1887

7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817831/9781555812409_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817831/9781555812409_Chap07-2.gif

Abstract:

The concept of allergic damage to the nervous system arose with Pasteur's vaccine against rabies, first used in 1884. This vaccine was prepared from the dried and fixed spinal cord of an experimentally infected rabbit. Experiments on the effects of injecting uninfected brain tissue into animals showed that this procedure alone was capable of producing similar changes. The same pathological state has also been described after nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections and in the absence of overt preceding infection. Regardless of the setting in which allergic encephalitis occurs, the pathology is quite similar. The white matter of the centrum ovale is almost invariably severely involved, and in most cases the changes extend into the brain stem and spinal cord. Cases presenting clinically as acute transverse myelitis may show more severe pathology in the spinal cord than in the brain. The demyelination takes the form of a narrow sleeve around inflamed perivenous and perivenular spaces. Most clinicians and pathologists are impressed by the very close similarities in time course and histopathology between these inflammatory diseases and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). The pathology consists initially of perivenular inflammatory cell infiltration with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages within the CNS, particularly in the white matter.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 7.1
FIGURE 7.1

Macroscopic appearance of coronal slice from a case of PVE. Vascular markings are prominent, and lateral and third ventricles are reduced in size.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.2
FIGURE 7.2

Low-power view of cerebral white matter from a case of PVE. Myelin stain shows loss of myelin around veins.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.3
FIGURE 7.3

Inflammatory cells in perivenous space and immediately surrounding white matter from a case of PVE. Hema toxylin and eosin stain.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.4
FIGURE 7.4

Immunostaining inflammatory cells in perivenous space and adjacent white matter from a case of PVE showing (a) macrophages stained for CD68 and (b) leukocytes (mainly lymphocytes) stained for leukocyte common antigen. Both counterstained with hematoxylin

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.5
FIGURE 7.5

Electron micrograph of cerebrum (a) and spinal cord (b) from two autopsy cases of PVE. Complete (a) or incomplete (b) vesicular dissolution of myelin with axons remaining intact. Lead citrate and uranyl acetate stain. Magnification, × 19,800.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.6
FIGURE 7.6

Macroscopic appearance of coronal slice from a case of AHLE. Vascular markings and swelling are even more marked than in Fig. 7.1, and there are foci of petechial hemorrhage (white arrows).

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.7
FIGURE 7.7

Perivascular cells from a case of AHLE. Note that many are polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hematoxylin counterstain on preparation immunostained for leukocyte common antigen.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7.8
FIGURE 7.8

Immunostain for β-amyloid precursor protein to mark damaged axons in a case of AHLE. Perivenous axons are selectively damaged. Counterstained with hematoxylin.

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817831.chap7
1. An, S. F.,, M. Groves,, L. Martinian,, and F. Scaravilli. 2002. Detection of infectious agents in brain of patients with acute hemorrhagic leucoencephalitis. J. Neurovirol. 8: 439 446.
2. Angulo, J. J.,, E. Pimenta de Campos,, and L. F. deSalles-Gomes. 1964. Post-vaccinal meningo-encephalitis. Isolation of the virus from the brain. JAMA 187: 151 153.
3. Astrom, K. E.,, and B. H. Waksman. 1962. The passive transfer of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and neuritis with living lymphoid cells. J. Pathol. Bacteriol. 83: 89 106.
4. Behan, P. O.,, and J. B. Lamarche. 1969. Passive transfer of allergic encephalitis from man to primates. Neurobgy 19: 321 322.
5. Behan, P. O.,, N. Geschwind,, J. B. Lamarche,, R. P. Lisak,, and M. W. Kies. 1968. Delayed hypersensitivity to encephalitogenic protein in disseminated encephalomyelitis. Lancet ii: 1009 1012.
6. Ben-Nun, A.,, and Z. Lindo. 1983. Detection of autoimmune cells proliferating to myelin basic protein and selection of T cell lines that mediate EAE. J. Immunol 130: 1205 1209.
7. Berard-Badier, M.,, H. Gastaut,, and H. Payan,. 1961. Comparative clinico-pathological study of one early and two late cases of measles encephalitis (with an electroencephalographic study of one case), p. 106 123. In L. ,, J. Radermecker,, J. Hozay,, and A. Lowenthal (ed.), Encephalitides. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
8. Bernard, C. C. A.,, J. Leydon,, and I. R. MacKay. 1976. T cell necessity in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 6: 655 660.
9. Biernacki, K.,, A. Prat,, M. Blain,, and J. P. Antel. 2001. Regulation of Thl and Th2 lymphocyte migration by human adult brain endothelial cells. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 60: 1127 1136.
10. Bornstein, M. B., 1978. Immunobiology of demyelination, p. 313 336. In S. G. Waksman (ed.), Physiohgy and Pathology of Axons. Raven Press, New York, N.Y.
11. Bornstein, M. B.,, and S. H. Appel. 1961. The application of tissue culture to the study of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Patterns of demyelination. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 20: 141 147.
12. Bradl, M.,, and C. Linington. 1996. Animal models of demyelination. Brain Pathol. 6: 303 311.
13. Brosnan, C. R.,, G. L. Stoner,, B. R. Bloom,, and H. M. Wisniewski. 1977. Studies on demyelination by activated lymphocytes in the rabbit eye. 2. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated demyelination. J. Immunol. 118: 2103 2110.
14. Brosnan, C. E.,, M. B. Bornstein,, and B. R. Bloom. 1979. The effects of macrophage depletion on the expression of EAE in the Lewis rat. J. Neuropathol Exp. Neurol. 38: 305.
15. Cannella, B.,, A. H. Cross,, and C. S. Raine. 1993. Anti-adhesion molecule therapy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 46: 43 55.
16. Carpenter, S.,, and P. W. Lampert,. 1972. Post infectious perivenous encephalitis and acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, p. 2260 2269. In J. Minckler (ed.), Pathology of the Nervous System. McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y.
17. Cox, W. S.,, and S. A. Luse. 1963. Acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis. A clinical and electron microscopic report of 2 patients treated with surgical decompression. J. Neurosurg. 20: 584 596.
18. Cross, A. H.,, B. Cannella,, C. E. Brosnan,, and C. S. Raine. 1990. Homing to central nervous system vasculature by antigen-specific lymphocytes. I. Localization of 14C-labeled cells during acute, chronic, and relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Lab. Investig. 63: 162 170.
19. Cross, A. H.,, T. O'Mara,, and C. S. Raine. 1993. Chronologic localization of myelin-reactive cells in the lesions of relapsing EAE: implications for the study of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 43: 1028 1033.
20. Dal Canto, M. C.,, and S. G. Rabinowitz. 1982. Experimental models of virus induced demyelination of the central nervous system. Ann. Neurol. 11: 109 127.
21. de Vries, E. 1960. Postvaccinal Perivenous Encephalitis. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
22. Dubois'Dalcq, M.,, B. Niedieck,, and M. Buyse. 1970. Action of anti-cerebroside sera on myelinated nervous tissue cultures. Pathol Eur. 5: 331 347.
23. Fry, J. M.,, S. Weissbarth,, G. M. Lehrer,, and M. B. Bornstein. 1974. Cerebroside antibodies inhibit sulphatide synthesis and myelination and demyelinate cord tissue cultures. Science 183: 540 542.
24. Gendelman, H. E.,, J. S. Wolinsky,, R. T. Johnson,, N. J. Pressman,, G. H. Pezeshkpour,, and G. F. Boisset. 1984. Measles encephalomyelitis: lack of evidence of viral invasion of the central nervous system and quantitative study of the nature of demyelination. Ann. Neurol. 15: 353 360.
25. Gijbels, K.,, R. E. Galardy,, and L. Steinman. 1994. Reversal of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with a hydroxamate inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases. J. Clin. Investig. 94: 2177 2182.
26. Glabinski, A. R.,, M. Tani,, V. K. Tuohy,, R. J. Tuthill,, and R. M. Ransohoff. 1995. Central nervous system chemokine mRNA accumulation follows initial leukocyte entry at the onset of acute murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain Behav. Immunol. 9: 315 330.
27. Glanzmann, E. 1927. Die nervosen Komplikationen der Varicellen variola und Vakzine. Schweiz- Med. Wochenschr. 57: 145 154.
28. Godiska, R.,, D. Chantry,, G. N. Dietsch,, and P. W. Gray. 1995. Chemokine expression in murine experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J. Neuroimmunol. 58: 167 176.
29. Gold, R.,, H. P. Hartung,, and K. V. Toyka. 2000. Animal models for autoimmune demyelinating disorders of the nervous system. Mol Med. Today 6: 88 91.
30. Grundke-Iqbal, I.,, H. Lassmann,, and H. M. Wisniewski. 1980. Immunohistochemical studies in chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Arch. Neurol. 37: 651 656.
31. Gurvich, E. B.,, and I. S. Vilesova. 1983. Vaccinia virus in postvaccinial encephalitis. Acta Virol. 27: 154 159.
32. Hartung, H. P.,, and R. I. Grossman. 2001. ADEM: distinct disease or part of the MS spectrum? Neurology 56: 1257 1260.
33. Hashim, G. A. 1978. Myelin basic protein: structure, function and antigenic determinants. Immunol Rev. 39: 60 107.
34. Hurst, E. W. 1941 - Acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis: a previously undefined entity. Med. J. Austr. 28: 1 6.
35. Johnson, R. T. 1998. Viral Infections of the Nervous System, 2nd ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, Pa.
36. Johnson, R. T.,, D. E. Griffin,, R. L. Hirsch,, J. S. Wolinsky,, S. Roedenbeck,, I. Lindo de Soriano,, and A. Vaisberg. 1984. Measles encephalomyelitis—clinical and immunologic studies. N. Engl J. Med. 310: 137 141.
37. Kabat, E. A.,, A. Wolf,, and A. E. Bezer. 1947. The rapid production of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in rhesus monkeys by injection of heterologous and homologous brain tissue with adjuvants. J. Exp. Med. 85: 117 130.
38. Karpus, W. J.,, N. W. Lukacs,, B. L. McRae,, R. M. Strieter,, S. L. Kunkel,, and S. D. Miller. 1995. An important role for the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha in the pathogenesis of the T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol. 155: 5003 5010.
39. Kies, M. W.,, and E. C. Alvord,. 1959. Encephalolitogenic activity in guinea pigs of water soluble protein fractions of nervous tissue, p. 239 299. In M. W. Kies, and E. C. Alvord (ed.), Allergic Encephalomyelitis. Thomas, Springfield, III.
40. Kojima, K.,, T. Berger,, H. Lassmann,, D. Hinze-Selch,, Y. Zhang,, J. Gehrmann,, K. Reske,, H. Wekerle,, and C. Linington. 1994. Experimental autoimmune panencephalitis and uveoretinitis transferred to the Lewis rat by T lymphocytes specific for the SI00 beta molecule, a calcium binding protein of astroglia. J. Exp. Med. 180: 817 829.
41. Lampert, P. W. 1969. Mechanism of demyelination in experimental allergic neuritis. Electron microscopic studies. Lab. Investig. 20: 127 138.
42. Lampert, P. W. 1978. Autoimmune and virus-induced demyelinating diseases. A review. Am. J. Pathol. 91: 175 208.
43. Lassmann, H.,, and H. M. Wisniewski. 1979. Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: morphological sequence of myelin degradation. Brain Res. 169: 357 368.
44. Lassmann, H.,, C. Brunner,, M. Bradl, and C Linington. 1988. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: the balance between encephalitogenic T lymphocytes and demyelinating antibodies determines size and structure of demyelinated lesions. Acta Neuropathol. (Berlin) 75: 566 576.
45. Levine, S.,, and E. J. Wenk. 1964. Allergic encephalomyelitis: a hyperacute form. Science 146: 1681 1682.
46. Levine, S.,, and E. J. Wenk. 1965. A hyperacute form of allergic encephalomyelitis. Am. J. Pathol. 47: 61 88.
47. Levine, S.,, and E. J. Wenk. 1967. Hyperacute allergic encephalomyelitis: lymphatic system as site of adjuvant effect of pertussis vaccine. Am. J. Pathol. 50: 465 483.
48. Linington, C.,, T. Berger,, L. Perry,, S. Weerth,, D. Hinze-Selch,, Y. Zhang,, H. C. Lu,, H. Lassmann,, and H. Wekerle. 1993. T cells specific for the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein mediate an unusual autoimmune inflammatory response in the central nervous system. Eur. J. Immunol. 23: 1364 1372.
49. Lisak, R. P.,, and B. Zweiman. 1977. In vitro cell-mediated immunity of cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytes to myelin basic protein in primary demyelinating diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 297: 850 853.
50. Lisak, R. R.,, P. O. Behan,, B. Zweiman,, and T. Shetty. 1974 - Cell-mediated immunity of myelin basic protein in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology 24: 560 564.
51. Lyon, G.,, P. R. Dodge,, and R. D Adams. 1961. The acute encephalopathies of obscure origin in infants and children. Brain 84: 680 708.
52. Malamud, N. 1939. Sequelae of postmeasles encephalomyelitis; a clinicopathological study. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatr. 41: 943 954.
53. Miller, S. D.,, and W. J. Karpus. 1994. The immunopathogenesis and regulation of T-cell-mediated demyelinating diseases. Immunol. Today 15: 356 361.
54. Oppenheimer, D. R., 1976. Demyelinating diseases, p. 470 499. In W. Blackwood, and J. A. N. Corsellis (ed.), Greenfield's Neuropathology, 3rd ed. Edward Arnold Publ. Ltd., London, United Kingdom.
55. Paterson, P. Y. 1960. Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis in rats by means of lymph node cells. J. Exp. Med. 111: 119 136.
56. Poser, C. M. 1969. Disseminated vasculomyelinopathy: a review of the clinical and pathologic reactions of the nervous system to hyperergic diseases. Acta Neurol. Scand. Suppl. 37: 1 44.
57. Poser, C. M., 1978. Diseases of the myelin sheath, p. 80 104. In A. B. Baker, and L. H. Baker (ed.), Clinical Neurobgy, vol. 2. Harper and Row, New York, NY.
58. Prineas, J. W.,, W. I. McDonald,, and R. J. Franklin,. 2002. Demyelinating diseases, p. 471 550. In D. I. Graham, and P. L. Tantos (ed.), Greenfield's Neuropathology, 7th ed., vol. II. Arnold, London, United Kingdom.
59. Purdham, D. R.,, and P. F. Batty. 1974. A case of acute measles meningoencephalitis with virus isolation. J. Clin. Pathol. 27: 994 996.
60. Ransohoff, R. M.,, X. A. Hamilton,, M. Tani,, M. H. Stoler,, H. E. Shick,, J. A. Major,, M. L. Estes,, D. M. Thomas,, and V. K. Tuohy. 1993. Astrocyte expression of mRNA encoding cytokines IP-10 and JE/MCP-1 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. FASEB J. 7: 592 600.
61. Reik, L. J. 1980. Disseminated vasculomyelinopathy: an immune complex disease. Ann. Neurol. 7: 291 296.
62. Rivers, T. M.,, and E. F. Schwentker. 1935. Encephalomyelitis accompanied by myelin destruction experimentally produced in monkeys. J. Exp. Med. 61: 689 702.
63. Russell, D. S. 1955. The nosological unity of acute haemorrhagic leucoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Brain 78: 369 376.
64. Schwarz, S.,, M. Knauth,, A. Mohr,, B. Wildemann,, C. Sommer,, B. Storch-Hagenlocher. 2001. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Nervenarzt 72: 241 254.
65. Stone, S. H. 1961. Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis by lymph node cells in inbred guinea pigs. Science 134: 619 620.
66. Strejan, G. H.,, D. H. Percy,, and J. St. Louis. 1984. Suppression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats treated with myelin basic protein-liposome complexes: clinical, histopathological and cell-mediated immune complexes. Cell. Immunol. 84: 171 184.
67. Swanborg, R. H. 1983. Autoimmune effector cells. 5. A monoclonal antibody specific for rat helper T lymphocytes inhibits adoptive transfer of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Immunol. 130: 1503 1505.
68. Toro, G.,, L. Vergara,, and G. Roman. 1977. Neuroparalytic accidents of antirabies vaccinations with suckling mouse brain vaccine. Arch. Neurol. 34: 694 700.
69. Tuohy, V. K.,, R. B. Fritz,, and A. Ben-Nun. 1994 - Self-determinants in autoimmune demyelinating disease: changes in T-cell response specificity. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 6: 887 891.
70. Turnbull, H. M.,, and J. Mcintosh. 1926. Encephalomyelitis following vaccination. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 7: 181 222.
71. Tyler, H. R. 1957. Neurological complications of rubella (measles). Medicine 36: 147 167.
72. Uchimura, L.,, and H. Shiraki. 1957. A contribution to the classification and the pathogenesis of demyelinating encephalitis. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 16: 139 208.
73. van Bogaert, L. 1932. Essai d'interpretation des manifestations nerveuses au cours de la vaccination de la maladie serique et des maladies eruptives. Rev. Neurol. 58: 1 26.
74. von Siegert, R. 1957. Das Verhalten des Vakzinevirus im organismus bei zentralnervosen Impfschaden. Deutsch. Med. Wochenschr. 82: 2021 2024.
75. Waksman, B. H.,, and R. D. Adams. 1962. A histologic study of the early lesion in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the guinea pig and rabbit. Am. J. Pathol. 41: 135 162.
76. Wege, H.,, R. Watanabe,, and V. ter Meulen,. 1984. Coronavirus JHM infection of rats as a model for virus induced demyelinating encephalomyelitis, p. 13 21. In E. C. Alvord,, M. W. Kies,, and A. J. Suckling (ed.), Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis: A Useful Model for Multiple Sclerosis. Alan R. Liss Inc., New York, N.Y.
77. Weiner, H. L.,, and S. L. Hauser. 1982. Neuroimmunology. 1. Immunoregulation in neurological disease. Ann. Neurol. 11: 437 439.
78. Wisniewski, H. M.,, J. Prineas,, and C. S. Raine. 1969. An ultrastructural study of experimental demyelination and remyelination in the peripheral and central nervous system. 1. Acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Lab. Investig. 21: 105 118.
79. Yednock, T. A.,, C. Cannon,, L. C. Fritz,, E. Sanchez-Madrid,, L. Steinman,, and N. Karin. 1992. Prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by antibodies against alpha 4 beta 1 integrin. Nature 356: 63 66.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 7.1

Steps envisaged as occurring in development of PVE, based on experimental studies of EAE, and interventions that are effective in preventing or reducing clinical expression of the disease

Citation: Booss J, Esiri M. 2003. 7 Pathology of Allergic Forms of Encephalomyelitis, p 97-105. In Viral Encephalitis in Humans. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817831.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error