Chapter 4 : Infections with Multiple Hepatotropic Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Infections with Multiple Hepatotropic Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817947/9781555812447_Chap04-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817947/9781555812447_Chap04-2.gif


The hepatotropic viruses are a major public health problem representing the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. This chapter highlights the clinical, histologic, and virologic aspects of multiple hepatotropic viral infections. It emphasizes features differentiating these from single hepatotropic infections and the mechanisms of viral interactions. Furthermore, the efficacy and limitations of current treatment options are discussed in addition to future treatment approaches. Finally, the chapter reviews the important interaction between the hepatotropic viruses and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), not a hepatotropic virus per se, but frequently encountered in patients with parenteral exposures because of common routes of transmission.

Citation: Myers R, Ratziu V, Benhamou Y, Di Martino V, Moussalli J, Hélène Tainturier M, Poynard T. 2002. Infections with Multiple Hepatotropic Viruses, p 51-74. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch4
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Allory, Y.,, F. Charlotte,, Y. Benhamou,, P. Opolon,, Y. Le Charpentier,, T. Poynard, and the MULTIVIRC Group. 2000. Impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the histological features of chronic hepatitis C: a casecontrol study. Hum. Pathol. 31: 69 74.
2. Alter, H. J. 1996. The cloning and clinical implications of HGV and HGBV-C. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 1536 1537.
3. Alter, H. J.,, Y. Nakatsuji,, J. Melpolder,, J. Wages,, R. Wesley,, J. W. Shih,, and J. P. Kim. 1997. The incidence of transfusion-associated hepatitis G virus infection and its relation to liver disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 747 754.
4.Anonymous. 1997. Management of hepatitis C: NIH Consensus Statement. Hepatology 15: 141.
5.Anonymous. 1999. Prevention of hepatitis A through active or passive immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 48: 137.
6. Balik, I.,, M. Onul,, E. Tekeli,, and F. Caredda. 1991. Epidemiology and clinical outcome of hepatitis D virus infection in Turkey. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 7: 48 54.
7. Barzilai, A.,, S. Schulman,, Y. V. Karetnyi,, M. O. Favorov,, E. Levin,, E. Mendelson,, P. Weiss,, H. A. Fields,, D. Varon,, and U. Martinowitz. 1995. Hepatitis E virus infection in hemophiliacs. J. Med. Virol. 46: 153 156.
8. Beld, M.,, M. Penning,, V. Lukashov,, M. McMorrow,, M. Roos,, N. Pakker,, A. van den Hoek,, and J. Goudsmit. 1998. Evidence that both HIV and HIV-induced immunodeficiency enhance HCV replication among HCV seroconverters. Virology 244: 504 512.
9. Benhamou, Y.,, M. Bochet,, V. Di Martino,, F. Charlotte,, F. Azria,, A. Coutellier,, M. Vidaud,, F. Bricaire,, P. Opolon,, C. Katlama,, T. Poynard, and the Multivirc Group. 1999. Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. Hepatology 30: 1054 1058.
10. Benhamou, Y.,, M. Bochet,, V. Thibault,, V. Di Martino,, E. Caumes,, F. Bricaire,, P. Opolon,, C. Katlama,, and T. Poynard. 1999. Long-term incidence of hepatitis B virus resistance to lamivudine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Hepatology 30: 1302 1306.
11. Benhamou, Y.,, M. Bochet,, V. Thibault,, V. Calvez,, M. H. Fievet,, C. Brosgart,, J. Fry,, C. S. Gibbs,, P. Opolon,, and T. Poynard. 2001. An open-label pilot study of adefovir dipivoxil in HIV/HBV co-infected patients with lamivudine resistant HBV. Lancet 358: 718 723.
12. Benhamou, Y.,, V. Di Martino,, M. Bochet,, G. Colombet,, V. Thibault,, A. Liou,, C. Katlama,, and T. Poynard. 2001. Factors affecting liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients: Impact of protease inhibitor therapy. Hepatology 34: 283 287.
13. Benvegnu, L.,, G. Fattovich,, F. Noventa,, F. Tremolada,, L. Chemello,, A. Cecchetto,, and A. Alberti. 1994. Concurrent hepatitis B and C virus infection and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. A prospective study. Cancer 74: 2442 2448.
14.. Benvegnu, L.,, F. Noventa,, E. Bernardinello,, P. Pontisso,, A. Gatta,, and A. Alberti. 2001. Evidence for an association between the aetiology of cirrhosis and pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma development. Gut 48: 110 115.
15. Berenguer, M.,, N. A. Terrault,, M. Piatak,, A. Yun,, J. P. Kim,, J. Y. Lau,, J. R. Lake,, J. R. Roberts,, N. L. Ascher,, L. Ferrell,, and T. L. Wright. 1996. Hepatitis G virus infection in patients with hepatitis C virus infection undergoing liver transplantation. Gastroenterology 111: 1569 1575.
16. Blumberg, B. S.,, B. J. Gerstley,, D. A. Hungerford,, W. T. London,, and A. I. Sutnick. 1967. A serum antigen (Australia antigen) in Down’s syndrome, leukemia, and hepatitis. Ann. Intern. Med. 66: 924 931.
17. Bodsworth, N.,, B. Donovan,, and B. N. Nightingale. 1989. The effect of concurrent human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B: a study of 150 homosexual men. J. Infect. Dis. 160: 577 582.
18. Bodsworth, N. J.,, D. A. Cooper,, and B. Donovan. 1991. The influence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on the development of the hepatitis B virus carrier state. J. Infect. Dis. 163: 1138 1140.
19. Bonino, F.,, F. Oliveri,, P. Colombatto,, and M. R. Brunetto. 1997. Impact of interferon-alpha therapy on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis: results of an international survey. J. Viral. Hepat. 4: 79 82.
20. Boyer, N.,, P. Marcellin,, C. Degott,, F. Degos,, A. G. Saimot,, S. Erlinger,, J. P. Benhamou, and the Comité des Anti-Viraux. 1992. Recombinant interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis C in patients positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. J. Infect. Dis. 165: 723 726.
21. Bradley, D. W.,, J. E. Maynard,, K. A. Mc- Caustland,, B. L. Murphy,, E. H. Cook,, and J. W. Ebert. 1983. Non-A, non-B hepatitis in chimpanzees: interference with acute hepatitis A virus and chronic hepatitis B virus infections. J. Med. Virol. 11: 207 213.
22. Brandhagen, D. J.,, J. B. Gross, Jr.,, J. J. Poterucha,, M. R. Charlton,, J. Detmer,, J. Kolberg,, A. A. Gossard,, K. P. Batts,, W. R. Kim,, J. J. Germer,, R. H. Wiesner,, and D. H. Persing. 1999. The clinical significance of simultaneous infection with hepatitis G virus in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 94: 1000 1005.
23. Brotman, B.,, A. M. Prince,, T. Huima,, L. Richardson,, M. C. van den Ende,, and U. Pfeifer. 1983. Interference between non-A, non- B and hepatitis B virus infection in chimpanzees. J. Med. Virol. 11: 191 205.
24. Caredda, F.,, S. Antinori,, C. Pastecchia,, P. Coppin,, M. Palla,, A. Ponzetto,, M. Rizzetto,, and M. Moroni. 1989. Incidence of hepatitis delta virus infection in acute HBsAgnegative hepatitis. J. Infect. Dis. 159: 977 979.
25. Carr, A.,, and D. A. Cooper. 1997. Restoration of immunity to chronic hepatitis B infection in HIV-infected patient on protease inhibitor. Lancet 349: 995 996.
26. Chan, H. L.,, M. G. Ghany,, and A. S. F. Lok,. 1999. Hepatitis B. In E. R. Schiff,, M. F. Sorrell,, and W. C. Maddrey (ed.), Schiff’s Diseases of the Liver, 8th ed. [CD-ROM.] Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
27. Chang, M. H.,, C. J. Chen,, M. S. Lai,, H. M. Hsu,, T. C. Wu,, M. S. Kong,, D. C. Liang,, W. Y. Shau,, D. S. Chen, and the Taiwan Childhood Hepatoma Study Group. 1997. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in Taiwan and the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in children. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 1855 1859.
28. Charlton, M. R.,, D. Brandhagen,, R. H. Wiesner,, J. B. Gross, Jr.,, J. Detmer,, M. Collins,, J. Kolberg,, R. A. Krom,, and D. H. Persing. 1998. Hepatitis G virus infection in patients transplanted for cryptogenic cirrhosis: red flag or red herring? Transplantation 65: 73 76.
29. Choo, Q. L.,, G. Kuo,, A. J. Weiner,, L. R. Overby,, D. W. Bradley,, and M. Houghton. 1989. Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244: 359 362.
30. Colin, J. F.,, D. Cazals-Hatem,, M. A. Loriot,, M. Martinot-Peignoux,, B. N. Pham,, A. Auperin,, C. Degott,, J. P. Benhamou,, S. Erlinger,, D. Valla,, and P. Marcellin. 1999. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on chronic hepatitis B in homosexual men. Hepatology 29: 1306 1310.
31. Crespo, J.,, J. L. Lozano,, F. de la Cruz,, L. Rodrigo,, M. Rodriguez,, G. San Miguel,, E. Artinano,, and F. Pons-Romero. 1994. Prevalence and significance of hepatitis C viremia in chronic active hepatitis B. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 89: 1147 1151.
32. Daar, E. S.,, H. Lynn,, S. Donfield,, E. Gomperts,, M. W. Hilgartner,, W. K. Hoots,, D. Chernoff,, S. Arkin,, W. Y. Wong,, and C. A. Winkler. 2001. Relation between HIV-1 and hepatitis C viral load in patients with hemophilia. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 26: 466 472.
33. Darby, S. C.,, D. W. Ewart,, P. L. Giangrande,, R. J. Spooner,, C. R. Rizza,, G. M. Dusheiko,, C. A. Lee,, C. A. Ludlam,, and F. E. Preston for the UK Haemophilia Centre Directors’ Organisation. 1997. Mortality from liver cancer and liver disease in haemophilic men and boys in UK given blood products contaminated with hepatitis C. Lancet 350: 1425 1431.
34. Doo, E. C.,, and J. T. Liang,. 1999. The hepatitis viruses. In E. R. Schiff,, M. F. Sorrell,, and W. C. Maddrey (ed.), Schiff’s Diseases of the Liver, 8th ed. [CD-ROM.] Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
35. Fattovich, G.,, S. Boscaro,, F. Noventa,, E. Pornaro,, D. Stenico,, A. Alberti,, A. Ruol,, and G. Realdi. 1987. Influence of hepatitis delta virus infection on progression to cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis type B. J. Infect. Dis. 155: 931 935.
36. Fattovich, G.,, L. Brollo,, G. Giustina,, F. Noventa,, P. Pontisso,, A. Alberti,, G. Realdi,, and A. Ruol. 1991. Natural history and prognostic factors for chronic hepatitis type B. Gut 32: 294 298.
37. Fattovich, G.,, M. L. Ribero,, S. Favarato,, F. Azzario,, F. Donato,, G. Giustina,, M. Fasola,, M. Pantalena,, G. Portera,, and A. Tagger. 1998. Influence of GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus infection on the long-term course of chronic hepatitis B. Liver 18: 360 365.
38. Fattovich, G.,, G. Giustina,, E. Christensen,, M. Pantalena,, I. Zagni,, G. Realdi,, and S. W. Schalm for the European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (Eurohep). 2000. Influence of hepatitis delta virus infection on morbidity and mortality in compensated cirrhosis type B. Gut 46: 420 426.
39. Feray, C.,, M. Gigou,, D. Samuel,, G. Reyes,, J. Bernuau,, M. Reynes,, H. Bismuth,, and C. Brechot. 1993. Hepatitis C virus RNA and hepatitis B virus DNA in serum and liver of patients with fulminant hepatitis. Gastroenterology 104: 549 555.
40. Fong, T. L.,, A. M. Di Bisceglie,, J. G. Waggoner,, S. M. Banks,, and J. H. Hoofnagle. 1991. The significance of antibody to hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology 14: 64 67.
41. Gaeta, G. B.,, T. Stroffolini,, M. Chiaramonte,, T. Ascione,, G. Stornaiuolo,, S. Lobello,, E. Sagnelli,, M. R. Brunetto,, and M. Rizzetto. 2000. Chronic hepatitis D: a vanishing disease? An Italian multicenter study. Hepatology 32: 824 827.
42.. Garcia-Samaniego, J.,, V. Soriano,, J. Castilla,, R. Bravo,, A. Moreno,, J. Carbo,, A. Iniguez,, J. Gonzalez,, F. Munoz, and the Hepatitis/HIV Spanish Study Group. 1997. Influence of hepatitis C virus genotypes and HIV infection on histological severity of chronic hepatitis C. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92: 1130 1134.
43. Ghany, M. G.,, C. Leissinger,, R. Lagier,, R. Sanchez-Pescador,, and A. S. Lok. 1996. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus infection on hepatitis C virus infection in hemophiliacs. Dig. Dis. Sci. 41: 1265 1272.
44. Gilles, P. N.,, G. Fey,, and F. V. Chisari. 1992. Tumor necrosis factor alpha negatively regulates hepatitis B virus gene expression in transgenic mice. J. Virol. 66: 3955 3960.
45. Gilson, R. J.,, A. E. Hawkins,, M. R. Beecham,, E. Ross,, J. Waite,, M. Briggs,, T. McNally,, G. E. Kelly,, R. S. Tedder,, and I. V. Weller. 1997. Interactions between HIV and hepatitis B virus in homosexual men: effects on the natural history of infection. AIDS 11: 597 606.
46. Glue, P.,, R. Rouzier-Panis,, C. Raffanel,, R. Sabo,, S. K. Gupta,, M. Salfi,, S. Jacobs,, R. P. Clement, and the Hepatitis C Intervention Therapy Group. 2000. A dose-ranging study of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 32: 647 653.
47. Graham, C. S.,, L. R. Baden,, E. Yu,, J. M. Mrus,, J. Carnie,, T. Heeren,, and M. J. Koziel. 2001. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection on the course of hepatitis c virus infection: a meta-analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 562 569.
48. Greub, G.,, B. Ledergerber,, M. Battegay,, P. Grob,, L. Perrin,, H. Furrer,, P. Burgisser,, P. Erb,, K. Bogglan,, J. C. Piffaretti,, B. Hirschel,, P. Janin,, P. Francioli,, M. Flepp,, and A. Telenti. 2000. Clinical progression, survival, and immune recovery during antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus coinfection: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Lancet 356: 1800 1805.
49. Grinde, B.,, K. Stene-Johansen,, B. Sharma,, T. Hoel,, M. Jensenius,, and K. Skaug. 1997. Characterisation of an epidemic of hepatitis A virus involving intravenous drug abusers—infection by needle sharing? J. Med. Virol. 53: 69 75.
50. Guptan, R. C.,, V. Thakur,, V. Raina,, and S. K. Sarin. 1999. Alpha-interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis due to active dual infection with hepatitis B and C viruses. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 14: 893 898.
51. Helbling, B.,, R. Kammerlander,, and E. L. Renner. 1998. Acute hepatitis A (AHA) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC): no increased case-fatality rate. Hepatology 28: 276A. (Abstract.)
52. Hoggard, P. G.,, S. Kewn,, M. G. Barry,, S. H. Khoo,, and D. J. Back. 1997. Effects of drugs on 2′,3′-dideoxy-2′,3′-didehydrothymidine phosphorylation in vitro. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 1231 1236.
53. Hollinger, F. B.,, G. Dolana,, W. Thomas,, and F. Gyorkey. 1984. Reduction in risk of hepatitis transmission by heat-treatment of a human Factor VIII concentrate. J. Infect. Dis. 150: 250 262.
54. Housset, C.,, E. Lamas,, V. Courgnaud,, O. Boucher,, P. M. Girard,, C. Marche,, and C. Brechot. 1993. Presence of HIV-1 in human parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells in vivo. J. Hepatol. 19: 252 258.
55. Japour, A. J.,, J. J. Lertora,, P. M. Meehan,, A. Erice,, J. D. Connor,, B. P. Griffith,, P. A. Clax,, J. Holden-Wiltse,, S. Hussey,, M. Walesky,, E. Cooney,, R. Pollard,, J. Timpone,, C. McLaren,, N. Johanneson,, K. Wood,, D. Booth,, Y. Bassiakos,, and C. S. Crumpacker. 1996. A phase-I study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of combination didanosine and ribavirin in patients with HIV-1 disease. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 231 Protocol Team. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. Hum. Retrovirol. 13: 235 246.
56. Jardi, R.,, F. Rodriguez,, M. Buti,, X. Costa,, M. Cotrina,, R. Galimany,, R. Esteban,, and J. Guardia. 2001. Role of hepatitis B, C, and D viruses in dual and triple infection: influence of viral genotypes and hepatitis B precore and basal core promoter mutations on viral replicative interference. Hepatology 34: 404 410.
57. Kao, J. H.,, C. J. Liu,, P. J. Chen,, W. Chen,, S. C. Hsiang,, M. Y. Lai,, and D. S. Chen. 1997. Interspousal transmission of GB virus- C/hepatitis G virus: a comparison with hepatitis C virus. J. Med. Virol. 53: 348 353.
58. Keeffe, E. B. 1995. Is hepatitis A more severe in patients with chronic hepatitis B and other chronic liver diseases? Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90: 201 205.
59. Keeffe, E. B.,, S. Iwarson,, B. J. McMahon,, K. L. Lindsay,, R. S. Koff,, M. Manns,, R. Baumgarten,, M. Wiese,, M. Fourneau,, A. Safary,, R. Clemens,, and D. S. Krause. 1998. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology 27: 881 886.
60. Kew, M. C.,, M. C. Yu,, M. A. Kedda,, A. Coppin,, A. Sarkin,, and J. Hodkinson. 1997. The relative roles of hepatitis B and C viruses in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in southern African blacks. Gastroenterology 112: 184 187.
61. Koff, R. S. 1992. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of hepatitis A virus infection. Vaccine 10: S15 S17.
62. Koike, K.,, K. Yasuda,, H. Yotsuyanagi,, K. Moriya,, K. Hino,, K. Kurokawa,, and S. Iino. 1995. Dominant replication of either virus in dual infection with hepatitis viruses B and C. J. Med. Virol. 45: 236 239.
63. Krogsgaard, K.,, B. O. Lindhardt,, J. O. Nielson,, P. Andersson,, P. Kryger,, J. Aldershvile,, J. Gerstoft,, and C. Pedersen. 1987. The influence of HTLV-III infection on the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in male homosexual HBsAg carriers. Hepatology 7: 37 41.
64. Kuo, G.,, Q. L. Choo,, H. J. Alter,, G. L. Gitnick,, A. G. Redeker,, R. H. Purcell,, T. Miyamura,, J. L. Dienstag,, M. J. Alter,, C. E. Stevens, et al. 1989. An assay for circulating antibodies to a major etiologic virus of human non- A, non-B hepatitis. Science 244: 362 364.
65. Landau, A.,, D. Batisse,, J. P. Van Huyen,, C. Piketty,, F. Bloch,, G. Pialoux,, L. Belec,, J. P. Petite,, L. Weiss,, and M. D. Kazatchkine. 2000. Efficacy and safety of combination therapy with interferon-alpha2b and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 14: 839 844.
66. Lau, D. T.,, D. E. Kleiner,, Y. Park,, A. M. Di Bisceglie,, and J. H. Hoofnagle. 1999. Resolution of chronic delta hepatitis after 12 years of interferon alfa therapy. Gastroenterology 117: 1229 1233.
67. Lau, J. Y.,, K. Qian,, J. Detmer,, M. L. Collins,, E. Orito,, J. A. Kolberg,, M. S. Urdea,, M. Mizokami,, and G. L. Davis. 1997. Effect of interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy on serum GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBVC/ HGV) RNA levels in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus and GBV-C/HGV. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 421 426.
68. Lauer, G. M.,, and B. D. Walker. 2001. Hepatitis C virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 345: 41 52.
69. Lechmann, M.,, and T. J. Liang. 2000. Vaccine development for hepatitis C. Semin. Liver Dis. 20: 211 226.
70. Leung, N. W.,, C. L. Lai,, T. T. Chang,, R. Guan,, C. M. Lee,, K. Y. Ng,, S. G. Lim,, P. C. Wu,, J. C. Dent,, S. Edmundson,, L. D. Condreay,, and R. N. Chien. 2001. Extended lamivudine treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B enhances hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion rates: results after 3 years of therapy. Hepatology 33: 1527 1532.
71. Liaw, Y. F.,, S. L. Tsai,, J. J. Chang,, I. S. Sheen,, R. N. Chien,, D. Y. Lin,, and C. M. Chu. 1994. Displacement of hepatitis B virus by hepatitis C virus as the cause of continuing chronic hepatitis. Gastroenterology 106: 1048 1053.
72. Liaw, Y. F. 1995. Role of hepatitis C virus in dual and triple hepatitis virus infection. Hepatology 22: 1101 1108.
73. Liaw, Y. F.,, S. L. Tsai,, I. S. Sheen,, M. Chao,, C. T. Yeh,, S. Y. Hsieh,, and C. M. Chu. 1998. Clinical and virological course of chronic hepatitis B virus infection with hepatitis C and D virus markers. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 93: 354 359.
74. Lightfoot, K.,, M. Skelton,, M. C. Kew,, M. C. Yu,, M. A. Kedda,, A. Coppin,, and J. Hodkinson. 1997. Does hepatitis GB virus-C infection cause hepatocellular carcinoma in black Africans? Hepatology 26: 740 742.
75. Linnen, J.,, J. Wages, Jr.,, Z. Y. Zhang-Keck,, K. E. Fry,, K. Z. Krawczynski,, H. Alter,, E. Koonin,, M. Gallagher,, M. Alter,, S. Hadziyannis,, P. Karayiannis,, K. Fung,, Y. Nakatsuji,, J. W. Shih,, L. Young,, M. Piatak, Jr.,, C. Hoover,, J. Fernandez,, S. Chen,, J. C. Zou,, T. Morris,, K. C. Hyams,, S. Ismay,, J. D. Lifson,, J. P. Kim, et al. 1996. Molecular cloning and disease association of hepatitis G virus: a transfusion-transmissible agent. Science 271: 505 508.
76. Lok, A. S.,, E. J. Heathcote,, and J. H. Hoofnagle. 2001. Management of hepatitis B: 2000— summary of a workshop. Gastroenterology 120: 1828 1853.
77. Malaguarnera, M.,, S. Restuccia,, G. Pistone,, P. Ruello,, I. Giugno,, and B. A. Trovato. 1996. A meta-analysis of interferon-alpha treatment of hepatitis D virus infection. Pharmacotherapy 16: 609 614.
78. Marcellin, P.,, N. Boyer,, J. F. Colin,, M. Martinot-Peignoux,, V. Lefort,, S. Matheron,, S. Erlinger,, and J. P. Benhamou. 1993. Recombinant alpha interferon for chronic hepatitis B in anti-HIV positive patients receiving zidovudine. Gut 34: S106.
79. Marriott, E.,, S. Navas,, J. del Romero,, S. Garcia,, I. Castillo,, J. A. Quiroga,, and V. Carreno. 1993. Treatment with recombinant alpha- interferon of chronic hepatitis C in anti- HIV-positive patients. J. Med. Virol. 40: 107 111.
80. Mast, E. E.,, F. J. Mahoney,, M. J. Alter,, and H. S. Margolis. 1998. Progress toward elimination of hepatitis B virus transmission in the United States. Vaccine 16(Suppl.): S48 S51.
81. Mathurin, P.,, V. Thibault,, K. Kadidja,, N. Ganne-Carrie,, J. Moussalli,, M. El Younsi,, V. Di Martino,, F. Lunel,, F. Charlotte,, M. Vidaud,, P. Opolon,, and T. Poynard. 2000. Replication status and histological features of patients with triple (B, C, D) and dual (B, C) hepatic infections. J. Viral Hepat. 7: 15 22.
82. Matsiota-Bernard, P.,, G. Vrioni,, C. Onody,, L. Bernard,, P. de Truchis,, and C. Peronne. 2001. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors have no effect on hepatitis C virus (HCV) serum levels of HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 17: 155 157.
83. Matthews-Greer, J. M.,, G. C. Caldito,, S. D. Adley,, R. Willis,, A. C. Mire,, R. M. Jamison,, K. L. McRae,, J. W. King,, and W. L. Chang. 2001. Comparison of hepatitis C viral loads in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 8: 690 694.
84. Mauss, S.,, H. Klinker,, A. Ulmer,, R. Willers,, B. Weissbrich,, H. Albrecht,, D. Haussinger,, and H. Jablonowski. 1998. Response to treatment of chronic hepatitis C with interferon alpha in patients infected with HIV-1 is associated with higher CD4+ cell count. Infection 26: 16 19.
85. McDonald, J. A.,, L. Caruso,, P. Karayiannis,, L. J. Scully,, J. R. Harris,, G. E. Forster,, and H. C. Thomas. 1987. Diminished responsiveness of male homosexual chronic hepatitis B virus carriers with HTLV-III antibodies to recombinant alpha-interferon. Hepatology 7: 719 723.
86. McHutchison, J. G.,, O. V. Nainan,, M. J. Alter,, A. Sedghi-Vaziri,, J. Detmer,, M. Collins,, and J. Kolberg. 1997. Hepatitis C and G co-infection: response to interferon therapy and quantitative changes in serum HGV-RNA. Hepatology 26: 1322 1327.
87. McHutchison, J. G.,, S. C. Gordon,, E. R. Schiff,, M. L. Shiffman,, W. M. Lee,, V. K. Rustgi,, Z. D. Goodman,, M. H. Ling,, S. Cort,, J. K. Albrecht, and the Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. 1998. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. N. Engl. J. Med. 339: 1485 1492.
88. Mimms, L. T.,, J. W. Mosley,, F. B. Hollinger,, R. D. Aach,, C. E. Stevens,, M. Cunningham,, D. V. Vallari,, L. H. Barbosa,, and G. J. Nemo. 1993. Effect of concurrent acute infection with hepatitis C virus on acute hepatitis B virus infection. BMJ 307: 1095 1097.
89. Monga, H. K.,, M. C. Rodriguez-Barradas,, K. Breaux,, K. Khattak,, C. L. Troisi,, M. Velez,, and B. Yoffe. 2001. Hepatitis C virus infection-related morbidity and mortality among patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 240 247.
90. Murphy, E. L.,, A. C. Collier,, L. A. Kalish,, S. F. Assmann,, M. F. Para,, T. P. Flanigan,, P. N. Kumar,, L. Mintz,, F. R. Wallach,, and G. J. Nemo. 2001. Highly active antiretroviral therapy decreases mortality and morbidity in patients with advanced HIV disease. Ann. Intern. Med. 135: 17 26.
91. Myers, R. P.,, J. C. Gregor,, and P. J. Marotta. 2000. The cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 31: 834 839.
92. Piroth, L.,, M. Duong,, C. Quantin,, M. Abrahamowicz,, R. Michardiere,, L. S. Aho,, M. Grappin,, M. Buisson,, A. Waldner,, H. Portier,, and P. Chavanet. 1998. Does hepatitis C virus co-infection accelerate clinical and immunological evolution of HIV-infected patients? AIDS 12: 381 388.
93. Pontisso, P.,, M. G. Ruvoletto,, G. Fattovich,, L. Chemello,, A. Gallorini,, A. Ruol,, and A. Alberti. 1993. Clinical and virological profiles in patients with multiple hepatitis virus infections. Gastroenterology 105: 1529 1533.
94. Pontisso, P.,, M. Gerotto,, M. G. Ruvoletto,, G. Fattovich,, L. Chemello,, S. Tisminetzky,, F. Baralle,, and A. Alberti. 1996. Hepatitis C genotypes in patients with dual hepatitis B and C virus infection. J. Med. Virol. 48: 157 160.
95. Pontisso, P.,, M. Gerotto,, L. Benvegnu,, L. Chemello,, and A. Alberti. 1998. Coinfection by hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Antivir. Ther. 3: 137 142.
96. Poynard, T.,, P. Bedossa,, and P. Opolon. 1997. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR, and DOSVIRC groups. Lancet 349: 825 832.
97. Poynard, T.,, P. Marcellin,, S. S. Lee,, C. Niederau,, G. S. Minuk,, G. Ideo,, V. Bain,, J. Heathcote,, S. Zeuzem,, C. Trepo,, J. Albrecht, and the International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group (IHIT). 1998. Randomised trial of interferon alpha2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon alpha2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. Lancet 352: 1426 1432.
98. Poynard, T.,, V. Ratziu,, Y. Benhamou,, P. Opolon,, P. Cacoub,, and P. Bedossa. 2000. Natural history of HCV infection. Bailliere’s Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 14: 211 228.
99. Poynard, T.,, V. Ratziu,, F. Charlotte,, Z. Goodman,, J. McHutchison,, and J. Albrecht. 2001. Rates and risk factors of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J. Hepatol. 34: 730 739.
100. Rizzetto, M.,, G. Verme,, S. Recchia,, F. Bonino,, P. Farci,, S. Arico,, R. Calzia,, A. Picciotto,, M. Colombo,, and H. Popper. 1983. Chronic hepatitis in carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen, with intrahepatic expression of the delta antigen. An active and progressive disease unresponsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Ann. Intern. Med. 98: 437 441.
101. Rizzetto, M.,, and A. Smedile,. 1999. Hepatitis D. In E. R. Schiff,, M. F. Sorrell,, and W. C. Maddrey (ed.), Schiff’s Diseases of the Liver, 8th ed. [CD-ROM.] Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
102. Rodriguez-Mendez, M. L.,, A. Gonzalez- Quintela,, A. Aguilera,, and E. Barrio. 2000. Prevalence, patterns, and course of past hepatitis B virus infection in intravenous drug users with HIV-1 infection. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95: 1316 1322.
103. Rosina, F.,, and M. Rizzetto. 1989. Treatment of chronic type D (delta) hepatitis with alpha interferon. Semin. Liver Dis. 9: 264 266.
104.. Sagnelli, E.,, N. Coppola,, C. Scolastico,, P. Filippini,, T. Santantonio,, T. Stroffolini,, and F. Piccinino. 2000. Virologic and clinical expressions of reciprocal inhibitory effect of hepatitis B, C, and delta viruses in patients with chronic hepatitis. Hepatology 32: 1106 1110.
105. Saillour, F.,, F. Dabis,, M. Dupon,, D. Lacoste,, P. Trimoulet,, P. Rispal ,. E. Monlun,, J. M. Ragnaud,, P. Morlat,, J. L. Pellegrin,, H. Fleury,, P. Couzigou, and the Groupe d’Épidémiologie Clinique du SIDA. 1996. Prevalence and determinants of antibodies to hepatitis C virus and markers for hepatitis B virus infection in patients with HIV infection in Aquitaine. Br. Med. J. 313: 461 464.
106. Saracco, G.,, F. Rosina,, M. R. Brunetto,, P. Amoroso,, F. Caredda,, P. Farci,, P. Piantino,, F. Bonino,, and M. Rizzetto. 1987. Rapidly progressive HBsAg-positive hepatitis in Italy. The role of hepatitis delta virus infection. J. Hepatol. 5: 274 281.
107. Sato, S.,, S. Fujiyama,, M. Tanaka,, K. Yamasaki,, I. Kuramoto,, S. Kawano,, T. Sato,, K. Mizuno,, and S. Nonaka. 1994. Coinfection of hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. J. Hepatol. 21: 159 166.
108. Scoazec, J. Y.,, and G. Feldmann. 1990. Both macrophages and endothelial cells of the human hepatic sinusoid express the CD4 molecule, a receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus. Hepatology 12: 505 510.
109. Seeff, L. B.,, Z. Buskell-Bales,, E. C. Wright,, S. J. Durako,, H. J. Alter,, F. L. Iber,, F. B. Hollinger,, G. Gitnick,, R. G. Knodell,, R. P. Perrillo, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Study Group. 1992. Long-term mortality after transfusion- associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 1906 1911.
110. Seeff, L. B.,, R. N. Miller,, C. S. Rabkin,, Z. Buskell-Bales,, K. D. Straley-Eason,, B. L. Smoak,, L. D. Johnson,, S. R. Lee,, and E. L. Kaplan. 2000. 45-year follow-up of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy young adults. Ann. Intern. Med. 132: 105 111.
111. Sheen, I. S.,, Y. F. Liaw,, D. Y. Lin,, and C. M. Chu. 1994. Role of hepatitis C and delta viruses in the termination of chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carrier state: a multivariate analysis in a longitudinal follow-up study. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 358 361.
112. Sherman, M., for the CASL Hepatitis Consensus Group, Canadian Association for Study of the Liver. 1997. Management of viral hepatitis: clinical and public health perspectives— a consensus statement. Can. J. Gastroenterol. 11: 407 416.
113. Shih, C. M.,, S. J. Lo,, T. Miyamura,, S. Y. Chen,, and Y. H. Lee. 1993. Suppression of hepatitis B virus expression and replication by hepatitis C virus core protein in HuH-7 cells. J. Virol. 67: 5823 5832.
114. Sinicco, A.,, R. Ralteri,, M. Sciandra,, C. Bertone,, A. Lingua,, B. Salassa,, and P. Gioannini. 1997. Coinfection and superinfection of hepatitis B virus in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: no evidence of faster progression to AIDS. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 29: 111 115.
115. Slimane, S. B.,, J. K. Albrecht,, J. W. Fang,, Z. Goodman,, M. Mizokami,, K. Qian,, and J. Y. Lau. 2000. Clinical, virological and histological implications of GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a multicentre study based on 671 patients. J. Viral Hepat. 7: 51 55.
116. Soriano, V.,, R. Bravo,, J. G. Samaniego,, J. Gonzalez,, P. M. Odriozola,, E. Arroyo,, J. L. Vicario,, A. Castro,, M. Colmenero,, E. Carballo, and the HIV-Hepatitis Spanish Study Group. 1994. CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in HIV-infected patients receiving interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C. AIDS 8: 1621 1622.
117. Soriano, V.,, J. Garcia-Samaniego,, R. Bravo,, J. Gonzalez,, A. Castro,, J. Castilla,, P. Martinez-Odriozola,, M. Colmenero,, E. Carballo,, D. Suarez,, F. J. Rodriguez- Pinero,, A. Moreno,, J. del Romero,, J. Pedreira,, J. Gonzalez-Lahoz, and the Hepatitis- HIV Spanish Study Group. 1996. Interferon alpha for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 585 591.
118. Soriano, V.,, J. Garcia-Samaniego,, R. Bravo,, J. Gonzalez,, A. Castro,, P. Martnez- Odriozola,, M. Colmenero,, E. Carballo,, D. Suarez,, J. Castilla,, F. J. Rodriguez-Pinero,, A. Moreno,, J. del Romero,, J. Pedreira,, J. Gonzalez-Lahoz, and the Spanish Group for the Study of Viral Hepatitis in HIV+ Patients. 1986. The treatment of chronic hepatitis C with interferon in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Med. Clin. (Barcelona) 106: 486 490. (In Spanish.)
119. Soriano, V.,, R. Bravo,, J. Garcia- Samaniego,, J. Castilla,, J. Gonzalez,, A. Castro,, J. M. Llibre, and the Hepatitis/HIV Spanish Study Group. 1997. Relapses of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients who responded to interferon therapy. AIDS 11: 400 401.
120. Soriano, V.,, J. Garcia-Samaniego,, R. Rodriguez- Rosado,, J. Gonzalez,, and J. Pedreira. 1999. Hepatitis C and HIV infection: biological, clinical, and therapeutic implications. J. Hepatol. 31: 119 123.
121. Soriano, V.,, J. Garcia-Samaniego,, E. Valencia,, R. Rodriguez-Rosado,, F. Munoz,, and J. Gonzalez-Lahoz. 1999. Impact of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis viruses as cause of hospital admission and death in HIV-infected drug users. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 15: 1 4.
122. Soriano, V.,, R. Rodriguez-Rosado,, and J. Garcia-Samaniego. 1999. Management of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients. AIDS 13: 539 546.
123. Soto, B.,, A. Sanchez-Quijano,, L. Rodrigo,, J. A. del Olmo,, M. Garcia-Bengoechea,, J. Hernandez-Quero,, C. Rey,, M. A. Abad,, M. Rodriguez,, M. Sales Gilabert,, F. Gonzalez,, P. Miron,, A. Caruz,, F. Relimpio,, R. Torronteras,, M. Leal,, and E. Lissen. 1997. Human immunodeficiency virus infection modifies the natural history of chronic parenterally- acquired hepatitis C with an unusually rapid progression to cirrhosis. J. Hepatol. 26: 1 5.
124. Tanaka, E.,, H. J. Alter,, Y. Nakatsuji,, J. W. Shih,, J. P. Kim,, A. Matsumoto,, M. Kobayashi,, and K. Kiyosawa. 1996. Effect of hepatitis G virus infection on chronic hepatitis C. Ann. Intern. Med. 125: 740 743.
125. Taniguchi, M.,, A. O. Shakil,, H. E. Vargas,, T. Laskus,, A. J. Demetris,, T. Gayowski,, S. F. Dodson,, J. J. Fung,, and J. Rakela. 2000. Clinical and virologic outcomes of hepatitis B and C viral coinfection after liver transplantation: effect of viral hepatitis D. Liver Transplant. 6: 92 96.
126. Telfer, P.,, C. Sabin,, H. Devereux,, F. Scott,, G. Dusheiko,, and C. Lee. 1994. The progression of HCV-associated liver disease in a cohort of haemophilic patients. Br. J. Haematol. 87: 555 561.
127. Telfer, P. T.,, D. Brown,, H. Devereux,, C. A. Lee,, and G. M. DuSheiko. 1994. HCV RNA levels and HIV infection: evidence for a viral interaction in haemophilic patients. Br. J. Haematol. 88: 397 399.
128. Terrault, N. A. 2000. Hepatitis C virus and liver transplantation. Semin. Gastrointest. Dis. 11: 96 114.
129. Thevenot, T.,, V. Di Martino,, J. F. Colin,, F. Degos,, S. Erlinger,, J. P. Benhamou,, and P. Marcellin. 1998. Detrimental influence of HIV on the natural history and the interferon response rate in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology 114: A1354. (Abstract.)
130. Thevenot, T.,, C. Regimbeau,, V. Ratziu,, V. Leroy,, P. Opolon,, and T. Poynard. 2001. Meta-analysis of interferon randomized trials in the treatment of viral hepatitis C in naive patients: 1999 update. J. Viral Hepat. 8: 48 62.
131. Tsai, S. L.,, Y. F. Liaw,, C. T. Yeh,, C. M. Chu,, and G. C. Kuo. 1995. Cellular immune responses in patients with dual infection of hepatitis B and C viruses: dominant role of hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 21: 908 912.
132. Tsiquaye, K. N.,, B. Portmann,, G. Tovey,, H. Kessler,, S. Hu,, X. Z. Lu,, A. J. Zuckerman,, J. Craske,, and R. Williams. 1983. Non-A, non-B hepatitis in persistent carriers of hepatitis B virus. J. Med. Virol. 11: 179 189.
133. Vento, S.,, T. Garofano,, C. Renzini,, F. Cainelli,, F. Casali,, G. Ghironzi,, T. Ferraro,, and E. Concia. 1998. Fulminant hepatitis associated with hepatitis A virus superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 286 290.
134. Viazov, S.,, M. Riffelmann,, S. Sarr,, A. Ballauff,, H. Meisel,, and M. Roggendorf. 1997. Transmission of GBV-C/HGV from drug-addicted mothers to their babies. J. Hepatol. 27: 85 90.
135. Villa, E.,, A. Grottola,, P. Trande,, Y. Selum,, A. M. Rebecchi,, A. Dugani,, and F. Manenti. 1993. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection induced by interferon (IFN) in HBsAg-positive, antiHCV-positive patients. Lancet 341: 1413.
136. Villa, E.,, A. Grottola,, P. Buttafoco,, P. Trande,, A. Merighi,, N. Fratti,, Y. Seium,, G. Cioni,, and F. Manenti. 1995. Evidence for hepatitis B virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C with and without serological markers of hepatitis B. Dig. Dis. Sci. 40: 8 13.
137. Weltman, M. D.,, A. Brotodihardjo,, E. B. Crewe,, G. C. Farrell,, M. Bilous,, J. M. Grierson,, and C. Liddle. 1995. Coinfection with hepatitis B and C or B, C and delta viruses results in severe chronic liver disease and responds poorly to interferon-alpha treatment. J. Viral. Hepat. 2: 39 45.
138. Wolters, L. M.,, A. B. van Nunen,, P. Honkoop,, A. C. Vossen,, H. G. Niesters,, P. E. Zondervan,, and R. A. de Man. 2000. Lamivudine-high dose interferon combination therapy for chronic hepatitis B patients co-infected with the hepatitis D virus. J. Viral. Hepat. 7: 428 434.
139. Wong, D. K.,, C. Yim,, C. D. Naylor,, E. Chen,, M. Sherman,, S. Vas,, I. R. Wanless,, S. Read,, H. Li,, and E. J. Heathcote. 1995. Interferon alfa treatment of chronic hepatitis B: randomized trial in a predominantly homosexual male population. Gastroenterology 108: 165 171.
140. Wu, J. C.,, C. L. Chen,, M. C. Hou,, T. Z. Chen,, S. D. Lee,, and K. J. Lo. 1994. Multiple viral infection as the most common cause of fulminant and subfulminant viral hepatitis in an area endemic for hepatitis B: application and limitations of the polymerase chain reaction. Hepatology 19: 836 840.
141. Wu, J. C.,, T. Z. Chen,, Y. S. Huang,, F. S. Yen,, L. T. Ting,, W. Y. Sheng,, S. H. Tsay,, and S. D. Lee. 1995. Natural history of hepatitis D viral superinfection: significance of viremia detected by polymerase chain reaction. Gastroenterology 108: 796 802.
142. Yap, S. H.,, J. A. Hellings,, P. J. Rijntjes,, A. M. van Loon,, W. Duermeyer,, and R. Stute. 1985. Absence of detectable hepatitis B virus DNA in sera and liver of chimpanzees with non-A, non-B hepatitis. J. Med. Virol. 15: 343 350.
143. Yeh, C. T.,, C. T. Chiu,, S. L. Tsai,, S. T. Hong,, C. M. Chu,, and Y. F. Liaw. 1994. Absence of precore stop mutant in chronic dual (B and C) and triple (B, C, and D) hepatitis virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 170: 1582 1585.
144. Yu, M. C.,, M. J. Tong,, P. Coursaget,, R. K. Ross,, S. Govindarajan,, and B. E. Henderson. 1990. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral markers in black and white patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 82: 1038 1041.
145. Zarski, J. P.,, B. Bohn,, A. Bastie,, J. M. Pawlotsky,, M. Baud,, F. Bost-Bezeaux,, J. Tran van Nhieu,, J. M. Seigneurin,, C. Buffet,, and D. Dhumeaux. 1998. Characteristics of patients with dual infection by hepatitis B and C viruses. J. Hepatol. 28: 27 33.
146. Zeuzem, S.,, S. V. Feinman,, J. Rasenack,, E. J. Heathcote,, M. Y. Lai,, E. Gane,, J. O’- Grady,, J. Reichen,, M. Diago,, A. Lin,, J. Hoffman,, and M. J. Brunda. 2000. Peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C. N. Engl. J. Med. 343: 1666 1672.
147. Zylberberg, H.,, J. Jiang,, G. Pialoux,, F. Driss,, F. Carnot,, F. Dubois,, C. Brechot,, P. Berthelot,, and S. Pol. 1996. Alpha-interferon for chronic active hepatitis B in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. 20: 968 971.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error