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Chapter 36 : Proteins of the Spore Core and Coat

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Abstract:

Abundant proteins found within the spore core (the small, acid-soluble proteins, or SASP) as well as surrounding the spore (the coat proteins) help to protect the spore from these assaults such as extremes of temperature, radiation, desiccation, and attack by a wide variety of toxic molecules. The SASP and coat proteins have been studied for many years, and much is known about their roles in resistance. The predominant proteins of the spore core are the SASP, making up as much as 20% of total spore protein. YrbB, which has been localized to the cortex and to the inner coat, and SspG , which is synthesized in the mother cell, may also be coat proteins. Measuring the effects of the loss of a single protein might require highly sensitive and specific assays. Given their unique roles in spore dormancy and survival, it will be of great interest to compare SASP and coat protein genes of the various spore-forming bacteria as their genome sequences become available. At the moment, relatively little information is available, making a detailed comparative analysis difficult. Homologues of CotE are encoded in three of the genomes of endospore-forming bacteria (, , ) for which data are available, and homologues of SpoIVA are encoded by these genomes as well as those of two species ( and ). Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that the formation of a basement layer by SpoIVA is a universal early step in coat assembly.

Citation: Driks A. 2002. Proteins of the Spore Core and Coat, p 527-535. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch36

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

The spore. Thin-section electron micrograph of a wild-type spore, prepared as described ( ). Inset shows an arc of coat, also from a wild-type spore. Outer coat (OC), inner coat (IC), under coat (UC), cortex (Cx), and core (Cr) are indicated. Bar, 500 nm (micrograph) and 100 nm (inset).

Citation: Driks A. 2002. Proteins of the Spore Core and Coat, p 527-535. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Model of coat assembly. Panels A, B, and C represent successive stages of coat assembly. Forespore (FS) and mother cell (MC) sides of the forespore membranes and the probable locations of SpoIVA, SpoVM, SpoVID, and SafA are indicated. Below the model are the proteins likely to assemble into the coat at each stage. The genes encoding the proteins assembled in the final stage (in panel C) are expressed first under the control of σ and then by σ and GerE. Proteins in bold-face type are known to affect coat structure or biochemical composition. Daggers indicate proteins known or likely to be assembled independently of CotE. Asterisks indicate proteins known or likely to require CotE for assembly.

Citation: Driks A. 2002. Proteins of the Spore Core and Coat, p 527-535. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch36
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Major spore proteins: SASP and coat proteins

Assignments of proteins to specific locations are inferences, with the exceptions of the α,β- and γ-type SASP, CotE, CotS, SafA, SpoIVA, SpoVID, and YrbB. FSM, forespore membrane; Ct, coat; CX, cortex; IC, inner coat; OC, outer coat; UC, under coat.

For SASP, the number of amino acids (aa) is indicated. For coat proteins, masses (kDa) based on migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are given, when known.

Role of σ in expression is an inference based on the data in reference 85.

Citation: Driks A. 2002. Proteins of the Spore Core and Coat, p 527-535. In Sonenshein A, Losick R, Hoch J (ed), and Its Closest Relatives. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817992.ch36

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