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Chapter 24 : Viral Immune Evasion

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Abstract:

The effects of viral immune evasion proteins can occur outside host cells, in the case of chemokines, cytokines, or cell surface receptors, or inside cells, in the case of signal transduction and antigen presentation pathways. This chapter attempts to summarize examples of viral immune evasion strategies, especially the facets of the immune system frequently targeted by viruses. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human retroviruses, and vaccinia virus incorporate host complement control proteins (CCPs), CD55 and CD59, into the virion envelopes, mediating resistance to complement. The poxviruses variola virus, vaccinia virus (VV), and cowpox virus (CPV) all express CCPs, which were discovered based on sequence similarity to human and mouse CCPs. The ability of viruses to induce IFN gene expression via dsRNA varies greatly, and the viral proteins which have evolved to intercept this dsRNA-dependent activation can function either to block IFN-induced transcription or by neutralizing IFN-induced molecules that establish an antiviral state. The discovery of virus-encoded homologs of IFN regulatory factors (vIRFs) within the genome of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) suggested a mechanism whereby the viral homolog could outcompete cellular IRFs needed for the transcriptional activation of host cell IFN response genes. Inactivation occurs only after direct contact between herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected fibroblasts and the lymphocytes, not when the lymphocytes are incubated with high concentrations of cell-free virus.

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24

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African swine fever virus
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Viral Proteins
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Major Histocompatibility Complex
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Viral inhibition of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway.

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
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Image of Figure 2
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Viral inhibition of the MHC class II antigen presentation pathway.

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Summary of anti-immune strategies used by viruses

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 2

Viral inhibitors of humoral immunity

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 3

Viral anti-interferon strategies

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 4

Viral antichemokine strategies

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24
Generic image for table
Table 5

Viral anticytokine strategies

Citation: Johnson D, McFadden G. 2002. Viral Immune Evasion, p 357-378. In Kaufmann S, Sher A, Ahmed R (ed), Immunology of Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817978.ch24

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