Chapter 22 : Picornavirus Genetics: an Overview

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This chapter overviews the mechanisms underlying the stability and especially the variability of the picornavirus phenotype and genotype. It also talks about the principles of genetic analysis of viral functions and of manipulations with the viral genome. The pathogenic potential of picornaviruses may vary in two respects: (i) viral variants may be more or less virulent, in the sense that different doses of a virus are required to inflict similar clinical signs (at the extreme, even the highest possible dose may fail to produce any signs); and (ii) the variants may cause different clinical patterns. The picornavirus RNA polymerase, like analogous enzymes of other RNA viruses, lacks the ability to remove the erroneously incorporated nucleotide (the proofreading activity), characteristic of many DNA polymerases. Viral RNA rearrangements of any kind (recombination, deletions, insertions) may contribute to genome plasticity and evolution. There are two general approaches to linking specific phenotypic traits to specific genes or their parts: (i) identification of mutations associated with a distinct phenotype, and (ii) observation of phenotypic effects of engineered mutations in specific genes. The current understanding of the mechanisms of picornavirus genome variability and stability is rather superficial and limited.

Citation: Agol V. 2002. Picornavirus Genetics: an Overview, p 269-284. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 1

Two modes of recombination between RNA genomes. In the replicative mode, the synthesis of a nascent strand is started on one parental RNA molecule and is completed on another, due to template switching. Alternatively, fragments of different parental RNA molecules may be covalently joined in a nonreplicative reaction.

Citation: Agol V. 2002. Picornavirus Genetics: an Overview, p 269-284. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 2

A model showing how heteroduplex formation may facilitate finding the proper anchoring site upon precise replicative recombination. Two homologous RNA molecules may form a heteroduplex through interaction between identical secondary structure elements. As a result, the to-be parting and anchoring sites on these molecules are brought in close proximity.

Citation: Agol V. 2002. Picornavirus Genetics: an Overview, p 269-284. In Semler B, Wimmer E (ed), Molecular Biology of Picornavirus. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817916.ch22
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