Chapter 6 : Intestinal Immunoglobulin A: Role in Host Defense

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Intestinal Immunoglobulin A: Role in Host Defense, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817848/9781555812614_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817848/9781555812614_Chap06-2.gif


The major source of stimulation of the entire immune system is the external environment, comprising potentially pathogenic microorganisms, many species of the commensal mucosal microbiota, food antigens, and allergens, all of which are encountered primarily at mucosal surfaces that cover an enormous surface area. Majority of antibodies are produced in mucosal lymphoid tissues, particularly in the intestine, rather than in the spleen, lymph nodes, or bone marrow, and more than half of total antibodies produced appear in the secretions of mucosal tissues and their associated glands. Quantitative studies of the origin of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the human intestinal lumen have convincingly demonstrated that ~99% is of local origin and only trace amounts are derived from the circulation. The constant regions of IgA2 heavy chains each contain four or five N-linked glycan chains compared to two in IgA1, and the hinge region of each IgA1 heavy chain also contains three to five short O-linked glycan chains. The most widely recognized protective mechanism of S-IgA antibodies against pathogens at mucosal surfaces is inhibition of adherence. Several medically important bacteria produce highly specialized proteases that cleave human IgA1 at one of the Pro-Ser or Pro-Thr bonds in the hinge region, yielding Fabα and Fcα fragments. The predominant isotype of Ig found in this location, both at the surface and within the mucosal tissues, is IgA, and its essentially noninflammatory nature is of great importance for the maintenance of the integrity of the mucosae.

Citation: Mestecky J, Russell M. 2003. Intestinal Immunoglobulin A: Role in Host Defense, p 95-112. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch6
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Functions of IgA in the intestinal lumen and in the gut tissue. (1) Interactions of free S-IgA with antigens in the lumen result in the inhibition of uptake of soluble antigen and of bacterial adherence and in the neutralization of toxins, enzymes, and viruses; synergistic interactions probably also occur with a variety of innate defense factors. (2) pIgA in transit through epithelial cells may be able to interfere with viral replication; it may also possibly interact with antigen that escapes lumenal exclusion to form pIgA-antigen complexes that are then reexported. (3) Antigens that penetrate the epithelium interact with pIgA in the lamina propria and are eliminated as pIgA-antigen complexes by the pIgR-dependent pathway; IgA also mediates cellular defense activities involving cells bearing FcαR by complement-independent mechanisms.

Citation: Mestecky J, Russell M. 2003. Intestinal Immunoglobulin A: Role in Host Defense, p 95-112. In Hecht G (ed), Microbial Pathogenesis and the Intestinal Epithelial Cell. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817848.ch6
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abu-Ghazaleh, R. I.,, T. Fujisawa,, J. Mestecky,, R. A. Kyle,, and G. J. Gleich. 1989. IgA-induced eosinophil degranulation. J. Immunol. 142: 2393 2400.
2. Adlerberth, I.,, S. Ahrne,, M. L. Johansson,, G. Molin,, L. Å . Hanson, and A. E. Wold. 1996. A mannose-specific adherence mechanism in Lactobacillus plantarum conferring binding to the human colonic cell line HT-29. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 2244 2251.
3. Alley, C. D.,, G. S. Nash,, and R. P. Mac-Dermott. 1982. Marked in vitro spontaneous secretion of IgA by human rib bone marrow mononuclear cells. J. Immunol. 128: 2604 2608.
4. Biesbrock, A. R.,, M. S. Reddy,, and M. J. Levine. 1991. Interaction of a salivary mucin-secretory immunoglobulin A complex with mucosal pathogens. Infect. Immun. 59: 3492 3497.
5. Bos, N. A.,, J. J. Cebra,, and F. G. Kroese. 2000. B-1 cells and the intestinal microflora. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 252: 211 220.
6. Bos, N. A.,, H. Q. Jiang,, and J. J. Cebra. 2001. T cell control of the gut IgA response against commensal bacteria. Gut 48: 762 764.
7. Bouvet, J.-P.,, and V. A. Fischetti. 1999. Diversity of antibody-mediated immunity at the mucosal barrier. Infect. Immun. 67: 2687 2691.
8. Brandtzaeg, P.,, I. N. Farstad,, F. E. Johansen,, H. C. Morton,, I. N. Norderhaug,, and T. Yamanaka. 1999. The B-cell system of human mucosae and exocrine glands. Immunol. Rev. 171: 45 87.
9. Brandtzaeg, P.,, I. Fjellanger,, and S. T. Gjeruldsen. 1970. Human secretory immunoglobulins. I. Salivary secretions from individuals with normal or low levels of serum immunoglobulins. Scand. J. Haematol. S 12: 3 83.
10. Brandtzaeg, P.,, and K. Tolo. 1977. Mucosal penetrability enhanced by serum-derived antibodies. Nature 266: 262 263.
11. Bronson, R. A.,, G. W. Cooper,, D. L. Rosenfeld,, J. V. Gilbert,, and A. G. Plaut. 1987. The effect of an IgA1 protease on immunoglobulins bound to the sperm surface and sperm cervical mucus penetrating ability. Fertil. Steril. 47: 985 991.
12. Brown, T. A.,, M. W. Russell,, and J. Mestecky. 1982. Hepatobiliary transport of IgA immune complexes: molecular and cellular aspects. J. Immunol. 128: 2183 2186.
13. Burrows, P. D.,, and M. D. Cooper. 1997. IgA deficiency. Adv. Immunol. 65: 245 276.
14. Castilla, J.,, I. Sola,, and L. Enjuanes. 1997. Interference of coronavirus infection by expression of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgA virus-neutralizing antibodies. J. Virol. 71: 5251 5258.
15. Cole, M. F.,, and C. A. Hale. 1991. Cleavage of chimpanzee secretory immunoglobulin A by Haemophilus influenzae IgA1 protease. Microb. Pathog. 11: 39 46.
16. Corthésy, B.,, M. Kaufmann,, A. Phalipon,, M. Peitsch,, M. R. Neutra,, and J. P. Kraehenbuhl. 1996. A pathogen-specific epitope inserted into recombinant secretory immunoglobulin A is immunogenic by the oral route. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 33670 33677.
17. Crago, S. S.,, W. H. Kutteh,, I. Moro,, M. R. Allansmith,, J. Radl,, J. J. Haaijman,, and J. Mestecky. 1984. Distribution of IgA1-, IgA2-and J chain-containing cells in human tissues. J. Immunol. 132: 16 18.
18. Cripps, A. W.,, and M. Gleeson,. 1999. Ontogeny of mucosal immunity and aging, p. 253 266. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
19. Crottet, P.,, and B. Corthésy. 1998. Secretory component delays the conversion of secretory IgA into antigen-binding competent F(ab') 2: a possible implication for mucosal defense. J. Immunol. 161: 5445 5453.
20. Cunningham-Rundles, C.,, W. E. Brandeis,, R. A. Good,, and N. K. Day. 1978. Milk precipitins, circulating immune complexes, and IgA deficiency. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 3387 3389.
21. Dunn-Walters, D.,, L. Boursier,, and J. Spencer. 2000. Effect of somatic hypermutation on potential N-glycosylation sites in human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions. Mol. Immunol. 37: 107 113.
22. Dunne, D. W.,, B. A. Richardson,, F. M. Jones,, M. Clark,, K. J. I. Thorne,, and A. E. Butterworth. 1993. The use of mouse/human chimaeric antibodies to investigate the roles of different antibody isotypes, including IgA2, in the killing of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula by eosinophils. Parasite Immunol. 15: 181 185.
23. Eibl, M.,, H. M. Wolf,, H. Fürnkranz,, and A. Rosenkranz. 1988. Prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in low-birth-weight infants by IgAIgG feeding. N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 1 7.
24. Endo, T.,, J. Mestecky,, R. Kulhavy,, and A. Kobata. 1994. Carbohydrate heterogeneity of human myeloma proteins of the IgA1 and IgA2 subclasses. Mol. Immunol. 31: 1415 1422.
25. Fernandez, C.,, M. E. Alarcon-Riquelme,, M. Abedi-Valugerdi,, E. Sverremark,, and V. Cortez. 1997. Polyreactive binding to antibodies generated by polyclonal B cell activation. I. Polyreactivity could be caused by differential glycosylation of immunoglobulins. Scand. J. Immunol. 43: 231 239.
26. Fernandez, C.,, M. E. Alarcon-Riquelme,, and E. Sverremark. 1997. Polyreactive binding to antibodies generated by polyclonal B cell activation. II. Crossreactive and monospecific antibodies can be generated from an identical Ig rearrangement by differential glycosylation. Scand. J. Immunol. 45: 240 247.
27. Fujihashi, K.,, and P. B. Ernst,. 1999. A mucosal internet. Epithelial cell-immune cell interactions, p. 619 630. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
28. Gan, Y. J.,, J. Chodosh,, A. Morgan,, and J. W. Sixbey. 1997. Epithelial cell polarization is a determinant in the infectious outcome of immunoglobulin A-mediated entry by Epstein-Barr virus. J. Virol. 71: 519 526.
29. Grezel, D.,, M. Capron,, J.-M. Grzych,, J. Fontaine,, J.-P. Lecocq,, and A. Capron. 1993. Protective immunity induced in rat schistosomiasis by a single dose of the Sm28GST recombinant antigen: effector mechanisms involving IgE and IgA antibodies. Eur. J. Immunol. 23: 454 460.
30. Hauck, C. R.,, and T. F. Meyer. 1997. The lysosomal/phagosomal membrane protein h-lamp-1 is a target of the IgA1 protease of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. FEBS Lett. 405: 86 90.
31. Heremans, J. F. 1974. Immunoglobulin A, p. 365 522. In M. Sela (ed.), The Antigens, vol. 2. Academic Press Inc., New York, N.Y.
32. Huang, D. S.,, S. N. Emancipator,, M. E. Lamm,, T. L. Karban,, F. H. Blatnik,, H. M. Tsao,, and M. B. Mazanec. 1997. Virus-specific IgA reduces hepatic viral titers in vivo on mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection. Immunol. Cell Biol. 75(Suppl. 1): A12.
33. Ishizaka, K.,, T. Ishizaka,, and M. M. Hornbrook. 1963. Blocking of Prausnitz-Küstner sensitization with reagin by normal human β 2A globulin. J. Allergy 34: 395 403.
34. Janoff, E. N.,, C. Fasching,, J. M. Orenstein,, J. B. Rubins,, N. L. Opstad,, and A. P. Dalmasso. 1999. Killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capsular polysaccharide-specific polymeric IgA, complement, and phagocytes. J. Clin. Invest. 104: 1139 1147.
35. Janoff, E. N.,, S. M. Wahl,, K. Thomas,, and P. D. Smith. 1995. Modulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human monocytes by IgA. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 855 858.
36. Jarvis, G. A.,, and J. M. Griffiss. 1991. Human IgA1 blockade of IgG-initiated lysis of Neisseria meningitidis is a function of antigen-binding fragment binding to the polysaccharide capsule. J. Immunol. 147: 1962 1967.
37. Jonard, P. P.,, J. C. Rambaud,, C. Dive,, J. P. Vaerman,, A. Galian,, and D. L. Delacroix. 1984. Secretion of immunoglobulins and plasma proteins from the jejunal mucosa. Transport data and origin of polymeric immunoglobulin A. J. Clin. Invest. 74: 525 535.
38. Kaetzel, C. S. 2001. Polymeric Ig receptor: defender of the fort or Trojan horse? Curr. Biol. 11: R35 R38.
39. Kaetzel, C. S.,, J. K. Robinson,, K. R. Chintalacharuvu,, J.-P. Vaerman,, and M. E. Lamm. 1991. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (secretory component) mediates transport of immune complexes across epithelial cells: A local defense function for IgA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 8796 8800.
40. Kerr, M. A. 1990. The structure and function of human IgA. Biochem. J. 271: 285 296.
41. Kett, K.,, P. Brandtzaeg,, J. Radl,, and J. J. Haaijman. 1986. Different subclass distribution of IgA-producing cells in human lymphoid organs and various secretory tissues. J. Immunol. 136: 3631 3635.
42. Kilian, M.,, S. Husby,, A. Host,, and S. Halken. 1995. Increased proportions of bacteria capable of cleaving IgA1 in the pharynx of infants with atopic disease. Pediatr. Res. 38: 182 186.
43. Kilian, M.,, and J. Reinholdt. 1987. A hypothetical model for the development of invasive infection due to IgA1 protease-producing bacteria. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 216B: 1261 1269.
44. Kilian, M.,, J. Reinholdt,, H. Lomholt,, K. Poulsen,, and E. V. G. Frandsen. 1996. Biological significance of IgA1 proteases in bacterial colonization and pathogenesis: critical evaluation of experimental evidence. APMIS 104: 321 338.
45. Kilian, M.,, and M. W. Russell,. 1999. Bacterial evasion of mucosal immune defenses, p. 241 251. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
46. Kitamura, T.,, R. P. Garofalo,, A. Kamijo,, D. K. Hammond,, J. A. Oka,, C. R. Caflisch,, M. Shenoy,, A. Casola,, P. H. Weigel,, and R. M. Goldblum. 2000. Human intestinal epithelial cells express a novel receptor for IgA. J. Immunol. 164: 5029 5034.
47. Komiyama, K.,, S. S. Crago,, K. Itoh,, I. Moro,, and J. Mestecky. 1986. Inhibition of natural killer cell activity by IgA. Cell. Immunol. 101: 143 155.
48. Kozlowski, P. A.,, D. Chen,, J. H. Eldridge,, and S. Jackson. 1994. Contrasting IgA and IgG neutralization capacities and responses to HIV type 1 gp120 V3 loop in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 10: 813 822.
49. Kraehenbuhl, J. P.,, and M. R. Neutra,. 1994. Monoclonal secretory IgA for protection of the intestinal mucosa against viral and bacterial pathogens, p. 403 410. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. R. McGhee, , and J. Bienenstock (ed.), Handbook of Mucosal Immunology. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
50. Kroese, F. G. M.,, R. de Ward,, and N. A. Bos. 1996. B-1 cells and their reactivity with the murine intestinal microflora. Semin. Immunol. 8: 11 18.
51. Kroese, F. G. M.,, A. B. Kantor,, and L. A. Herzenberg,. 1994. The role of B-1 cells in mucosal immune responses, p. 217 224. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. R. McGhee, , and J. Bienenstock (ed.), Handbook of Mucosal Immunology. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
52. Lamkhioued, B.,, A. S. Gounni,, V. Gruart,, A. Pierce,, A. Capron,, and M. Capron. 1995. Human eosinophils express a receptor for secretory component. Role in secretory IgA-dependent activation. Eur. J. Immunol. 25: 117 125.
53. Liew, F. Y.,, S. M. Russell,, G. Appleyard,, C. M. Brand,, and J. Beale. 1984. Cross protection in mice infected with influenza A virus by the respiratory route is correlated with local IgA antibody rather than serum antibody or cytotoxic T cell reactivity. Eur. J. Immunol. 14: 350 356.
54. Lin, L.,, P. Ayala,, J. Larson,, M. Mulks,, M. Fukuda,, S. R. Carlsson,, C. Enns,, and M. So. 1997. The Neisseria type 2 IgA1 protease cleaves LAMP1 and promotes survival of bacteria within epithelial cells. Mol. Microbiol. 24: 1083 1094.
55. Lindh, E. 1975. Increased resistance of immunoglobulin A dimers to proteolytic degradation after binding of secretory component. J. Immunol. 114: 284 286.
56. Lodinová-Zádníková, R.,, H. Tlaskalová,, B. Korych,, and Z. Bartáková. 1995. The antibody response in infants after oral administration of inactivated and living E. coli vaccines and their protective effect against nosocomial infections. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 371B: 1431 1438.
57. Lue, C.,, A. Tarkowski,, and J. Mestecky. 1988. Systemic immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine induces a predominant IgA2 response of peripheral blood lymphocytes and increases of both serum and secretory anti-pneumococcal antibodies. J. Immunol. 140: 3793 3800.
58. Lycke, N.,, L. Erlandsson,, L. Ekman,, K. Schön,, and T. Leanderson. 1999. Lack of J chain inhibits the transport of gut IgA and abrogates the development of intestinal antitoxic protection. J. Immunol. 163: 913 919.
59. Macpherson, A. J.,, D. Gatto,, E. Sainsbury,, G. R. Harriman,, H. Hengartner,, and R. M. Zinkernagel. 2000. A primitive T cell-independent mechanism of intestinal mucosal IgA responses to commensal bacteria. Science 288: 2222 2226.
60. Magnusson, K.-E.,, and I. Stjernström. 1982. Mucosal barrier systems. Interplay between secretory IgA (SIgA), IgG and mucins on the surface properties and association of salmonellae with intestine and granulocytes. Immunology 45: 239 248.
61. Mattu, T. S.,, R. J. Pleass,, A. C. Willis,, M. Kilian,, M. R. Wormald,, A. C. Lellouch,, P. M. Rudd,, J. M. Woof,, and R. A. Dwek. 1998. The glycosylation and structure of human serum IgA1, Fab, and Fc regions and the role of N-glycosylation on Fcα receptor interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 2260 2272.
62. Mayer, L.,, and R. S. Blumberg,. 1999. Antigen-presenting cells. Epithelial cells, p. 365 379. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
63. Mazanec, M. B.,, C. L. Coudret,, and D. R. Fletcher. 1995. Intracellular neutralization of influenza virus by immunoglobulin A anti-hemagglutinin monoclonal antibodies. J. Virol. 69: 1339 1343.
64. Mazanec, M. B.,, C. S. Kaetzel,, M. E. Lamm,, D. Fletcher,, and J. G. Nedrud. 1992. Intracellular neutralization of virus by immunoglobulin A antibodies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 6901 6905.
65. McIntyre, T. M.,, and W. Strober,. 1999. Gutassociated lymphoid tissue: regulation of IgA Bcell development , p. 319 356. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
66. Mellander, L.,, B. Carlsson,, F. Jalil,, T. Söderström,, and L. Å . Hanson. 1985. Secretory IgA antibody response against Escherichia coli antigens in infants in relation to exposure. J. Pediatr. 107: 430 433.
67. Mestecky, J.,, and M. Kilian. 1985. Immunoglobulin A (IgA). Methods Enzymol. 116: 37 75.
68. Mestecky, J.,, R. Kulhavy,, and F. W. Kraus. 1972. Studies on human secretory immunoglobulin A. II. Subunit structure. J. Immunol. 108: 738 747.
69. Mestecky, J.,, C. Lue,, A. Tarkowski,, I. Ladjeva,, J. Peterman,, Z. Moldoveanu,, M. W. Russell,, T. A. Brown,, J. Radl,, J. J. Haaijman,, H. Kiyono,, and J. R. McGhee. 1989. Comparative studies of the biological properties of human IgA subclasses. Protides Biol. Fluids 36: 173 182.
70. Mestecky, J.,, Z. Moldoveanu,, M. Tomana,, J. M. Epps,, S. R. Thorpe,, J. O. Phillips,, and R. Kulhavy. 1989. The role of the liver in catabolism of mouse and human IgA. Immunol. Invest. 18: 313 324.
71. Mestecky, J.,, I. Moro,, and B. J. Underdown,. 1999. Mucosal immunoglobulins, p. 133 152. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
72. Mestecky, J.,, and M. W. Russell. 1986. IgA Subclasses. Monogr. Allergy 19: 277 301.
73. Mestecky, J.,, M. Tomana,, C. Czerkinsky,, A. Tarkowski,, S. Matsuda,, F. B. Waldo,, Z. Moldoveanu,, B. A. Julian,, J. H. Galla,, M. W. Russell,, and S. Jackson. 1987. IgA-associated renal diseases: immunochemical studies of IgA1 proteins, circulating immune complexes, and cellular interactions. Semin. Nephrol. 7: 332 335.
74. Michetti, P.,, M. J. Mahan,, J. M. Slauch,, J. J. Mekalanos,, and M. R. Neutra. 1992. Monoclonal secretory immunoglobulin A protects mice against oral challenge with the invasive pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Infect. Immun. 60: 1786 1792.
75. Monteiro, R. C.,, H. Kubagawa,, and M. D. Cooper. 1990. Cellular distribution, regulation, and biochemical nature of an Fcα receptor in humans. J. Exp. Med. 171: 597 613.
76. Morton, H. C.,, M. Van Egmond,, and J. G. J. Van de Winkel. 1996. Structure and function of human IgA Fc receptors (FcαR). Crit. Rev. Immunol. 16: 423 440.
77. Mostov, K.,, and C. S. Kaetzel,. 1999. Immunoglobulin transport and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor , p. 181 211. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.) , Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
78. Murakami, M.,, and T. Honjo. 1995. Involvement of B-1 cells in mucosal immunity and autoimmunity. Immunol. Today 16: 534 539.
79. Nikolova, E. B.,, and M. W. Russell. 1995. Dual function of human IgA antibodies: inhibition of phagocytosis in circulating neutrophils and enhancement of responses in IL-8-stimulated cells. J. Leuk. Biol. 57: 875 882.
80. Nikolova, E. B.,, M. Tomana,, and M. W. Russell. 1994. The role of the carbohydrate chains in complement (C3) fixation by solidphase-bound human IgA. Immunology 82: 321 327.
81. Norderhaug, I. N.,, F. E. Johansen,, H. Schjerven,, and P. Brandtzaeg. 1999. Regulation of the formation and external transport of secretory immunoglobulins. Crit. Rev. Immunol. 19: 481 508.
82. Peppard, J. V.,, and M. W. Russell,. 1999. Phylogenetic development and comparative physiology of IgA , p. 163|– 179. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
83. Phillips-Quagliata, J. M.,, S. Patel,, J. K. Han,, S. Arakelov,, T. D. Rao,, M. J. Shulman,, S. Fatal,, R. B. Corley,, M. Everett,, M. H. Klein,, B. J. Underdown,, and B. Corthésy. 2000. The IgA/IgM receptor expressed on a murine B cell lymphoma is poly-Ig receptor. J. Immunol. 165: 2544 2555.
84. Putnam, F. W. 1989. Structure of the human IgA subclasses and allotypes. Protides Biol. Fluids 36: 27 37.
85. Quan, C. P.,, A. Berneman,, R. Pires,, S. Avrameas,, and J.-P. Bouvet. 1997. Natural polyreactive secretory immunoglobulin A autoantibodies as a possible barrier to infection in humans. Infect. Immun. 65: 3997 4004.
86. Rejnek, J.,, J. Trávnícek,, J. Kostka,, J. Sterzl,, and A. Lanc. 1968. Study of the effect of antibodies in the intestinal tract of germ-free baby pigs. Folia Microbiol. 13: 36 42.
87. Renegar, K. B.,, G. D. F. Jackson,, and J. Mestecky. 1998. In vitro comparison of the biologic activities of monoclonal monomeric IgA, polymeric IgA, and secretory IgA. J. Immunol. 160: 1219 1223.
88. Ross, A.,, L. H. Bouwman,, D. J. van Gijlswijk-Janssen,, M. C. Faber-Krol,, G. L. Stahl,, and M. R. Daha. 2001. Human IgA activates the complement system via the mannan-binding lectin pathway. J. Immunol. 167: 2861 2868.
89. Royle, L., , A. Roos, , D. J. Harvey, , M. R. Wormald, , D. van Gijlswijk-Janssen, , E.-R. M. Redwan, , I. A. Wilson, , M. R. Daha, , R. A. Dwek, , and P. M. Rudd. Secretory IgA N-and O-glycans provide a link between the innate and adaptive immune systems. J. Biol. Chem., in press.
89. Rubas, W.,, and G. M. Grass. 1991. Gastrointestinal lymphatic absorption of peptides and proteins. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 7: 15 69.
90. Rudd, P. M.,, and R. A. Dwek. 1998. The importance of sugars for the function of antibodies. Immunol. News 5: 84 89.
91. Ruhl, S.,, A. L. Sandberg,, M. F. Cole,, and J. O. Cisar. 1996. Recognition of immunoglobulin A1 by oral actinomyces and streptococcal lectins. Infect. Immun. 64: 5421 5424.
92. Russell, M. W.,, M. Kilian,, and M. E. Lamm,. 1999. Biological activities of IgA, p. 225 240. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock, , and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
93. Russell, M. W.,, J. Reinholdt,, and M. Kilian. 1989. Anti-inflammatory activity of human IgA antibodies and their Fabα fragments: inhibition of IgG-mediated complement activation. Eur. J. Immunol. 19: 2243 2249.
94. Russell-Jones, G. J.,, P. L. Ey,, and B. L. Reynolds. 1981. Inhibition of cutaneous anaphylaxis and Arthus reactions in the mouse by antigen-specific IgA. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. 66: 316 325.
95. Sakamoto, N.,, K. Shibuya,, Y. Shimizu,, K. Yotsumoto,, T. Miyabayashi,, S. Sakano,, T. Tsuji,, E. Nakayama,, H. Nakauchi,, and A. Shibuya. 2001. A novel Fc receptor for IgA and IgM is expressed on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic tissues. Eur. J. Immunol. 31: 1310 1316.
96. Saltzman, W. M.,, M. L. Radomsky,, K. J. Whaley,, and R. A. Cone. 1994. Antibody diffusion in human cervical mucus. Biophys. J. 66: 508 515.
97. Sandor, M.,, B. Houlden,, J. Bluestone,, S. M. Hedrick,, J. Weinstock,, and R. G. Lynch. 1992. In vitro and in vivo activation of murine γ/δ T cells induces the expression of IgA, IgM, and IgG Fc receptors. J. Immunol. 148: 2363 2369.
98. Savage, D. C., 1999. Mucosal microbiota, p. 19 30. In P. L. Ogra, , J. Mestecky, , M. E. Lamm, , W. Strober, , J. Bienenstock,, and J. R. McGhee (ed.), Mucosal Immunology, 2nd ed. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif.
99. Schroten, H.,, C. Stapper,, R. Plogmann,, H. Köhler,, J. Hacker,, and F.-G. Hanisch. 1998. Fab-independent antiadhesion effects of secretory immunoglobulin A on S-fimbriated Escherichia coli are mediated by sialyloligosaccharides. Infect. Immun. 66: 3971 3973.
100. Shen, L.,, and M. W. Fanger. 1981. Secretory IgA antibodies synergize with IgG in promoting ADCC by human polymorphonuclear cells, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Cell. Immunol. 59: 75 81.
101. Shroff, K. E.,, K. Meslin,, and J. J. Cebra. 1995. Commensal enteric bacteria engender a self-limiting humoral mucosal immune response while permanently colonizing the gut. Infect. Immun. 63: 3904 3913.
102. Sibille, Y.,, D. L. Delacroix,, W. W. Merill,, B. Chatelain,, and J. P. Vaerman. 1987. IgA-induced chemokinesis of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils: requirement of their Fc-α receptor. Mol. Immunol. 24: 551 559.
103. Silbart, L. K.,, and D. F. Keren. 1989. Reduction of intestinal carcinogen absorption by carcinogen-specific secretory immunity. Science 243: 1462 1464.
104. Silvey, K. J.,, A. B. Hutchings,, M. Vajdy,, M. M. Petzke,, and M. R. Neutra. 2001. Role of immunoglobulin A in protection against reovirus entry into murine Peyer’s patches. J. Virol. 75: 10870 10879.
105. Sixbey, J. W.,, and Q. Yao. 1992. Immunoglobulin A-induced shift of Epstein-Barr virus tissue tropism. Science 255: 1578 1580.
106. Smith, P. D.,, L. E. Smythies,, M. Mosteller-Barnum,, D. A. Sibley,, M. W. Russell,, M. Merger,, M. T. Sellers,, J. M. Orenstein,, T. Shimada,, M. F. Graham,, and H. Kubagawa. 2001. Intestinal macrophages lack CD14 and CD89 and consequently are down-regulated for LPS-and IgA-mediated activities. J. Immunol. 167: 2651 2656.
107. Spieker-Polet, H.,, P.-C. Yam,, and K. L. Knight. 1993. Differential expression of 13 IgA-heavy chain genes in rabbit lymphoid tissues. J. Immunol. 150: 5457 5465.
108. Stewart, W. W.,, and M. A. Kerr. 1991. The measurement of respiratory burst induced in polymorphonuclear neutrophils by IgA and IgG anti-gliadin antibodies isolated from coeliac serum. Immunology 73: 491 497.
109. Stubbe, H.,, J. Berdoz,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl,, and B. Corthésy. 2000. Polymeric IgA is superior to monomeric IgA and IgG carrying the same variable domain in preventing Clostridium difficile toxin A damaging of T84 monolayers. J. Immunol. 164: 1952 1960.
110. Tagliabue, A.,, L. Villa,, M. T. De Magistris,, M. Romano,, S. Silvestri,, D. Boraschi,, and L. Nencioni. 1986. IgA-driven T cell-mediated anti-bacterial immunity in man after live oral Ty21a vaccine. J. Immunol. 137: 1504 1510.
111. Tarkowski, A.,, C. Lue,, Z. Moldoveanu,, H. Kiyono,, J. R. McGhee,, and J. Mestecky. 1990. Immunization of humans with polysaccharide vaccines induces systemic, predominantly polymeric-IgA2 subclass antibody responses. J. Immunol. 144: 3770 3778.
112. Van der Waaij, L. A.,, P. C. Limburg,, G. Mesander,, and D. Van der Waaij. 1996. In vivo IgA coating of anaerobic bacteria in human faeces. Gut 38: 348 354.
113. Van Egmond, M.,, E. Van Garderen,, A. B. Van Spriel,, C. A. Damen,, E. S. Van Amersfoort,, G. Van Zandbergen,, J. Van Hattum,, J. Kuiper,, and J. G. J. Van de Winkel. 2000. FcαRI-positive liver Kupffer cells: reappraisal of the function of immunoglobulin A in immunity. Nat. Med. 6: 680 685.
114. Van Epps, D. E.,, and S. L. Brown. 1981. Inhibition of formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine-stimulated neutrophil chemiluminescence by human immunoglobulin A paraproteins. Infect. Immun. 34: 864 870.
115. Vidarsson, G.,, W.-L. van der Pol,, J. M. H. van den Elsen,, H. Vilé,, M. Jansen,, J. Duijs,, H. C. Morton,, E. Boel,, M. R. Daha,, B. Corthésy,, and J. G. J. Vande Winkel. 2001. Activity of human IgG and IgA subclasses in immune defense against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. J. Immunol. 166: 6250 6256.
116. Walker, W. A.,, K. J. Isselbacher,, and K. J. Bloch. 1972. Intestinal uptake of macromolecules: effect of oral immunization. Science 177: 608 610.
117. Weltzin, R.,, P. Lecia-Jandris,, P. Michetti,, B. N. Fields,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl,, and M. R. Neutra. 1989. Binding and transepithelial transport of immunoglobulins by intestinal M cells: demonstration using monoclonal IgA antibodies against enteric viral proteins. J. Cell. Biol. 108: 1673 1685.
118. Wold, A.,, J. Mestecky,, M. Tomana,, A. Kobata,, H. Ohbayashi,, T. Endo,, and C. Svanborg Edén. 1990. Secretory immunoglobulin A carries oligosaccharide receptors for Escherichia coli type 1 fimbrial lectin. Infect. Immun. 58: 3073 3077.
119. Wolf, H. M.,, I. Hauber,, H. Gulle,, A. Samstag,, M. B. Fischer,, R. U. Ahmad,, and M. M. Eibl. 1996. Anti-inflammatory properties of human serum IgA: induction of IL-1 receptor antagonist and FcαR (CD89)-mediated down regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 in human monocytes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 105: 537 543.
120. Wu, H.-Y.,, and M. W. Russell. 1993. Induction of mucosal immunity by intranasal application of a streptococcal surface protein antigen with the cholera toxin B subunit. Infect. Immun. 61: 314 322.
121. Zhang, J. R.,, K. E. Mostov,, M. E. Lamm,, M. Nanno,, S. Shimida,, M. Ohwaki,, and E. Tuomanen. 2000. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor translocates pneumococci across human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Cell 102: 827 837.
122. Zikan, J.,, J. Mestecky,, R. E. Schrohenloher,, M. Tomana,, and R. Kulhavy. 1972. Studies on human immunoglobulin A V. Trypsin hydrolysis at elevated temperatures. Immunochemistry 9: 1185 1193.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error