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Chapter 5 : Concomitant Infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2

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Concomitant Infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Two distinct families of human retroviruses, the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs), cause significant infections worldwide. The viruses have common modes of transmission, both vertically and horizontally, and share an in vivo tropism for cells of the immune system, and in particular, T lymphocytes. As a result a significant number of individuals worldwide have coinfection. At present, it is unclear if coinfection influences the natural history of infection or alters the pathogenicity of an individual virus and/or if this results in the development of unique clinical features. This chapter summarizes one's current understanding of these issues with a specific focus on the influence of the HTLVs on the progression and outcome of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In contrast to HTLV type 1 (HTLV-1), the role of HTLV type 2 (HTLV-2) in human disease remains poorly defined; however, increasing evidence shows that the infection may also be associated with rare lymphoproliferative and a spectrum of neurological disorders. In addition, several epidemiological studies have suggested that underlying HTLV-2 infection may predispose to the development of a wide range of bacterial infections. The major limitations of many of these studies are that they have often been based on individual case reports and that many patients have also had concomitant HIV-1 infection. The chapter summarizes the clinical disorders that have been associated with HTLV-2 infection, and discusses the role and impact of HIV-1 coinfection.

Citation: Araujo A, Sheehy N, Hall W, Takahashi H. 2002. Concomitant Infections with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2, p 75-97. In Brogden K, Guthmiller J (ed), Polymicrobial Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817947.ch5
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