasthenia, myalgic encephalitis or cryptogenic chronic fatigue syndrome? Q.J. Med. 88: 447 450.
94. Lepow, M. L.,, N. Coyne,, L. B. Thompson,, D. H. Carver,, and E. C. Robbins. 1962. A clinical, epidemiological and laboratory investigation of aseptic meningitis during the four year period 1955-1958. II. The clinical disease and its sequelae. N. Engl. J. Med. 266: 1188 1193.
95. Lim, C. C. T.,, Y. Y. Sitoh,, E. Hui,, K. E. Lee,, B. S. P. Ang,, E. Lim,, W. E. H. Lim,, H. M. L. Oh,, P. A. Tambyah,, J. S. L. Wong,, C. B. Tan,, and T. S. G. Chee. 2000. Nipah viral encephalitis or Japanese encephalitis? MR findings in a new zoonotic disease. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 21: 455 461.
96. Linneman, C. C., Jr.,, L. Shea,, J. C. Partinj,, W. K. Schubert,, and G. M. Schiff. 1975. Reye's syndrome: epidemiologic and viral studies 1963-74. Am. J. Epidemiol 101: 517 526.
97. Lum, L. C. S.,, K. T. Wong,, S. K. Lam,, K. B. Chua,, A. Y. T. Goh,, W. W. L. Lim,, B. B. Ong,, G. Paul,, S. AbuBakar,, and M. Lambert. 1998. Fatal Enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis. J. Pediatr. 133: 795 798.
98. Mace, S. E. 2002. Bronchiolitis: an update. Resid. Staff Physician 48: 50 57.
99. Matheson Commission. 1939. Epidemic Encephalitis. Etiology, Epidemiology, Treatment. Third Report of the Matheson Commission. Columbia University Press, New York, N.Y.
100. McCall, S.,, J. M. Henry,, A. H. Reid,, and J. K. Taubenberger. 2001. Influenza RNA not detected in archival brain tissues from acute encephalitis lethargica cases or in postencephalitic Parkinson cases. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60: 696 704.
101. McCullers, J. A.,, S. Facchinis,, P. J. Chesney,, and R. G. Webster. 1999. Influenza B encephalitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28: 989 900.
102. McEvedy, C. P.,, and A. W. Beard. 1970. Concept of benign myalgic encephalomyelitis. Br. Med. J. 1: 11 15.
103. McMinn, P.,, I. Stratov,, L. Nagara,, and S. Davis. 2001. Neurological manifestations of Enterovirus 71 infection in children during an outbreak of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Western Australia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 236 242.
104. Mellon, A. F.,, R. E. Appleton,, D. Gardner-Medwin,, and A. Aynsley-Groen. 1991. Encephalitis lethargica-like illness in a five year old child. Dev. Med. Child. Neurol. 33: 158 161.
105. Melnick, J. L. 1996. Current status of poliovirus infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9: 293 300.
106. Merritt, H. H. 1967. Acute anterior poliomyelitis, p. 55 66. In A Textbook of Neurology, 4th ed. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa.
107. Mizuguchi, M.,, J. Abe,, S. Noma,, K. Yoshida,, T. Yamanaka,, and S. Kamoshita. 1995. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood: a new syndrome presenting with multifocal symmetric brain lesions. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 58: 555 561.
108. Modlin, J. E.,, and D. J. Coffey,. 1997. Poliomyelitis, polio vaccines, and the post-poliomyelitis syndome, p. 57 72. In W. M. Scheld,, R. J. Whitley,, and D. T. Durack (ed.), Infections of the Central Nervous System. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, Pa.
109. Modlin, J. E.,, R. Dagan,, L. E. Berlin,, D. M. Virshup,, R. H. Yolken,, and M. Menegus. 1991. Focal encephalitis with enterovirus infections. Pediatrics 88: 841 845.
110. Muir, P.,, U. Mammerer,, K. Korn,, M. N. Mulders,, T. Poyry,, B. Weissbrich,, R. Randolph,, G. M. Gleator,, and A. M. van Loon for the European Union Concerted Actionon Virus Meningitis and Encephalitis. 1998. Molecular typing of enteroviruses: current status and future requirements. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11: 202 227.
111. Mulder, D. W.,, R. A. Rosenbaum,, and D. D. Layton, Jr. 1972. Late progression of poliomyelitis or forme fruste amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Mayo Clin. Proc. 47: 756 761.
112. Murray, K.,, P. Selleck,, R. Hooper,, A. Hyatt,, A. Gould,, A. Gleeson,, H. Westbury,, L. Hiley,, L. Selvey,, B. Rodwell,, and P. Ketterer. 1995. A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science 268: 94 97.
113. Nagai, T.,, A. Yagishita,, Y. Tsuchiya,, S. Asumura,, H. Kurokawa,, and N. Matsuo. 1993. Symmetrical thalamic lesions on CT in influenza A virus infection presenting with or without Reye's syndrome. Brain Dev. 15: 67 73.
114. Nagy, G.,, S. Takatsy,, E. Kukan,, I. Mihaly,, and I. Domok. 1982. Virological diagnosis of enterovirus type 71 infections: experiences gained during an epidemic of acute CNS diseases in Hungary in 1978. Arch. Virol. 71: 217 227.
115. Natelson, B. H. 2001. Chronic fatigue syndrome. JAMA 285: 2557 2559.
116. Nathanson, N.,, and D. Bodian. 1962. Experimental poliomyelitis following intramuscular virus injection. 3. The effect of passive antibody on paralysis and viraemia. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 111: 198 220.
117. Nathanson, N.,, and P. Fine. 2002. Poliomyelitis eradication—a dangerous endgame. Science 296: 269 270.
118. Ng, Y. T.,, C. Cox,, J. Atkins,, and I. J. Butler. 2001. Encephalopathy associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J. Child. Neurol. 16: 105 108.
119. Oberste, M. S.,, K. Maher,, D. R. Kilpatrick,, and M. A. Pallansch. 1999. Molecular evolution of the human enteroviruses: correlation of serotype with VPI sequence and application to picornavirus classification. J. Virol. 73: 1941 1948.
120. Olson, J. G.,, C. Rupprecht,, P. E. Rollin,, U. S. An,, M. Niezgoda,, T. Clemins,, J. Walston,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 2002. Antibodies to Nipah-like virus in bats ( Pteropus lylei). Cambodia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 987 991.
121. Oseasohn, R.,, L. Adelson,, and M. Kaji. 1959. Clinicopathologic study of thirty-three fatal cases of Asian influenza. N. Engl. J. Med. 26: 509 518.
122. O'Sullivan, J. D.,, A. M. Altworth,, D. L. Paterson,, T. M. Snow,, R. Boots,, L. J. Gleeson,, A. R. Gould,, A. D. Hyatt,, and J. Bradfield. 1997. Fatal encephalitis due to novel paramyxovirus transmitted from horses. Lancet 349: 93 95.
123. Paton, N. I.,, Y. S. Leo,, S. R. Zaki,, A. P. Auchus,, K. E. Lee,, A. E. Ling,, S. K. Chew,, B. Ang,, P. E. Rollin,, T. Umapathi,, I. Sng,, C. C. Lee,, E. Lim,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 1999. Outbreak of Nipah-virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore. Lancet 354: 1253 1256.
124. Paul, J. R. 1966. Clinical Epidemiology, revised ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, III.
125. Peatfield, R. C. 1987. Basal ganglia damage and subcortical dementia after possible insidious Coxsackie Virus Encephalitis. Acta Neurol. Scand. 76: 340 345.
126. Pevear, D. C.,, T. M. Tull,, M. E. Seipel,, and J. M. Groarke. 1999. Activity of pleconaril against enteroviruses. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 2109 2115.
127. Rail, D.,, C. Scholtz,, and M. Swash. 1981. Post-encephalitic parkinsonism: current experience. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 44: 670 676.
128. Ramlow, J.,, M. Alexander,, R. LaPorte,, C. Kaufman,, and L. Kuller. 1992. Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome. Am. J. Epidem. 136: 769 786.
129. Reid, A. H.,, S. McCall,, J. M. Henry,, and J. K. Taubenberger. 2001. Experimenting on the past: the enigma of von Economo's encephalitis lethargica. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60: 663 670.
130. Rose, E.,, and P. Prabhakar. 1982. Influenza A Virus associated neurological disorders in Jamaica. West Ind. Med. J. 31: 29 33.
131. Rotbart, H. A. 1995. Enteroviral infections of the central nervous system. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 971 981.
132. Rotbart, H., 1997. Enteroviruses, p. 997 1023. In D. D. Richman,, R. J. Whitley,, and F. G. Hayden (ed.), Clinical Virology. Churchill Livingstone, New York, N.Y.
133. Rotbart, H. A.,, and A. D. Webster for the Pleconaril Treatment Registry Group. 2001. Treatment of potentially life-threatening enterovirus infections with pleconaril. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 228 235.
134. Sabin, A. B. 1956. Pathogenesis of poliomyelitis. Reappraisal in the light of new data. Science 123: 1151 1157.
135. Sacks, O. 1973. Awakenings. Duckworth, London, United Kingdom.
136. Schmidt, N. J.,, E. H. Lennette,, and H. H. Ho. 1974. An apparently new enterovirus isolated from patients with disease of the central nervous system. J. Infect. Dis. 129: 304 309.
137. Sharpe, M. C.,, L. C Archard,, J. E. Banatvala,, A. W. Clare,, A. David,, R. H. T. Edwards,, K. E. H. Hawton,, H. P. Lambert,, R. J. M. Lane,, E. M. McDonald,, J. F. Mowbray,, D. J. Pearson,, T. E. A. Peto,, V. R. Preedy,, A. R. Smith,, D. G. Smith,, D. J. Taylor,, D. A. J. Tyreil,, S. Wessely,, and R. D. White. 1991. A report—chronic fatigue syndrome: guidelines for research. J. R. Soc. Med. 84: 118 121.
138. Shen, W.-C.,, H.-H. Chiu,, K. -C Chow,, and C.-H. Tsai. 1999. MR imaging findings of enteroviral encephalomyelitis: an outbreak in Taiwan. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 20: 1889 1895.
139. Shimada, A.,, D. J. Lange,, and A. P. Hays. 1999. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in an adult following acute paralytic poliomyelitis in early childhood. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 97: 317 321.
140. Shindarov, L. M.,, M. P. Chumakov,, M. K. Voroshilova,, S. Bojinov,, S. M. Vasilenko,, I. Iordanov,, I. D. Kirov,, E. Kamenov,, E. V. Leshinskay,, G. Mitov,, I. A. Robinson,, S. Sivchev,, and S. T. Staikov. 1979. Epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of epidemic poliomyelitis-like disease caused by Enterovirus 71. J. Hyg. Epidemiol. Microbiol. Immunol. 23: 284 295.
141. Simoes, E. A. E 1999. Respiratory syncytial virus infection. Lancet 354: 847 852.
142. Smith, R.,, J. P. Woodall,, E. Whitney,, R. Deibel,, M. A. Gross,, V. Smith,, and T. E Bast. 1974. Powassan virus infection: a report of three human cases of encephalitis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 127: 691 693.
143. Strikas, R. A.,, L. J. Anderson,, and R. A. Parker. 1986. Temporal and geographic patterns of isolates of nonpolio enterovirus in the United States, 1970-1983. J. Infect. Dis. 153: 346 351.
144. Sulkava, R.,, A. Rissanen,, and R. Pyhala. 1981. Post-influenzal encephalitis during the influenza A outbreak in 1979/1980. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. 44: 161 163.
145. Tan, C. T.,, K. J. Goh,, K. T. Wong,, S. A. Sarji,, K. B. Chua,, N. K. Chew,, P. Murugasu,, Y. L. Loh,, H. T. Chong,, K. S. Tan,, T. Thayaparan,, S. Kumma,, and M. R. Jusoh. 2002. Relapsed and late-onset Nipah encephalitis. Ann. Neurol. 51: 703 708.
146. Thorsteinsson, G. 1997. Management of post-polio syndrome. Mayo Clin. Proc. 72: 627 638.
147. Tilney, F.,, and H. S. Howe. 1920. Epidemic Encephalitis (Encephalitis Lethargica). Paul B. Hoeber, New York, N.Y.
148. von Economo, C., 1917. Encephalitis lethargica. Wien. Klin. Wschr. 30: 581 585. Translated in Wilkins, R. H., and I. A. Brody. 1968. Encephalitis lethargica. Arch. Neurol. 18: 324 328.
149. von Economo, C. 1931. Encephalitis Lethargica: Its Sequelae and Treatment. Oxford University Press, London, United Kingdom.
150. Wells, C. E. C. 1971. Neurological complications of so-called "influenza." A winter study in south-east Wales. Br. Med. J. 1: 369 373.
151. Wenner, H. A. 1982. The enteroviruses: recent advances. Yale J. Biol. Med. 55: 277 282.
152. Windebank, A. J.,, W. J. Litchy,, and J. R. Daube. 1995. Prospective cohort study of polio survivors in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 753: 81 86.
153. Wong, K. T.,, W.-J. Shien,, S. Kumar,, K. Norain,, W. Abdullah,, J. Guarner,, C. S. Goldsmith,, K. B. Chua,, S. K. Lam,, C. T. Tan,, K. J. Goh,, H. T. Chong,, R. Jusoh,, R. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and S. R. Zaki. 2002. Nipah virus infection: pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am. J. Pathol. 161: 2153 2167.
154. World Health Organization. 1998. Surveillance of nonpoliomyelitis enteroviruses, 1993-1996. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 29: 220223.
155. World Health Organization. 2002. Acute neurological syndrome, Bangladesh. Followed by an account of Nipah virus. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 77: 297299.
156. Wyatt, H. V. 1982. Any questions? Trop. Doctor 12: 218.
157. Yan, J.-J.,, J.-R. Wang,, C.-C. Liu,, H.-B. Yang,, and I.-J. Su. 2000. An outbreak of Enterovirus 71 infection in Taiwan 1998: a comprehensive pathological, virological, and molecular study on a case of fulminant encephalitis. J. Clin. Virol. 17: 13 22.
158. Zeichhardt, H.,, and H.-P. Grunert,. 2000. Enteroviruses, p. 252 269. In S. Specter,, R. L. Hodinka,, and S. A. Young (ed.), Clinical Virology Manual, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.


Generic image for table
TABLE 10.1

Mechanisms of transmission of epidemic viral and putative viral diseases

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Generic image for table
TABLE 10.2

Neurological syndromes associated with influenza

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10
Generic image for table
TABLE 10.3

Enterovirus syndromes

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 10 Influenza Virus, Enteroviruses, and Other Epidemic Viruses, p 143-162. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch10

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error