Chapter 43 : Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818005/9781555812133_Chap43-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818005/9781555812133_Chap43-2.gif


Most of the members of the genus do not normally colonize the gastric mucosa, but instead thrive in the mucosal surfaces of the intestinal tract and/or the liver of humans, other mammals, and birds. A growing number of enterohepatic species have also been reported to be associated with gastroenteritis, hepatitis, and other disease states in humans and in other animal species. The significance of the enterohepatic species in human disease and the true prevalence of these organisms in human populations remain to be determined. Chronic active hepatitis leading to hepatocellular neoplasia was also observed in germ-free female Swiss Webster mice following experimental infection with , clearly establishing the organism as a murine pathogen. has been documented as a cause of acute diarrhea in otherwise healthy individuals; however, bacteremia without gastroenteritis is more frequently associated with and infection in immunocompromised patients with AIDS or other underlying conditions. and have been shown to infect birds and mammals. By microscopic visualization, was found to have a higher density of colonization in the ileum than the cecum or colon in conventional mice and rats. can infect the stomach of mice and cause gastritis. Sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments has been used to show that enterohepatic species can infect the gallbladder of humans with chronic cholecystitis.

Citation: Schauer D. 2001. Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species, p 533-548. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch43
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Transmission electron micrograph of H. hepaticus grown in pure culture (A), scanning electron micrograph of an organism with typical H. hepaticus ultrastructure in the intestine of a mouse (B), and transmission electron micrograph of H. hepaticus in the liver of a mouse (C). Bars, 1 µm. Originally from Fox and Lee ( ) (B) and Li et al. ( ) (C).

Citation: Schauer D. 2001. Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species, p 533-548. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Transmission electron micrographs of “H. rappini” grown in pure culture (A), and in an intestinal crypt in a mouse (B), and scanning electron micrograph of “H. rappini” on the mucosal surface of the intestine of a mouse (C). Bars, 1 µm. Originally from Schauer et al. ( ).

Citation: Schauer D. 2001. Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species, p 533-548. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch43
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Archer, J. R.,, S. Romero,, A. E. Ritchie,, M. E. Hamacher,, B. M. Steiner,, J. H. Bryner,, and R. F. Schell. 1988. Characterization of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 101 105.
2. Atabay, H. I.,, J. E. Corry,, and S. L. On. 1998. Identification of unusual Campylobacter-like isolates from poultry products as Helicobacter pullorum. J. Appl. Microbiol. 84: 1017 1024.
3. Avenaud, P.,, A. Marais,, L. Monteiro,, B. Le Bail,, P. Bioulac Sage,, C. Balabaud,, and F. Megraud. 2000. Detection of Helicobacter species in the liver of patients with and without primary liver carcinoma. Cancer 89: 1431 1439.
4. Bracke, J. W.,, D. L. Cruden,, and A. J. Markovetz. 1979. Intestinal microbial flora of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 38: 945 955.
5. Bryner, J. H., 1988. Flexispira rappini, gen. nov., sp. nov. A motile, urease-producing rod similar to Campylobacter pyloridis, p. 440. In B. Kaijser, and E. Falsen (ed.), Campylobacter IV. Goterna, Kungalv, Sweden.
6. Bryner, J. H.,, A. E. Ritchie,, L. Pollet,, C. A. Kirkbride,, and J. E. Collins. 1987. Experimental infection and abortion of pregnant guinea pigs with a unique spirillum-like bacterium isolated from aborted ovine fetuses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 48: 91 95.
7. Burman, W. J.,, D. L. Cohn,, R. R. Reves,, and M. L. Wilson. 1995. Multifocal cellulitis and monoarticular arthritis as manifestations of Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 564 570.
8. Burnens, A. P.,, J. Stanley,, R. Morgenstern,, and J. Nicolet. 1994. Gastroenteritis associated with Helicobacter pullorum. Lancet 344: 1569 1570.
9. Burnens, A. P.,, J. Stanley,, U. B. Schaad,, and J. Nicolet. 1993. Novel Campylobacter-like organism resembling Helicobacter fennelliae isolated from a boy with gastroenteritis and from dogs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 1916 1917.
10. Cahill, R. J.,, C. J. Foltz,, J. G. Fox,, C. A. Dangler,, F. Powrie,, and D. B. Schauer. 1997. Inflammatory bowel disease: an immunity-mediated condition triggered by bacterial infection with Helicobacter hepaticus. Infect. Immun. 65: 3126 3131.
11. Canella, K. A.,, B. A. Diwan,, P. L. Gorelick,, P. J. Donovan,, M. A. Sipowicz,, K. S. Kasprzak,, C. M. Weghorst,, E. G. Snyderwine,, C. D. Davis,, L. K. Keefer,, S. A. Kyrtopoulos,, S. S. Hecht,, M. Wang,, L. M. Anderson,, and J. M. Rice. 1996. Liver tumorigenesis by Helicobacter hepaticus: considerations of mechanism. In Vivo 10: 285 292.
12. Chien, C. C.,, N. S. Taylor,, Z. Ge,, D. B. Schauer,, V. B. Young,, and J. G. Fox. 2000. Identification of cdtB homologues and cytolethal distending toxin activity in enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. J. Med. Microbiol. 49: 525 534.
13. Chin, E. Y.,, C. A. Dangler,, J. G. Fox,, and D. B. Schauer. 2000. Helicobacter hepaticus infection triggers inflammatory bowel disease in T cell receptor α β deficient mice. Comp. Med. 50: 586 594.
14. Chomarat, P.,, M. A. Sipowicz,, B. A. Diwan,, L. W. Fornwald,, Y. C. Awasthi,, M. R. Anver,, J. M. Rice,, L. M. Anderson,, and C. P. Wild. 1997. Distinct time courses of increase in cytochromes P450 1A2, 2A5 and glutathione S-transferases during the progressive hepatitis associated with Helicobacter hepaticus. Carcinogenesis 18: 2179 2190.
15. Cimolai, N.,, M. J. Gill,, A. Jones,, B. Flores,, W. E. Stamm,, W. Laurie,, B. Madden,, and M. S. Shahrabadi. 1987. "Campylobacter cinaedi" bacteremia: case report and laboratory findings. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 942 943.
16. Crawshaw, T. R.,, and H. E. Fuller. 1994. Flexispira rappini suspected in ovine abortion. Vet. Rec. 134: 507.
17. Cuccherini, B.,, K. Chua,, V. Gill,, S. Weir,, B. Wray,, D. Stewart,, D. Nelson,, L. Fuss,, and W. Strober. 2000. Bacteremia and skin/bone infections in two patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia caused by an unusual organism related to Flexispiral/Helicobacter species. Clin. Immunol. 97: 121 129.
18. Davis, C. P.,, J. S. McAllister,, and D. C. Savage. 1973. Microbial colonization of the intestinal epithelium in suckling mice. Infect. Immun. 7: 666 672.
19. Davis, C. P.,, D. Mulcahy,, A. Takeuchi,, and D. C. Savage. 1972. Location and description of spiral-shaped microorganisms in the normal rat cecum. Infect. Immun. 6: 184 192.
20. Dewhirst, F. E.,, C. C. Chien,, B. J. Paster,, R. L. Ericson,, R. P. Orcutt,, D. B. Schauer,, and J. G. Fox. 1999. Phylogeny of the defined murine microbiota: altered Schaedler flora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 3287 3292.
21. Dewhirst, F. E.,, J. G. Fox,, E. N. Mendes,, B. J. Paster,, C. E. Gates,, C. A. Kirkbride,, and K. A. Eaton. 2000. 'Flexispira rappini' strains represent at least 10 Helicobacter taxa. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50: 1781 1787.
22. Dewhirst, F. E.,, C. Seymour,, G. J. Fraser,, B. J. Paster,, and J. G. Fox. 1994. Phylogeny of Helicobacter isolates from bird and swine feces and description of Helicobacter pametensis sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Bacterial. 44: 553 560.
23. Dieleman, L. A.,, A. Arends,, S. L. Tonkonogy,, M. S. Goerres,, D. W. Craft,, W. Grenther,, R. K. Sellon,, E. Balish,, and R. B. Sartor. 2000. Helicobacter hepaticus does not induce or potentiate colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice. Infect. Immun. 68: 5107 5113.
24. Diwan, B. A.,, J. M. Ward,, D. Ramljak,, and L. M. Anderson. 1997. Promotion by Helicobacter hepaticus-induced hepatitis of hepatic tumors initiated by N-nitrosodimethylamine in male A/JCr mice. Toxicol. Pathol. 25: 597 605.
25. Eaton, K. A.,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, N. Tzellas,, B. E. Coleman,, J. Paola,, and R. Sherding. 1996. Prevalence and varieties of Helicobacter species in dogs from random sources and pet dogs: animal and public health implications. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 3165 3170.
26. Erlandsen, S. L.,, and D. G. Chase. 1972. Paneth cell function: phagocytosis and intracellular digestion of intestinal microorganisms. II. Spiral microorganism. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 41: 319 333.
27. Fleisch, F.,, A. Burnens,, R. Weber,, and R. Zbinden. 1998. Helicobacter species strain Mainz isolated from cultures of blood from two patients with AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26: 526 527.
28. Flores, B. M.,, C. L. Fennell,, L. Kuller,, M. A. Bronsdon,, W. R. Morton,, and W. E. Stamm. 1990. Experimental infection of pig-tailed macaques ( Macaca nemestrina) with Campylobacter cinaedi and Campylobacter fennelliae. Infect. Immun. 58: 3947 3953.
29. Foley, J. E.,, S. L. Marks,, L. Munson,, A. Melli,, F. E. Dewhirst,, S. Yu,, Z. Shen,, and J. G. Fox. 1999. Isolation of Helicobacter canis from a colony of Bengal cats with endemic diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 3271 3275.
30. Foley, J. E.,, J. V. Solnick,, J. M. Lapointe,, S. Jang,, and N. C. Pedersen. 1998. Identification of a novel enteric Helicobacter species in a kitten with severe diarrhea. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 908 912.
31. Foltz, C. J.,, J. G. Fox,, R. Cahill,, J. C. Murphy,, L. Yan,, B. Shames,, and D. B. Schauer. 1998. Spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease in multiple mutant mouse lines: association with colonization by Helicobacter hepaticus. Helicobacter 3: 69 78.
32. Foltz, C. J.,, J. G. Fox,, L. Yan,, and B. Shames. 1995. Evaluation of antibiotic therapies for eradication of Helicobacter hepaticus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39: 1292 1294.
33. Foltz, C. J.,, J. G. Fox,, L. Yan,, and B. Shames. 1996. Evaluation of various oral antimicrobial formulations for eradication of Helicobacter hepaticus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46: 193 197.
34. Foster, J. R. 1984. Bacterial infection of the common bile duct in chronic fascioliasis in the rat. J. Comp. Med. 94: 175 181.
35. Fox, J. G. 1997. The expanding genus of Helicobacter: pathogenic and zoonotic potential. Semin. Gastrointest. Dis. 8: 124 141.
36. Fox, J. G.,, C. C. Chien,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, Z. Shen,, P. L. Melito,, D. L. Woodward,, and F. G. Rodgers. 2000. Helicobacter canadensis sp. nov. isolated from humans with diarrhea as an example of an emerging pathogen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2546 2549.
37. Fox, J. G.,, F. E. Dewhirst,, Z. Shen,, Y. Feng,, N. S. Taylor,, B. J. Paster,, R. L. Ericson,, C. N. Lau,, P. Correa,, J. C. Araya,, and I. Roa. 1998. Hepatic Helicobacter species identified in bile and gallbladder tissue from Chileans with chronic cholecystitis. Gastroenterology 114: 755 763.
38. Fox, J. G.,, F. E. Dewhirst,, J. G. Tully,, B. J. Paster,, L. Yan,, N. S. Taylor,, M. J. Collins, Jr.,, P. L. Gorelick,, and J. M. Ward. 1994. Helicobacter hepaticus sp. nov., a microaerophilic bacterium isolated from livers and intestinal mucosal scrapings from mice. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1238 1245.
39. Fox, J. G.,, R. Drolet,, R. Higgins,, S. Messier,, L. Yan,, B. E. Coleman,, B.J. Paster,, and F. E. Dewhirst. 1996. Helicobacter canis isolated from a dog liver with multifocal necrotizing hepatitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2479 2482.
40. Fox, J. G.,, P. L. Gorelick,, M. C. Kullberg,, Z. Ge,, F. E. Dewhirst,, and J. M. Ward. 1999. A novel urease-negative Helicobacter species associated with colitis and typhlitis in IL-10-deficient mice. Infect. Immun. 67: 1757 1762.
41. Fox, J. G.,, and A. Lee. 1997. The role of Helicobacter species in newly recognized gastrointestinal tract diseases of animals. Lab. Anim. Sci. 47: 222 255.
42. Fox, J. G.,, X. Li,, L. Yan,, R. J. Cahill,, R. Hurley,, R. Lewis,, and J. C. Murphy. 1996. Chronic proliferative hepatitis in A/JCr mice associated with persistent Helicobacter hepaticus infection: a model of helicobacter-induced carcinogenesis. Infect. Immun. 64: 1548 1558.
43. Fox, J. G.,, J. A. MacGregor,, Z. Shen,, X. Li,, R. Lewis,, and C. A. Dangler. 1998. Comparison of methods of identifying Helicobacter hepaticus in B6C3F1 mice used in a carcinogenesis bioassay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1382 1387.
44. Fox, J. G.,, L. Yan,, B. Shames,, J. Campbell,, J. C. Murphy,, and X. Li. 1996. Persistent hepatitis and enterocolitis in germ-free mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus. Infect. Immun. 64: 3673 3681.
45. Fox, J. G.,, L. L. Yan,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, B. Shames,, J. C. Murphy,, A. Hayward,, J. C. Belcher,, and E. N. Mendes. 1995. Helicobacter bilis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter species isolated from bile, livers, and intestines of aged, inbred mice. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 445 454.
46. Franklin, C. L.,, C. S. Beckwith,, R. S. Livingston,, L. K. Riley,, S. V. Gibson,, C. L. Besch-Williford,, and R. R. Hook, Jr. 1996. Isolation of a novel Helicobacter species. Helicobacter cholecystus sp. nov., from the gallbladders of Syrian hamsters with cholangiofibrosis and centrilobular pancreatitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2952 2958.
47. Franklin, C. L.,, L. K. Riley,, R. S. Livingston,, C. S. Beckwith,, C. L. Besch-Williford,, and R. R. Hook, Jr. 1998. Enterohepatic lesions in SCID mice infected with Helicobacter bilis. Lab. Anim. Sci. 48: 334 339.
48. Franklin, C. L.,, L. K. Riley,, R. S. Livingston,, C. S. Beckwith,, R. R. Hook, Jr.,, C. L. Besch-Williford,, R. Hunziker,, and P. L. Gorelick. 1999. Enteric lesions in SCID mice infected with "Helicobacter typhlonicus," a novel urease-negative Helicobacter species. Lab. Anim. Sci. 49: 496 505.
49. Gebhart, C. J.,, C. L. Fennell,, M. P. Murtaugh,, and W. E. Stamm. 1989. Campylobacter cinaedi is normal intestinal flora in hamsters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1692 1694.
50. Gibson, J. R.,, M. A. Ferrus,, D. Woodward,, J. Xerry,, and R. J. Owen. 1999. Genetic diversity in Helicobacter pullorum from human and poultry sources identified by an amplified fragment length polymorphism technique and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Appl. Microbiol. 87: 602 610.
51. Hailey, J. R.,, J. K. Haseman,, J. R. Bucher,, A. E. Radovsky,, D. E. Malarkey,, R. T. Miller,, A. Nyska,, and R. R. Maronpot. 1998. Impact of Helicobacter hepaticus infection in B6C3F1 mice from twelve national toxicology program two-year carcinogenesis studies. Toxicol. Pathol. 26: 602 611.
52. Haines, D. C.,, P. L. Gorelick,, J. K. Battles,, K. M. Pike,, R. J. Anderson,, J. G. Fox,, N. S. Taylor,, Z. Shen,, F. E. Dewhirst,, M. R. Anver,, and J. M. Ward. 1998. Inflammatory large bowel disease in immunodeficient rats naturally and experimentally infected with Helicobacter bilis. Vet. Pathol. 35: 202 208.
53. Hampton, J. C. 1967. The effects of nitrogen mustard on the intestinal epithelium of the mouse. Radiat. Res. 30: 576 589.
54. Han, S.,, C. Schindel,, R. Genitsariotis,, E. Marker-Hermann,, S. Bhakdi,, and M. J. Maeurer. 2000. Identification of a unique Helicobacter species by 16S rRNA gene analysis in an abdominal abscess from a patient with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2740 2742.
55. Hsueh, P. R.,, L. J. Teng,, C. C. Hung,, Y. C. Chen,, P. C. Yang,, S. W. Ho,, and K. T. Luh. 1999. Septic shock due to Helicobacter fennelliae in a non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected heterosexual patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2084 2086.
56. Hung, C. C.,, P. R. Hsueh,, M. Y. Chen,, L. J. Teng,, Y. C. Chen,, K. T. Luh,, and C. Y. Chuang. 1997. Bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi in an AIDS patient. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 96: 558 560.
57. Husmann, M.,, C. Gries,, P. Jehnichen,, T. Woelfel,, G. Gerken,, W. Ludwig,, and S. Bhakdi. 1994. Helicobacter sp. strain Mainz isolated from an AIDS patient with septic arthritis: case report and nonradioactive analysis of 16S rRNA sequence. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 3037 3039.
58. Hutto, D. L.,, and M. J. Wannemuehler. 1999. A comparison of the morphologic effects of Serpulina hyodysenteriae or its beta-hemolysin on the murine cecal mucosa. Vet. Pathol. 36: 37 47.
59. Jalava, K.,, S. L. W. On,, P. A. Vandamme,, I. Happonen,, A. Sukura,, and M. L. Hanninen. 1998. Isolation and identification of Helicobacter spp. from canine and feline gastric mucosa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64: 3998 4006.
60. Kawaguchi, M.,, T. Saito,, H. Ohno,, S. Midorikawa,, T. Sanji,, Y. Handa,, S. Morita,, H. Yoshida,, M. Tsurui,, R. Misaka,, T. Hirota,, M. Saito,, and K. Minami. 1996. Bacteria closely resembling Helicobacter pylori detected immunohistologi-cally and genetically in resected gallbladder mucosa. J. Gastroenterol. 31: 294 298.
61. Kiehlbauch, J. A.,, D. J. Brenner,, D. N. Cameron,, A. G. Steigerwalt,, J. M. Makowski,, C. N. Baker,, C. M. Patton,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1995. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Helicobacter cinaedi and Helicobacter fennelliae strains isolated from humans and animals. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2940 2947.
62. Kirkbride, C. A.,, C. E. Gates,, and J. E. Collins. 1986. Abortion in sheep caused by a nonclassified, anaerobic, flagellated bacterium. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 259 262.
63. Kirkbride, C. A.,, C. E. Gates,, J. E. Collins,, and A. E. Ritchie. 1985. Ovine abortion associated with an anaerobic bacterium. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 186: 789 791.
64. Kullberg, M. C.,, J. M. Ward,, P. L. Gorelick,, P. Caspar,, S. Hieny,, A. Cheever,, D. Jankovic,, and A. Sher. 1998. Helicobacter hepaticus triggers colitis in specific-pathogen-free in-terleukin-10 (IL-lO)-deficient mice through an IL-12- and gamma interferon-dependent mechanism. Infect. Immun. 66: 5157 5166.
65. Lasry, S.,, J. Simon,, A. Marais,, J. Pouchot,, P. Vinceneux,, and Y. Boussougant. 2000. Helicobacter cinaedi septic arthritis and bacteremia in an immunocompetent patient. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 201 202.
66. Lee, A.,, M. Chen,, N. Coltro,, J. O'Rourke,, S. Hazell,, P. Hu,, and Y. Li. 1993. Long term infection of the gastric mucosa with Helicobacter species does induce atrophic gastritis in an animal model of Helicobacter pylori infection. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 280: 38 50.
67. Lee, A.,, M. W. Phillips,, J. L. O'Rourke,, B. J. Paster,, F. E. Dewhirst,, G. J. Fraser,, J. G. Fox,, L. I. Sly,, P. J. Romaniuk,, T. J. Trust,, and S. Kouprach. 1992. Helicobacter muridarum sp. nov., a microaerophilic helical bacterium with a novel ultrastructure isolated from the intestinal mucosa of rodents. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42: 27 36.
68. Li, X.,, J. G. Fox,, M. T. Whary,, L. Yan,, B. Shames,, and Z. Zhao. 1998. SCID/NCr mice naturally infected with Helicobacter hepaticus develop progressive hepatitis, proliferative typhlitis, and colitis. Infect. Immun. 66: 5477 5484.
69. Lin, T. T.,, C. T. Yeh,, C. S. Wu,, and Y. F. Liaw. 1995. Detection and partial sequence analysis of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the bile samples. Dig. Dis. Sci. 40: 2214 2219.
70. Livingston, R. S.,, L. K. Riley,, E. K. Steffen,, C. L. Besch-Williford,, R. R. Hook, Jr.,, and C. L. Franklin. 1997. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter hepaticus infection in mice by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1236 1238.
71. Malarkey, D. E.,, T. V. Ton,, J. R. Hailey,, and T. R. Devereux. 1997. A PCR-RFLP method for the detection of Helicobacter hepaticus in frozen or fixed liver from B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol. Pathol. 25: 606 612.
72. Mammen, M. P., Jr.,, N. E. Aronson,, W. J. Edenfield,, and T. P. Endy. 1995. Recurrent Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus: case report. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 1055.
73. Melito, P. L.,, D. L. Woodward,, K. A. Bernard,, L. Price,, R. Khakhria,, W. M. Johnson,, and F. G. Rodgers. 2000. Differentiation of clinical Helicobacter pullorum isolates from related Helicobacter and Campylobacter species. Helicobacter 5: 142 147.
74. Mendes, E. N.,, D. M. Queiroz,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, S. B. Moura,, and J. G. Fox. 1996. Helicobacter trogontum sp. nov., isolated from the rat intestine. Int. J. Syst. Bacterial. 46: 916 921.
75. Moura, S. B.,, E. N. Mendes,, D. M. Queiroz,, E. R. Camargos,, M. Evangelina,, F. Fonseca,, G. A. Rocha,, and J. R. Nicoli. 1998. Ultrastructure of Helicobacter trogontum in culture and in the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic mice. J. Med. Microbiol. 47: 513 520.
76. Neiger, R.,, C. Dieterich,, A. Burnens,, A. Waldvogel,, I. Corthesy-Theulaz,, F. Halter,, B. Lauterburg,, and A. Schmassmann. 1998. Detection and prevalence of Helicobacter infection in pet cats. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 634 637.
77. Ng, V. L.,, W. K. Hadley,, C. L. Fennell,, B. M. Flores,, and W. E. Stamm. 1987. Successive bacteremias with "Campylobacter cinaedi" and "Campylobacter fennelliae" in a bisexual male. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 2008 2009.
78. Nilsson, H. O.,, M. Castedal,, R. Olsson,, and T. Wadstrom. 1999. Detection of Helicobacter in the liver of patients with chronic cholestatic liver diseases. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 50: 875 882.
79. Nilsson, H. G.,, J. Taneera,, M. Castedal,, E. Glatz,, R. Olsson,, and T. Wadstrom. 2000. Identification of Helicobacter pylori and other Helicobacter species by PCR, hybridization, and partial DNA sequencing in human liver samples from patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1072 1076.
80. Nilsson, I.,, S. Lindgren,, S. Eriksson,, and T. Wadstrom. 2000. Serum antibodies to Helicobacter hepaticus and Helicobacter pylori in patients with chronic liver disease. Gut 46: 410 414.
81. Nyska, A.,, R. R. Maronpot,, S. R. Eldridge,, J. K. Haseman,, and J. R. Hailey. 1997. Alteration in cell kinetics in control B6C3F1 mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus. Toxicol. Pathol. 25: 591 596.
82. Orlicek, S. L.,, D. F. Welch,, and T. L. Kuhls. 1993. Septicemia and meningitis caused by Helicobacter cinaedi in a neonate. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 569 571.
83. Patterson, M. M.,, M. D. Schrenzel,, Y. Feng,, and J. G. Fox. 2000. Gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in Syrian hamsters infected with Helicobacter aurati and two other microaerobes. Vet. Pathol. 37: 589 596.
84. Patterson, M. M.,, M. D. Schrenzel,, Y. Feng,, S. Xu,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, S. A. Thibodeau,, J. Versalovic,, and J. G. Fox. 2000. Helicobacter aurati sp. nov., a urease-positive helicobacter species cultured from gastrointestinal tissues of Syrian hamsters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 3722 3728.
85. Phillips, M. W.,, and A. Lee. 1983. Isolation and characterization of a spiral bacterium from the crypts of rodent gastrointestinal tracts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 675 683.
86. Pickett, C. L.,, and C. A. Whitehouse. 1999. The cytolethal distending toxin family. Trends Microbiol. 7: 292 297.
87. Queiroz, D. M.,, C. Contigli,, R. S. Coimbra,, A. M. Nogueira,, E. N. Mendes,, G. A. Rocha,, and S. B. Moura. 1992. Spiral bacterium associated with gastric, ileal and caecal mucosa of mice. Lab. Anim. 26: 288 294.
88. Ramljalc, D.,, A. B. Jones,, B. A. Diwan,, A. O. Perantoni,, J. F. Hochadel,, and L. M. Anderson. 1998. Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha-associated over-expression of cyclin Dl, Cdk4, and c-Myc during hepatocarcinogenesis in Helicobacter hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice. Cancer Res. 58: 3590 3597.
89. Riley, L. K.,, C. L. Franklin,, R. R. Hook, Jr.,, and C. Besch-Williford. 1996. Identification of murine helicobacters by PCR and restriction enzyme analyses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 942 946.
90. Roe, I. H.,, J. T. Kim,, H. S. Lee,, and J. H. Lee. 1999. Detection of Helicobacter DNA in bile from bile duct diseases. J. Korean Med. Sci. 14: 182 186.
91. Romero, S.,, J. R. Archer,, M. E. Hamacher,, S. M. Bologna,, and R. F. Schell. 1988. Case report of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26: 142 143.
92. Rudi, J.,, A. Rudy,, M. Maiwald,, and W. Stremmel. 1999. Helicobacter sp. are not detectable in bile from German patients with biliary disease. Gastroenterology 116: 1016 1017.
93. Russell, R. J.,, D. C. Haines,, M. R. Anver,, J. K. Battles,, P. L. Gorelick,, L. L. Blumenauer,, M. A. Gonda,, and J. M. Ward. 1995. Use of antibiotics to prevent hepatitis and typhlitis in male scid mice spontaneously infected with Helicobacter hepaticus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 45: 373 378.
94. Sacks, L. V.,, A. M. Labriola,, V. J. Gill,, and F. M. Gordin. 1991. Use of ciprofloxacin for successful eradication of bacteremia due to Campylobacter cinaedi in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected person. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13: 1066 1068.
95. Saunders, K. E.,, Z. Shen,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, C. A. Dangler,, and J. G. Fox. 1999. Novel intestinal Helicobacter species isolated from cotton-top tamarins ( Saguinus oedipus) with chronic colitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 146 151.
96. Schauer, D. B.,, N. Ghori,, and S. Falkow. 1993. Isolation and characterization of "Flexispira rappini" from laboratory mice. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31: 2709 2714.
97. Sellon, R. K.,, S. Tonkonogy,, M. Schultz,, L. A. Dieleman,, W. Grenther,, E. Balish,, D. M. Rennick,, and R. B. Sartor. 1998. Resident enteric bacteria are necessary for development of spontaneous colitis and immune system activation in interleu-kin-10-deficient mice. Infect. Immun. 66: 5224 5231.
98. Seymour, C.,, R. G. Lewis,, M. Kim,, D. F. Gagnon,, J. G. Fox,, F. E. Dewhirst,, and B. J. Paster. 1994. Isolation of Helicobacter strains from wild bird and swine feces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 1025 1028.
99. Shames, B.,, J. G. Fox,, F. Dewhirst,, L. Yan,, Z. Shen,, and N. S. Taylor. 1995. Identification of widespread Helicobacter hepaticus infection in feces in commercial mouse colonies by culture and PCR assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 2968 2972.
100. Shen, Z.,, Y. Feng,, and J. G. Fox. 2000. Identification of enterohepatic Helicobacter species by restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Helicobacter 5: 121 128.
101. Shen, Z.,, J. G. Fox,, F. E. Dewhirst,, B. J. Paster,, C. J. Foltz,, L. Yan,, B. Shames,, and L. Perry. 1997. Helicobacter rodentium sp. nov., a urease-negative Helicobacter species isolated from laboratory mice. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47: 627 634.
102. Shen, Z.,, D. B. Schauer,, H. L. Mobley,, and J. G. Fox. 1998. Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using the nucleotide sequence of the Helicobacter hepaticus urease structural genes ureAB. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 2447 2453.
103. Shomer, N. H.,, C. A. Dangler,, R. P. Marini,, and J. G. Fox. 1998. Helicobacter bilislHelicobacter rodentium co-infection associated with diarrhea in a colony of scid mice. Lab. Anim. Sci. 48: 455 459.
104. Shomer, N. H.,, C. A. Dangler,, M. D. Schrenzel,, and J. G. Fox. 1997. Helicobacter bilis-'mduced inflammatory bowel disease in scid mice with defined flora. Infect. Immun. 65: 4858 4864.
105. Simmons, J. H.,, L. K. Riley,, C. L. Besch-Williford,, and C. L. Franklin. 2000. Helicobacter mesocricetorum sp. nov., a novel helicobacter isolated from the feces of Syrian hamsters. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1811 1817.
106. Sipowicz, M. A.,, P. Chomarat,, B. A. Diwan,, M. A. Anver,, Y. C. Awasthi,, J. M. Ward,, J. M. Rice,, K. S. Kasprzak,, C. P. Wild,, and L. M. Anderson. 1997. Increased oxidative DNA damage and hepatocyte overexpression of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in hepatitis of mice infected with Helicobacter hepaticus. Am. J. Pathol. 151: 933 941.
107. Sipowicz, M. A.,, C. M. Weghorst,, Y. H. Shiao,, G. S. Buzard,, R. J. Calvert,, M. R. Anver,, L. M. Anderson,, and J. M. Rice. 1997. Lack of pS3 and ras mutations in Helicobacter hepaticus-induced liver tumors in A/JCr mice. Carcinogenesis 18: 233 236.
108. Solnick, J. V.,, and D. B. Schauer. 2001. Emergence of the Helicobacter genus in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disease. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 14: 59 97.
109. Sorlin, P.,, P. Vandamme,, J. Nortier,, B. Hoste,, C. Rossi,, S. Pavlof,, and M. J. Struelens. 1999. Recurrent "Flexispira rappini" bacteremia in an adult patient undergoing hemodialysis: case report. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 1319 1323.
110. Stanley, J.,, D. Linton,, A. P. Burnens,, F. E. Dewhirst,, S. L. On,, A. Porter,, R.J. Owen,, and M. Costas. 1994. Helicobacter pullorum sp. nov.—genotype and phenotype of a new species isolated from poultry and from human patients with gastroenteritis. Microbiology 140: 3441 3449.
111. Stanley, J.,, D. Linton,, A. P. Burnens,, F. E. Dewhirst,, R. J. Owen,, A. Porter,, S. L. On,, and M. Costas. 1993. Helicobacter canis sp. nov., a new species from dogs: an integrated study of phenotype and genotype. J. Gen. Microbiol. 139: 2495 2504.
112. Steinbrueckner, B.,, G. Haerter,, K. Pelz,, A. Burnens,, and M. Kist. 1998. Discrimination of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter lari by analysis of whole cell fatty acid extracts. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 168: 209 212.
113. Steinbrueckner, B.,, G. Haerter,, K. Pelz,, S. Weiner,, J. A. Rump,, W. Deissler,, S. Bereswill,, and M. Kist. 1997. Isolation of Helicobacter pullorum from patients with enteritis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 29: 315 318.
114. Sullivan, A. K.,, M. R. Nelson,, J. Walsh,, and B. G. Gazzard. 1997. Recurrent Helicobacter cinaedi cellulitis and bacteremia in a patient with HIV Infection. Int. J. STD AIDS. 8: 59 60.
115. Taylor, N. S.,, J. G. Fox,, and L. Yan. 1995. In-vitro hepatotoxic factor in Helicobacter hepaticus, H. pylori and other Helicobacter species. J. Med. Microbiol. 42: 48 52.
116. Tee, W.,, B. N. Anderson,, B. C. Ross,, and B. Dwyer. 1987. Atypical Campylobacters associated with gastroenteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1248 1252.
117. Tee, W.,, K. Leder,, E. Karroum,, and M. Dyall-Smith. 1998. "Flexispira rappini" bacteremia in a child with pneumonia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36: 1679 1682.
118. Tee, W.,, A. C. Street,, D. Spelman,, W. Munckhof,, and A. Mijch. 1996. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteraemia: varied clinical manifestations in three homosexual males. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 28: 199 203.
119. Totten, P. A.,, C. L. Fennell,, F. C. Tenover,, J. M. Wezenberg,, P. L. Perine,, W. E. Stamm,, and K. K. Holmes. 1985. Campylobacter cinaedi (sp. nov.) and Campylobacter fennelliae (sp. nov.): two new Campylobacter species associated with enteric disease in homosexual men. J. Infect. Dis. 151: 131 139.
120. Trivett-Moore, N. L.,, W. D. Rawlinson,, M. Yuen,, and G. L. Gilbert. 1997. Helicobacter westmeadii sp. nov., a new species isolated from blood cultures of two AIDS patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35: 1144 1150.
121. Truett, G. E.,, J. A. Walker,, and D. G. Baker. 2000. Eradication of infection with Helicobacter spp. by use of neonatal transfer. Comp. Med. 50: 444 451.
122. Vandamme, P.,, E. Falsen,, B. Pot,, K. Kersters,, and J. De Ley. 1990. Identification of Campylobacter cinaedi isolated from blood and feces of children and adult females. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 1016 1020.
123. Vandamme, P.,, C. S. Harrington,, K. Jalava,, and S. L. On. 2000. Misidentifying helicobacters: the Helicobacter cinaedi example. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 2261 2266.
124. van der Ven, A. J.,, B. J. Kullberg,, P. Vandamme,, and J. F. Meis. 1996. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia associated with localized pain but not with cellulitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 710 711.
125. von Freeden-Jeffry, U.,, N. Davidson,, R. Wiler,, M. Fort,, S. Burdach,, and R. Murray. 1998. IL-7 deficiency prevents development of a non-T cell non-B cell-mediated colitis. J. Immunol. 161: 5673 5680.
126. Ward, J. M.,, M. R. Anver,, D. C. Haines,, and R. E. Benveniste. 1994. Chronic active hepatitis in mice caused by Helicobacter hepaticus. Am. J. Pathol. 145: 959 968.
127. Ward, J. M.,, M. R. Anver,, D. C. Haines,, J. M. Melhorn,, P. Gorelick,, L. Yan,, and J. G. Fox. 1996. Inflammatory large bowel disease in immunodeficient mice naturally infected with Helicobacter hepaticus. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46: 15 20.
128. Ward, J. M.,, R. E. Benveniste,, C. H. Fox,, J. K. Battles,, M. A. Gonda,, and J. G. Tully. 1996. Autoimmunity in chronic active Helicobacter hepatitis of mice. Serum antibodies and expression of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Am. J. Pathol. 148: 509 517.
129. Ward, J. M.,, J. G. Fox,, M. R. Anver,, D. C. Haines,, C. V. George,, M. J. Collins, Jr.,, P. L. Gorelick,, K. Nagashima,, M. A. Gonda,, R. V. Gilden,, J. G. Tully,, R. J. Russell,, R. E. Benveniste,, B. J. Paster,, F. E. Dewhirst,, J. C. Donovan,, L. M. Anderson,, and J. M. Rice. 1994. Chronic active hepatitis and associated liver tumors in mice caused by a persistent bacterial infection with a novel Helicobacter species. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 86: 1222 1227.
130. Weir, S.,, B. Cuccherini,, A. M. Whitney,, M. L. Ray,, J. P. MacGregor,, A. Steigerwalt,, M. I. Daneshvar,, R. Weyant,, B. Wray,, J. Steele,, W. Strober,, and V. I. Gill. 1999. Recurrent bacteremia caused by a "Flexispira"-like organism in a patient with X-linked (Bruton's) agammaglobulinemia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2439 2445.
131. Weir, S. C.,, C. L. Gibert,, F. M. Gordin,, S. H. Fischer,, and V. J. Gill. 1999. An uncommon Helicobacter isolate from blood: evidence of a group of Helicobacter spp. pathogenic in AIDS patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37: 2729 2733.
132. Whary, M. T.,, J. H. Cline,, A. E. King,, K. M. Hewes,, D. Chojnacky,, A. Salvarrey,, and J. G. Fox. 2000. Monitoring sentinel mice for Helicobacter hepaticus, H. rodentium, and H. bilis infection by use of polymerase chain reaction analysis and serologic testing. Comp. Med. 50: 436 443.
133. Whary, M. T.,, T. J. Morgan,, C. A. Dangler,, K. J. Gaudes,, N. S. Taylor,, and J. G. Fox. 1998. Chronic active hepatitis induced by Helicobacter hepaticus in the A/JCr mouse is associated with a Thl cell-mediated immune response. Infect. Immun. 66: 3142 3148.
134. Young, V. B.,, C. C. Chien,, K. A. Knox,, N. S. Taylor,, D. B. Schauer,, and J. G. Fox. 2000. Cytolethal distending toxin in avian and human isolates of Helicobacter pullorum. J. Infect. Dis. 182: 620 623.
135. Young, V. B.,, K. A. Knox,, and D. B. Schauer. 2000. Cytolethal distending toxin sequence and activity in the enterohepatic pathogen Helicobacter hepaticus. Infect. Immun. 68: 184 191.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Selected characteristics of enterohepatic Helicobacter speciesa

Citation: Schauer D. 2001. Enterohepatic Helicobacter Species, p 533-548. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch43

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error