Chapter 12 : Picornavirus Genome: an Overview

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This chapter provides an overview of the organization of the picornavirus genome. It highlights that it is reasonable to consider the structure and functions of the picornaviral genome as an integrated system designed to ensure efficient self-reproduction. To achieve this goal, the genetic system should store information about how to synthesize the new generation of viral RNA and protein molecules endowed with the ability to assemble into virions capable of infecting new host cells. The capacity of poliovirus RNA to code for protein has been documented by its translation in a cell-free system. Demonstration of infectivity of the poliovirus cDNA heralded the advent of a new era in picornavirus genome research. Translation initiation of picornaviral RNAs is accomplished through a cap-independent mechanism involving an RNA segment hundreds of nucleotides long called the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located within the 5' UTR. RNA folding is intrinsically dynamic and is influenced by many variables such as local ionic conditions and, in particular, RNA-binding proteins. Picornavirus infection is accompanied by changes in the permeability of both intracellular and plasma membranes. Appropriate specific alterations occur early and late in the reproduction cycle. An important function of the viral genome is to prevent or neutralize the host defensive measures. The genes encoding ancestors of picornavirus proteins were likely existent long before the appearance of the first picornavirus.

Citation: Agol V. 2002. Picornavirus Genome: an Overview, p 127-148. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 1

A schematic representation of the picornavirus RNA. The genomes of certain picornaviruses may have additional distinctive features, such as the presence of a poly(C) tract within the 5′ UTR (e.g., aphthoviruses and some cardioviruses), a gene encoding leader polypeptide (aphthoviruses and cardioviruses), an alternative short reading frame encoding polypeptide L* (some strains of TMEV), and three copies of the VPg-coding gene (aphthoviruses).

Citation: Agol V. 2002. Picornavirus Genome: an Overview, p 127-148. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch12
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