1887

Chapter 12 : Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817961/9781555811891_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817961/9781555811891_Chap12-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter discusses both home brew assays and commercially available kits and related instrumentation for the detection of infectious agents by molecular methods, and is subdivided into two sections. The first section deals with molecular amplification tests that are performed under home brew assay guidelines using reagents that are commercially available. It is recognized that the use of molecular methods for diagnosis of infectious diseases is a rapidly evolving field, and much of the initial diagnostic work is done with home brew assays developed and validated within each laboratory. The second section of the chapter reviews the commercially available products that make it easier to assemble home brew assays using partial kits and analyte-specific reagents. The integration of commercially available components into home brew molecular assays for detection of pathogens helps to avoid human error and enables standardization of testing procedures, thus increasing the precision and reproducibility of the results. The commercially available nucleic acid detection assays have several important advantages over home brew assays. These assays fall into two general categories: the direct nonamplified nucleic acid detection methods, and the amplified tests. Where possible, the use of commercial Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (or equivalent)-approved nucleic acid tests (NAT) kits and instrumentation is advantageous because of the standardization of results, convenience of use for greater numbers of clinical laboratories, and benefits related to technologist training, support, and savings of hands-on time related to a higher degree of automation.

Citation: Jungkind D, Kessler H. 2002. Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, p 306-323. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch12

Key Concept Ranking

Aptima Combo 2 Assay
0.4326409
0.4326409
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817961.chap12
1. Abravaya, K.,, C. Esping,, R. Hoenle,, J. Gorzowski,, R. Perry,, P. Kroeger,, J. Robinson,, and R. Flanders. 2000. Performance of a multiplex qualitative PCR LCx assay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M subtypes, group O, and HIV-2. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 716 723.
2. Afonso, A. M.,, J. Didier,, E. Plouvier,, B. Falissard,, M. P. Ferey,, M. Bogard,, and E. Dussaix. 2000. Performance of an automated system for quantification of hepatitis C virus RNA. J. Virol. Methods 86: 55 60.
3. Alcaide, F.,, M. A. Benitez,, J. M. Escriba,, and R. Martin. 2000. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 and the MB/BacT systems for recovery of mycobacteria from clinical specimens and for species identification by DNA AccuProbe. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 398 401.
4. Amicosante, M.,, L. Richeldi,, G. Trenti,, G. Paone,, M. Campa,, A. Bisetti,, and C. Saltini. 1995. Inactivation of polymerase inhibitors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA amplification in sputum by using capture resin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 629 630.
5.Anonymous. 1999. Association for Molecular Pathology statement. Recommendations for in-house development and operation of molecular diagnostic tests. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 111: 449463.
6. Backman, A.,, P. Lantz,, P. Radstrom,, and P. Olcen. 1999. Evaluation of an extended diagnostic PCR assay for detection and verification of the common causes of bacterial meningitis in CSF and other biological samples. Mol. Cell. Probes 13: 49 60.
7. Bass, C. A.,, D. L. Jungkind,, N. S. Silverman,, and J. M. Bondi. 1993. Clinical evaluation of a new polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2648 2653.
8. Bayer, E. A.,, and M. Wilchek. 1990. Introduction to avidin-biotin technology. Methods Enzymol. 184: 5 13.
9. Beavis, K. G.,, M. B. Lichty,, D. L. Jungkind,, and O. Giger. 1995. Evaluation of Amplicor PCR for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2582 2586.
10. Becker, K.,, R. Roth,, and G. Peters. 1998. Rapid and specific detection of toxigenic Staphylococcus aureus: use of two multiplex PCR enzyme immunoassays for amplification and hybridization of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes, exfoliative toxin genes, and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 gene. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2548 2553.
11. Beld, M.,, M. R. Habibuw,, S. P. Rebers,, R. Boom,, and H. W. Reesink. 2000. Evaluation of automated RNA-extraction technology and a qualitative HCV assay for sensitivity and detection of HCV RNA in pool-screening systems. Transfusion 40: 575 579.
12. Bergmann, J. S.,, and G. L. Woods. 1998. Clinical evaluation of the BDProbeTec strand displacement amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2766 2768.
13. Bernet, C.,, M. Garret,, B. Barbeyrac,, C. Bebear,, and J. Bonnet. 1989. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by using the polymerase chain reaction. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2492 2496.
14. Blaak, H.,, A. B. van’t Wout,, M. Brouwer,, M. Cornelissen,, N. A. Kootstra,, N. Albrecht-van Lent,, R. P. Keet,, J. Goudsmit,, R. A. Coutinho,, and H. Schuitemaker. 1998. Infectious cellular load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals and susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from their exposed partners to non-syncytium-inducing HIV-1 as major determinants for HIV-1 transmission in homosexual couples. J. Virol. 72: 218 224.
15. Blank, B. S.,, P. L. Meenhorst,, J. W. Mulder,, G. J. Weverling,, H. Putter,, W. Pauw,, W. C. van Dijk,, P. Smits,, S. Lie-A-Ling,, P. Reiss,, and J. M. Lange. 2000. Value of different assays for detection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in predicting the development of HCMV disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 563 569.
16. Boivin, G.,, J. Handfield,, G. Murray,, E. Toma,, R. Lalonde,, J. G. Lazar,, and M. G. Bergeron. 1997. Quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in leukocytes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects with and without CMV disease by using PCR and the SHARP signal detection system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 525 526.
17. Bourbeau, P. P.,, B. J. Heiter,, and M. Figdore. 1997. Use of Gen-Probe AccuProbe Group B streptococcus test to detect group B streptococci in broth cultures of vaginal-anorectal specimens from pregnant women: comparison with traditional culture method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 144 147.
18. Brice, S. L.,, D. Krzemien,, W. L. Weston,, and J. C. Huff. 1989. Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in cutaneous lesions of erythema multiforme. J. Investig. Dermatol. 93: 183 187.
19. Briselden, A. M.,, and S. L. Hillier. 1994. Evaluation of affirm VP Microbial Identification Test for Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 148 152.
20. Brown, T. J.,, E. G. Power,, and G. L. French. 1999. Evaluation of three commercial detection systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis where clinical diagnosis is difficult. J. Clin. Pathol. 52: 193 197.
21. Burgisser, P.,, P. Vernazza,, M. Flepp,, J. Boni,, Z. Tomasik,, U. Hummel,, G. Pantaleo,, and J. Schupbach. 2000. Performance of five different assays for the quantification of viral load in persons infected with various subtypes of HIV-1. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 23: 138 144.
22. Carroll, K. C.,, W. E. Aldeen,, M. Morrison,, R. Anderson,, D. Lee,, and S. Mottice. 1998. Evaluation of the Abbott LCx ligase chain reaction assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urine and genital swab specimens from a sexually transmitted disease clinic population. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1630 1633.
23. Cavirani, S.,, F. Fanti,, S. Conti,, A. Calderaro,, E. Foni,, G. Dettori,, C. Chezzi,, and F. Scatozza. 1999. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine tissue samples by the Abbott LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay and comparison with culture methods. New Microbiol. 22: 343 349.
24. Chan, H. L.,, N. W. Leung,, T. C. Lau,, M. L. Wong,, and J. J. Sung. 2000. Comparison of three different sensitive assays for hepatitis B virus DNA in monitoring of responses to antiviral therapy. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3205 3208.
25. Chu, F. K. 1998. Rapid and sensitive PCR-based detection and differentiation of aetiologic agents of human granulocytotropic and monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Mol. Cell. Probes 12: 93 99.
26. Class, H. C. J.,, J. H. T. Wagenvoort,, H. G. M. Niesters,, T. T. Tio,, J. H. van Rijsoort-Vos,, and W. G. V. Quint. 1991. Diagnostic value of the polymerase chain reaction for chlamydia detection as determined in a follow-up study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 42 45.
27. Clavel, C.,, M. Masure,, M. Levert,, I. Putaud,, C. Mangeonjean,, M. Lorenzato,, P. Nazeyrollas,, R. Gabriel,, C. Quereux,, and P. Birembaut. 2000. Human papillomavirus detection by the hybrid capture II assay: a reliable test to select women with normal cervical smears at risk for developing cervical lesions. Diagn. Mol. Pathol. 9: 145 150.
28. Clewley, J. P. 1989. The polymerase chain reaction, a review of the practical limitations for human immunodeficiency virus diagnosis. J. Virol. Methods 25: 179 188.
29. Damen, M.,, H. T. M. Cuypers,, H. L. Zaaijer,, H. W. Reesink,, W. P. Schaasberg,, W. H. Gerlich,, H. G. Niesters,, and P. N. Lelie. 1996. International collaborative study on the second EUROHEP HCV-RNA reference panel. J. Virol. Methods 58: 175 185.
30. Damen, M.,, P. Sillekens,, H. T. Cuypers,, I. Frantzen,, and R. Melsert. 1999. Characterization of the quantitative HCV NASBA assay. J. Virol. Methods 82: 45 54.
31. Deggerdal, A.,, and F. Larsen. 1997. Rapid isolation of PCR-ready DNA from blood, bone marrow and cultured cells, based on paramagnetic beads. BioTechniques 22: 554 557.
32. DeMedina, M.,, M. Ashby,, V. Schluter,, M. Hill,, B. Leclerq,, J. P. Pennell,, L. J. Jeffers,, K. R. Reddy,, E. R. Schiff,, G. Hess,, and G. O. Perez. 1998. Prevalence of hepatitis C and G virus infection in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 31: 224 226.
33. DeMeo, L. R.,, D. L. Draper,, J. A. McGregor,, D. F. Moore,, C. R. Peter,, P. S. Kapernick,, and W. M. McCormack. 1996. Evaluation of a deoxyribonucleic acid probe for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal secretions. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174: 1339 1342.
34. Echavarria, M.,, M. Forman,, J. Ticehurst,, J. S. Dumler,, and P. Charache. 1998. PCR method for detection of adenovirus in urine of healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 3323 3326.
35. Eisenstein, B. I. 1990. The polymerase chain reaction: a new method of using molecular genetics for medical diagnosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 322: 178 183.
36. Elbeik, T.,, E. Charlebois,, P. Nassos,, J. Kahn,, F. M. Hecht,, D. Yajko,, V. Ng,, and K. Hadley. 2000. Quantitative and cost comparison of ultrasensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load assays: Bayer bDNA Quantiplex versions 3.0 and 2.0 and Roche PCR Amplicor Monitor version 1.5. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1113 1120.
37. Erice, A.,, D. Brambilla,, J. Bremer,, J. B. Jackson,, R. Kokka,, B. Yen-Lieberman,, and R. W. Coombs. 2000. Performance characteristics of the QUANTIPLEX HIV-1 RNA 3.0 assay for detection and quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2837 2845.
38. Esposito, G.,, F. Blasi,, L. Allegra,, R. Chiesa,, G. Melissano,, R. Cosentini,, P. Tarsia,, L. Dordoni,, C. Cantoni,, C. Arosio,, and L. Fagetti. 1999. Demonstration of viable Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic plaques of carotid arteries by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Ann. Vasc. Surg. 13: 421 425.
39. Espy, M. J.,, and T. F. Smith. 1995. Comparison of SHARP signal system and Southern blot hybridization analysis for detection of cytomegalovirus in clinical specimens by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 3028 3030.
40. Essary, L. R.,, S. J. Kinard,, A. Butcher,, H. Wang,, K. A. Laycock,, E. Donegan,, B. McCreedy,, S. Connell,, J. Batchelor,, J. Harris,, J. Spadoro,, and J. S. Pepose. 1996. Screening potential corneal donors for HIV-1 by polymerase chain reaction and a colorimetric microwell hybridization assay. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 122: 526 534.
41. Fahle, G. A.,, and S. H. Fischer. 2000. Comparison of six commercial DNA extraction kits for recovery of cytomegalovirus DNA from spiked human specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3860 3863.
42. Flahaut, M.,, D. Sanglard,, M. Monod,, J. Bille,, and M. Rossier. 1998. Rapid detection of Candida albicans in clinical samples by DNA amplification of common regions from C. albicans-secreted aspartic proteinase genes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 395 401.
43. Fransen, K.,, D. Mortier,, L. Heyndrickx,, C. Verhofstede,, W. Janssens,, and G. van der Groen. 1998. Isolation of HIV-1 RNA from plasma: evaluation of seven different methods for extraction. J. Virol. Methods 76: 153 157.
44. Garson, J. A.,, R. S. Tedder,, M. Briggs,, P. Tuke,, J. A. Glazebrook,, A. Trute,, D. Parker,, J. A. J. Barbara,, M. Contreras,, and S. Aloysius. 1990. Detection of viral hepatitis C sequences in blood donations by ‘nested’ polymerase chain reaction and prediction of infectivity. Lancet 335: 1419 1422.
45. Goessens, W. H.,, J. W. Mouton,, W. I. van der Meijden,, S. Deelen,, T. H. van Rijsoort-Vos,, N. Lemmens den Toom,, H. A. Verbrugh,, and R. P. Verkooyen. 1997. Comparison of three commercially available amplification assays, AMP CT, LCx, and COBAS AMPLICOR, for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2628 2633.
46. Goossens, V. J.,, M. J. Blok,, M. H. Christiaans,, J. P. van Hooff,, P. Sillekens,, K. Hockerstedt,, I. Lautenschlager,, J. M. Middeldorp,, and C. A. Bruggeman. 1999. Diagnostic value of nucleic-acid-sequence-based amplification for the detection of cytomegalovirus infection in renal and liver transplant recipients. Intervirology 42: 373 381.
47. Gossack, J. P.,, and J. L. Beebe. 1998. Use of DNA purification kits for polymerase chain reaction testing of Gen-Probe Chlamydia trachomatis PACE 2 specimens. Sex. Transm. Dis. 25: 265 271.
48. Gromadzki, S. G.,, and V. Chaturvedi. 2000. Limitation of the AccuProbe Coccidioides immitis culture identification test: false-negative results with formaldehydekilled cultures. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2427 2428.
49. Hale, Y. M.,, M. E. Melton,, J. S. Lewis,, and D. E. Willis. 1993. Evaluation of the PACE 2 Neisseria gonorrhoeae assay by three public health laboratories. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 451 453.
50. Ho, S. K.,, F. K. Li,, K. N. Lai,, and T. M. Chan. 2000. Comparison of the CMV Brite Turbo assay and the Digene Hybrid Capture CMV DNA (version 2.0) assay for quantitation of cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3743 3745.
51. Hodara, V.,, A. Monticelli,, S. Pampuro,, H. Salomon,, H. Jauregui Rueda,, and O. Libonatti. 1998. HIV-1 viral load: comparative evaluation of three commercially available assays in Argentina. Acta Physiol. Pharmacol. Ther. Latinoam. 48: 107 113.
52. Ichiyama, S.,, Y. Ito,, F. Sugiura,, Y. Iinuma,, S. Yamori,, M. Shimojima,, Y. Hasegawa,, K. Shimokata,, and N. Nakashima. 1997. Diagnostic value of the strand displacement amplification method compared to those of Roche Amplicor PCR and culture for detecting mycobacteria in sputum samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 3082 3085.
53. Iwen, P. C.,, R. A. Walker,, K. L. Warren,, D. M. Kelly,, S. H. Hinrichs,, and J. Linder. 1995. Evaluation of a nucleic acid-based test (PACE 2C) for simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in endocervical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2587 2591.
54. Jaulhac, B.,, M. Reyrolle,, Y. K. Sodahlon,, S. Jarraud,, M. Kubina,, H. Monteil,, Y. Piemont,, and J. Etienne. 1998. Comparison of sample preparation methods for detection of Legionella pneumophila in culture-positive bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2120 2122.
55. Jonas, D.,, A. Rosenbaum,, S. Weyrich,, and S. Bhakdi. 1995. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for detection of PCR-amplified DNA of legionellae in bronchoalveolar fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1247 1252.
56. Jongerius, J. M.,, M. Bovenhorst,, C. L. van der Poel,, J. A. van Hilten,, A. C. Kroes,, J. A. van der Does,, E. F. van Leeuwen,, and R. Schuurman. 2000. Evaluation of automated nucleic acid extraction devices for application in HCV NAT. Transfusion 40: 871 874.
57. Jungkind, D. Automation of clinical microbiology: past, present, and future. Eur. J. Clin. Virol., in press..
58. Jungkind, D. L., 1996 Evaluation of an automated COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the impact on laboratory management, p. 272 273. In A. Stary (ed.), Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the European Society for Chlamydia Research. Societa Editrice Esculapio, Bologna, Italy.
59. Jungkind, D. L.,, S. DiRenzo,, K. G. Beavis,, and N. S. Silverman. 1996. Evaluation of an automated COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system for detection of several infectious agents and the impact on laboratory management. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2778 2783.
60. Kessler, C. 1991. The digoxigenin:anti-digoxigenin (DIG) technology—a survey on the concept and realization of a novel bioanalytical indicator system. Mol. Cell. Probes 5: 161 205.
61. Kessler, C., 1992 The digoxigenin:anti-digoxigenin (DIG) system, p. 35 69. In C. Kessler (ed.), Nonradioactive Labeling and Detection of Biomolecules. Springer, New York, N.Y..
62. Kessler, H. H.,, D. E. Dodge,, K. Pierer,, K. K. Y. Young,, Y. Liao,, B. I. Santner,, E. Eber,, M. G. Roeger,, D. Stuenzner,, B. Sixl-Voigt,, and E. Marth. 1997. Rapid detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by an assay based on PCR and probe hybridization in a nonradioactive microwell plate format. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1592 1594.
63. Kessler, H. H.,, D. Jungkind,, E. Stelzl,, S. Direnzo,, S. K. Vellimedu,, K. Pierer,, B. Santner,, and E. Marth. 1999. Evaluation of AMPLILINK software for the COBAS AMPLICOR system. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 436 437.
64. Kessler, H. H.,, K. Pierer,, B. I. Santner,, S. K. Vellimedu,, E. Stelzl,, E. Marth,, P. Fickert,, and R. E. Stauber. 1998. Evaluation of molecular parameters for routine assessment of viremia in patients with chronic hepatitis C who are undergoing antiviral therapy. J. Hum. Virol. 1: 314 319.
65. Kessler, H. H.,, K. Pierer,, B. Weber,, A. Sakrauski,, B. Santner,, D. Stuenzner,, E. Gergely,, and E. Marth 1994. Detection of herpes simplex virus DNA from cerebrospinal fluid by PCR and a rapid, nonradioactive hybridization technique. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1881 1886.
66. Kessler, H. H.,, F. F. Reinthaler,, A. Pschaid,, K. Pierer,, B. Kleinhappl,, E. Eber,, and E. Marth. 1993. Rapid detection of Legionella species in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids with the EnviroAmp Legionella PCR amplification and detection kit. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 3325 3328.
67. King, J. A.,, and J. K. Ball. 1993. Detection of HIV-1 by digoxigenin-labelled PCR and microtitre plate solution hybridization assay and prevention of PCR carry-over by uracil-N-glycosylase. J. Virol. Methods 44: 67 76.
68. Kitchin, P. A.,, Z. Szotyori,, C. Fromholc,, and N. Almond. 1990 Avoidance of false positives. Nature 344: 201.
69. Klapper, P.,, D. Jungkind,, T. Fenner,, R. Antinozzi,, J. Schirm,, and C. Blanckmeister. 1998. Multicenter international work flow study of an automated polymerase chain reaction instrument. Clin. Chem. 44: 1737 1739.
70. Klapper, P. E.,, G. M. Cleator,, C. Dennett,, and A. G. Lewis. 1990. Diagnosis of herpes encephalitis via Southern blotting of cerebrospinal fluid DNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction. J. Med. Virol. 32: 261 264.
71. Kox, L. F.,, D. Rhienthong,, A. M. Miranda,, N. Udomsantisuk,, K. Ellis,, J. van Leeuwen,, S. van Heusden,, S. Kuijper,, and A. H. Kolk. 1994. A more reliable PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 672 678.
72. Kramvis, A.,, S. Bukofzer,, and M. C. Kew. 1996. Comparison of hepatitis B virus DNA extractions from serum by the QIAamp blood kit, GeneReleaser, and the phenol-chloroform method. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2731 2733.
73. Kwok, S., 1990 Procedures to minimize PCR-product-carryover, p. 142 145. In M. A. Innis,, D. H. Gelfand,, and J. J. Sninsky (ed.), PCR Protocols. A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, Calif..
74. Kwok, S.,, and R. Higuchi. 1989. Avoiding false positives with PCR. Nature (London) 339: 237 238.
75. Lauderdale, T. L.,, L. Landers,, I. Thorneycroft,, and K. Chapin. 1999. Comparison of the PACE 2 assay, two amplification assays, and Clearview EIA for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in female endocervical and urine specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2223 2229.
76. Lelie, P. N.,, H. T. M. Cuypers,, A. A. J. van Drimmelen,, and W. G. V. Quint. 1998. Quality assessment of hepatitis C virus nucleic acid amplification methods. Infusionsther. Transfusionsmed. 25: 102 110.
77. Lichtinghagen, R.,, and R. Glaubitz. 1995. A competitive polymerase chain reaction assay for reliable identification of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swabs. Eur. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 33: 87 93.
78. Lichtinghagen, R.,, and R. Glaubitz. 1996. A principle of quality assessment using a competitive polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical specimens. Eur. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 34: 765 770.
79. Lin, H. J.,, T. Tanwandee,, and F. B. Hollinger. 1997. Improved method for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA and hepatitis C virus RNA in blood using spin column technology and chemiluminescent assays of PCR products. J. Med. Virol. 51: 56 63.
80. Lisby, G. 1999. Application of nucleic acid amplification in clinical microbiology. Mol. Biotechnol. 12: 75 99.
81. Little, M. C.,, J. Andrews,, R. Moore,, S. Bustos,, L. Jones,, C. Embres,, G. Durmowicz,, J. Harris,, D. Berger,, K. Yanson,, C. Rostkowski,, D. Yursis,, J. Price,, T. Fort,, A. Walters,, M. Collis,, O. Llorin,, J. Wood,, F. Failing,, C. O’Keefe,, B. Scrivens,, B. Pope,, T. Hansen,, K. Marino,, K. Williams, et al. 1999. Strand displacement amplification and homogeneous real-time detection incorporated in a second-generation DNA probe system, BDProbeTecET. Clin. Chem. 45: 777 784.
82. Loewy, Z. G.,, J. Mecca,, and R. Diaco. 1994. Enhancement of Borrelia burgdorferi PCR by uracil- N-glycosylase. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 135 138.
83. Löffler, J.,, H. Hebart,, U. Schumacher,, H. Reitze,, and H. Einsele. 1997. Comparison of different methods for extraction of DNA of fungal pathogens from cultures and blood. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 3311 3312.
84. Lumb, R.,, K. Davies,, D. Dawson,, R. Gibb,, T. Gottlieb,, C. Kershaw,, K. Kociuba,, G. Nimmo,, N. Sangster,, M. Worthington,, and I. Bastian. 1999. Multicenter evaluation of the Abbott LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis ligase chain reaction assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3102 3107.
85. Maiwald, M.,, M. Schill,, C. Stockinger,, J. H. Helbig,, P. C. Luck,, W. Witzleb,, and H. G. Sonntag. 1995. Detection of Legionella DNA in human and guinea pig urine samples by polymerase chain reaction. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14: 25 33.
86. Maiwald, M.,, C. Stockinger,, D. Hassler,, M. von Knebel Doeberitz,, and H. G. Sonntag. 1995. Evaluation of the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in urine samples by polymerase chain reaction. Infection 23: 173 179.
87. Mantero, G.,, Z. Antonella,, and A. Albertini. 1991. DNA enzyme immunoassay: general method for detecting products of polymerase chain reaction. Clin. Chem. 37: 422 429.
88. Martell, M.,, J. Gomez,, J. I. Esteban,, S. Sauleda,, J. Quer,, B. Cabot,, R. Esteban,, and J. Guardia. 1999. High-throughput real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 327 332.
89. Mathis, A.,, R. Weber,, H. Kuster,, and R. Speich. 1997. Simplified sample processing combined with a sensitive one-tube nested PCR assay for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in respiratory specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1691 1695.
90. Mercier, G.,, A. Burckel,, and G. Lucotte. 1997. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in urine specimens of patients with erythema migrans lesions. Mol. Cell. Probes 11: 89 94.
91. Mitchell, P. S.,, M. J. Espy,, T. F. Smith,, D. R. Toal,, P. N. Rys,, E. F. Berbari,, D. R. Osmon,, and D. H. Persing. 1997. Laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system infections with herpes simplex virus by PCR performed with cerebrospinal fluid specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2973 2877.
92. Muller, N.,, V. Zimmermann,, B. Hentrich,, and B. Gottstein. 1996. Diagnosis of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection by PCR and DNA hybridization immunoassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2850 2852.
93. Murphy, D. G.,, L. Cote,, M. Fauvel,, P. Rene,, and J. Vincelette. 2000. Multicenter comparison of Roche COBAS AMPLICOR MONITOR version 1.5, Organon Teknika NucliSens QT with Extractor, and Bayer Quantiplex version 3.0 for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in plasma. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 4034 4041.
94. Myers, T. W.,, and D. H. Gelfand. 1991. Reverse transcription and DNA amplification by a Thermus thermophilus DNA polymerase. Biochemistry 30: 7661 7666.
95. Nadeau, J. G.,, J. B. Pitner,, C. P. Linn,, J. L. Schram,, C. H. Dean,, and C. M. Nycz. 1999. Real-time, sequence-specific detection of nucleic acids during strand displacement amplification. Anal. Biochem. 276: 177 187.
96. Niubo, J.,, W. Li,, K. Henry,, and A. Erice. 2000. Recovery and analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) RNA sequences from plasma samples with low HIV RNA levels. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 309 312.
97. Noborg, U.,, A. Gusdal,, E. K. Pisa,, A. Hedrum,, and M. Lindh. 1999. Automated quantitative analysis of hepatitis B virus DNA by using the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor test. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2793 2797.
98. Nolte, F. S. Branched DNA signal amplification for direct quantitation of nucleic acid sequences in clinical specimens. Adv. Clin. Chem. 33: 201 235.
99. Nycz, C. M.,, C. H. Dean,, P. D. Haaland,, C. A. Spargo,, and G. T. Walker. 1998. Quantitative reverse transcription strand displacement amplification: quantitation of nucleic acids using an isothermal amplification technique. Anal. Biochem. 259: 226 234.
100. Olsson, M.,, K. Elvin,, C. Lidman,, S. Lofdahl,, and E. Linder. 1996. A rapid and simple nested PCR assay for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii in sputum samples. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 28: 597 600.
101. Padhye, A. A.,, G. Smith,, D. McLaughlin,, P. G. Standard,, and L. Kaufman. 1992. Comparative evaluation of a chemiluminescent DNA probe and an exoantigen test for rapid identification of Histoplasma capsulatum. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 3108 3111.
102. Pang, J.,, J. Modlin,, and R. Yolken. 1992. Use of modified nucleotides and uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) for the control of contamination in the PCR-based amplification of RNA. Mol. Cell. Probes 6: 251 256.
103. Parvaz, P.,, E. Guichard,, P. Chevallier,, J. Ritter,, C. Trepo,, and M. Sepetjan. 1994. Hepatitis C: description of a highly sensitive method for clinical detection of viral RNA. J. Virol. Methods 47: 83 94.
104. Pawlotsky, J. M.,, A. Bastie,, C. Hezode,, I. Lonjon,, F. Darthuy,, J. Remire,, and D. Dhumeaux. 2000. Routine detection and quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA in clinical laboratories: performance of three commercial assays. J. Virol. Methods 85: 11 21.
105. Payton, M.,, and K. Pinter. 1999. A rapid novel method for the extraction of RNA from wild-type and genetically modified kanamycin resistant mycobacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 180: 141 146.
106. Pfyffer, G. E.,, P. Funke-Kissling,, E. Rundler,, and R. Weber. 1999. Performance characteristics of the BDProbeTec system for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 137 140.
107. Pring-Akerblom, P.,, F. E. Trijssenaar,, T. Adrian,, and H. Hoyer. 1999. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for subgenus-specific detection of human adenoviruses in clinical samples. J. Med. Virol. 58: 87 92.
108. Rabodonirina, M.,, L. Cotte,, A. Boibieux,, K. Kaiser,, M. Mayencon,, D. Raffenot,, C. Trepo,, D. Peyramond,, and S. Picot. 1999. Detection of Pneumocytis carinii DNA in blood specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by nested PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 127 131.
109. Rabodonirina, M.,, D. Raffenot,, L. Cotte,, A. Boibieux,, M. Mayencon,, G. Bayle,, F. Persat,, F. Rabatel,, C. Trepo,, D. Peyramond,, and M. A. Piens. 1997. Rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: use of a simple DNA extraction procedure and nested PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 2748 2751.
110. Rand, K. H.,, and H. Houck. 1990. Taq polymerase contains bacterial DNA of unknown origin. Mol. Cell. Probes 4: 445 450.
111. Reischl, U.,, R. Ruger,, and C. Kessler. 1994. Nonradioactive labeling and high-sensitive detection of PCR products. Mol. Biotechnol. 1: 229 240.
112. Rogers, B. B.,, S. L. Josephson,, S. K. Mak,, and P. J. Sweeney. 1992. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of herpes simplex virus DNA from clinical samples. Obstet. Gynecol. 79: 464 469.
113. Romano, J. W.,, K. G. Williams,, R. N. Shurtliff,, C. Ginocchio,, and M. Kaplan. 1997. NASBA technology: isothermal RNA amplification in qualitative and quantitative diagnostics. Immunol. Investig. 26: 15 28.
114. Rosenstraus, M.,, Z. Wang,, S. Y. Chang,, D. DeBonville,, and J. P. Spadoro. 1998. An internal control for routine diagnostic PCR: design, properties, and effect on clinical performance. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 191 197.
115. Rozenberg, F.,, and P. Lebon. 1991. Amplification and characterization of herpesvirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with acute encephalitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29: 2412 2417.
116. Sakrauski, A.,, B. Weber,, H. H. Kessler,, K. Pierer,, and H. W. Doerr. 1994. Comparison of two hybridization assays for the rapid detection of PCR amplified HSV genome sequences from cerebrospinal fluid. J. Virol. Methods 50: 175 184.
117. Saldanha, J.,, and P. Minor. 1994. A sensitive PCR method for detecting HCV RNA in plasma pools, blood products, and single donations. J. Med. Virol. 43: 72 76.
118. Santti, J.,, T. Hyypiä,, and P. Halonen. 1997. Comparison of PCR primer pairs in the detection of human rhinoviruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. J. Virol. Methods 66: 139 147.
119. Scarparo, C.,, P. Piccoli,, A. Rigon,, G. Ruggiero,, M. Scagnelli,, and C. Piersimoni. 2000. Comparison of enhanced Mycobacterium tuberculosis amplified direct test with COBAS AMPLICOR Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory and extrapulmonary specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1559 1562.
120. Schalasta, G.,, U. Engels,, and L. Lindemann. 1995. A rapid and simple PCR assay for detection of hepatitis A virus RNA in stool specimens. Clin. Lab. 41: 233 238.
121. Schlueter, V.,, S. Schmolke,, K. Stark,, G. Hess,, B. Ofenloch-Haehnle,, and A. M. Engel. 1996. Reverse transcription-PCR detection of hepatitis G virus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2660 2664.
122. Schmidt, T. M.,, B. Pace,, and N. R. Pace. 1991. Detection of DNA contamination in Taq polymerase. BioTechniques 11: 176 177.
123. Shafer, R. W.,, D. J. Levee,, M. A. Winters,, K. L. Richmond,, D. Huang,, and T. C. Merigan. 1997. Comparison of QIAamp HCV kit spin columns, silica beads, and phenol-chloroform for recovering human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA from plasma. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 520 522.
124. Sia, I. G.,, J. A. Wilson,, M. J. Espy,, C. V. Paya,, and T. F. Smith. 2000. Evaluation of the COBAS AMPLICOR CMV MONITOR test for detection of viral DNA in specimens taken from patients after liver transplantation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 600 606.
125. Somoskovi, A.,, J. E. Hotaling,, M. Fitzgerald,, V. Jonas,, D. Stasik,, L. M. Parsons,, and M. Salfinger. 2000. False-positive results for Mycobacterium celatum with the AccuProbe Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2743 2745.
126. Spargo, C. A.,, M. S. Fraiser,, M. Van Cleve,, D. J. Wright,, C. M. Nycz,, P. A. Spears,, and G. T. Walker. 1996. Detection of M. tuberculosis DNA using thermophilic strand displacement amplification. Mol. Cell. Probes 10: 247 256.
127. Spears, P. A.,, C. P. Linn,, D. L. Woodard,, and G. T. Walker. 1997. Simultaneous strand displacement amplification and fluorescence polarization detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. Anal. Biochem. 247: 130 137.
128. Stapleton, J. T.,, D. Klinzman,, W. N. Schmidt,, M. A. Pfaller,, P. Wu,, D. R. Labrecque,, J. Q. Han,, M. J. Perino Phillips,, R. Woolson,, and B. Alden. 1999. Prospective comparison of whole-blood- and plasma-based hepatitis C virus RNA detection systems: improved detection using whole blood as the source of viral RNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 484 489.
129. Strand, A.,, S. Andersson,, I. Zehbe,, and E. Wilander. 1999. HPV prevalence in anal warts tested with the MY09/MY11 SHARP signal system. Acta Derm. Venereol. 79: 226 229.
130. Sweet, D.,, M. Lorente,, A. Valenzuela,, J. A. Lorente,, and J. C. Alvarez. 1996. Increasing DNA extraction yield from saliva stains with a modified Chelex method. Forensic Sci. Int. 83: 167 177.
131. Tagliaferro, L.,, M. Corbelli,, G. Maietta,, V. Pellegrino,, and P. Pignatelli. 1995. Use of a rapid and simple method to extract proviral DNA in the identification of HIV-1 by PCR. New Microbiol. 18: 303 306.
132. Talley, A. R.,, F. Garcia-Ferrer,, K. A. Laycock,, M. Loeffelholz,, and J. S. Pepose. 1992. The use of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of chlamydial keratoconjunctivitis. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 114: 685 692.
133. Tang, Y. W.,, P. N. Rys,, B. J. Rutledge,, P. S. Mitchell,, T. F. Smith,, and D. H. Persing. 1998. Comparative evaluation of colorimetric microtiter plate systems for detection of herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2714 2717.
134. Thornton, C. G.,, J. L. Hartley,, and A. Rashtchian. 1992. Utilizing uracil DNA glycosylase to control carryover contamination in PCR: characterization of residual UDG activity following thermal cycling. BioTechniques 13: 180 184.
135. Tjhie, J. H. T.,, F. J. M. van Kuppeveld,, R. Roosendaal,, W. J. G. Melchers,, R. Gordijn,, D. M. MacLaren,, J. M. M. Walboomers,, C. J. L. M. Meijer,, and A. J. C. van den Brule. 1994. Direct PCR enables detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in patients with respiratory tract infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 11 16.
136. Tortoli, E.,, M. T. Simonetti,, and F. Lavinia. 1996. Evaluation of reformulated chemiluminescent DNA probe (AccuProbe) for culture identification of Mycobacterium kansasii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2838 2840.
137. Tortoli, E.,, M. Tronci,, C. P. Tosi,, C. Galli,, F. Lavinia,, S. Natili,, and A. Goglio. 1999. Multicenter evaluation of two commercial amplification kits (Amplicor, Roche and LCx, Abbott) for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 33: 173 179.
138. Udaykumar, J.,, S. Epstein,, and I. K. Hewlett. 1993. A novel method employing UNG to avoid carry-over contamination in RNA-PCR. Nucleic Acids Res. 21: 3917 3918.
139. Valentine-Thon, E. 1995. Evaluation of SHARP signal system for enzymatic detection of amplified hepatitis B virus DNA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 477 480.
140. Van Der Pol, B.,, T. C. Quinn,, C. A. Gaydos,, K. Crotchfelt,, J. Schachter,, J. Moncada,, D. Jungkind,, D. H. Martin,, B. Turner,, C. Peyton,, and R. B. Jones. 2000. Multicenter evaluation of the AMPLICOR and automated COBAS AMPLICOR CT/NG tests for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1105 1112.
141. Van Gemen, B.,, R. van Beuningen,, A. Nabbe,, D. van Strijp,, S. Jurriaans,, P. Lens,, and T. Kievits. 1994. A one-tube quantitative HIV-1 RNA NASBA nucleic acid amplification assay using electrochemiluminescent (ECL) labelled probes. J. Virol. Methods 49: 157 167.
142. Verhofstede, C.,, K. Fransen,, D. Marissens,, R. Verhelst,, G. van der Groen,, S. Lauwers,, G. Zissis,, and J. Plum. 1996. Isolation of HIV-1 RNA from plasma: evaluation of eight different extraction methods. J. Virol. Methods 60: 155 159.
143. Vignoli, C.,, X. de Lamballerie,, C. Zandotti,, C. Tamalet,, and P. de Micco. 1995. Advantage of a rapid extraction method of HIV1 DNA suitable for polymerase chain reaction. Res. Virol. 146: 159 162.
144. Vince, A.,, M. Poljak,, and K. Seme. 1998. DNA extraction from archival Giemsa-stained bone-marrow slides: comparison of six rapid methods. Br. J. Haematol. 101: 349 351.
145. Vogel, J. U.,, J. Cinatl,, A. Lux,, B. Weber,, A. J. Driesel,, and H. W. Doerr. 1996. New PCR assay for rapid and quantitative detection of human cytomegalovirus in cerebrospinal fluid. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 482 483.
146. Walker, G. T.,, and C. P. Linn. 1996. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA with thermophilic strand displacement amplification and fluorescence polarization. Clin. Chem. 42: 1604 1608.
147. Walker, G. T.,, C. P. Linn,, and J. G. Nadeau. 1996. DNA detection by strand displacement amplification and fluorescence polarization with signal enhancement using a DNA binding protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 24: 348 353.
148. Walker, G. T.,, J. G. Nadeau,, and C. P. Linn. 1995. A DNA probe assay using strand displacement amplification (SDA) and filtration to separate reacted and unreacted detector probes. Mol. Cell. Probes 9: 399 403.
149. Walker, G. T.,, J. G. Nadeau,, C. P. Linn,, R. F. Devlin,, and W. B. Dandliker. 1996. Strand displacement amplification (SDA) and transient-state fluorescence polarization detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Clin. Chem. 42: 9 13.
150. Watson, J.,, J. Schanke,, H. Grunenwald,, R. Meis,, L. Hoffman,, M. Lewandowska-Skarbek,, and E. Moan. 1998. A new method for DNA and RNA purification. J. Clin. Ligand Assay 21: 394 403.
151. Wattre, P.,, A. Dewilde,, D. Subtil,, L. Andreoletti,, and V. Thirion. 1998. A clinical and epidemiological study of human parvovirus B19 infection in fetal hydrops using PCR, Southern blot hybridization, and chemiluminescence detection. J. Med. Virol. 54: 140 144.
152. Whitby, J. E.,, P. R. Heaton,, H. E. Whitby,, E. O’Sullivan,, and P. Johnstone. 1997. Rapid detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses by RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Virol. Methods 69: 63 72.
153. White, T. J.,, R. Madej,, and D. H. Persing. 1992. The polymerase chain reaction: clinical applications. Adv. Clin. Chem. 29: 161 196.
154. Williams-Bouyer, N.,, B. S. Reisner,, and G. L. Woods. 2000. Comparison of Gen-Probe AccuProbe group B streptococcus culture identification test with conventional culture for the detection of group B streptococci in broth cultures of vaginal-anorectal specimens from pregnant women. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 36: 159 162.
155. Witt, D. J.,, and M. Kemper. 1999. Techniques for the evaluation of nucleic acid amplification technology performance with specimens containing interfering substances: efficacy of boom methodology for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. J. Virol. Methods 79: 97 111.
156. Witt, D. J.,, M. Kemper,, A. Stead,, C. C. Ginocchio,, and A. M. Caliendo. 2000. Relationship of incremental specimen volumes and enhanced detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA with nucleic acid amplification technology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 85 89.
157. Yang, Y.,, M. H. Wisbeski,, M. Mendoza,, S. Dorf,, D. Xu,, M. Nguyen,, S. Yeh,, and R. Sun. 1999. Performance characteristics of the AmpliScreen(TM) HIV-1 test, an assay designed for screening plasma minipools. Biologicals 27: 315 323.
158. Zaaijer, H. L.,, H. T. M. Cuypers,, H. W. Reesink,, I. N. Winkel,, G. Gerken,, and P. N. Lelie. 1993. Reliability of polymerase chain reaction for detection of hepatitis C virus. Lancet 341: 722 724.
159. Zandotti, C.,, X. de Lamballerie,, C. Guignole-Vignoli,, C. Bollet,, and P. de Micco. 1993. A rapid DNA extraction method from culture and clinical samples suitable for the detection of human cytomegalovirus by the polymerase chain reaction. Acta Virol. 37: 106 108.
160. Zehbe, I.,, and E. Wilander. 1997. Nonisotopic ELISA-based detection of human papillomavirus-amplified DNA. Mod. Pathol. 10: 188 191.
161. Zhang, F.,, S. Tetali,, X. P. Wang,, M. H. Kaplan,, F. V. Cromme,, and C. C. Ginocchio 2000. Detection of human cytomegalovirus pp67 late gene transcripts in cerebrospinal fluid of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1920 1925.
162. Zhong, K. J.,, and K. C. Kain. 1999. Evaluation of a colorimetric PCR-based assay to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum malaria in travelers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 339 341.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Commercial target amplification technologies and tests

Citation: Jungkind D, Kessler H. 2002. Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, p 306-323. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch12
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Examples of commercially available nucleic acid isolation components

Citation: Jungkind D, Kessler H. 2002. Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, p 306-323. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch12
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Examples of commercially available prepackaged extraction kits

Citation: Jungkind D, Kessler H. 2002. Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, p 306-323. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch12
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Commercially available hybridization and detection kits

Citation: Jungkind D, Kessler H. 2002. Molecular Methods for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, p 306-323. In Truant A (ed), Manual of Commercial Methods in Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817961.ch12

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error