Chapter 7 : Cell Envelope

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Cell Envelope, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818005/9781555812133_Chap07-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818005/9781555812133_Chap07-2.gif


This chapter reviews the physical and biochemical composition of the cell envelope, with reference where appropriate to the microbiological and pathogenic implications. The genome has homologs of all the enzymes required for the cytoplasmic synthesis of precursors required for peptidoglycan assembly. The unusual cellular fatty acid profile of was a major criterion for the exclusion of the organism from the genus . The total lipid content (by weight) is 6% neutral lipids, 20.6% glycolipids, and 73.4% phospholipids. The major phospholids are phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin, and phosphatidylglycerol. Gold particles were distributed on the cell envelope and on the sheath of the flagella. The observation that urease, HspB, and catalase are surface associated helps explain how they can serve as vaccine components in animal trials. Many surface proteins of pathogenic bacteria play important roles in adhesion, colonization, and the immune response. The cell envelope is likely equipped with cytoplasmic membrane iron transport permeases and transport proteins, reviewed elsewhere, but they are poorly characterized. The ability of bacterial cells to agglutinate red blood cells is a convenient assay for detecting bacterial receptors, which usually have affinity for eukaryotic glycolipids or glycoproteins. Many of the vaccine candidates for are proteins found on the cell surface, underlining the importance of further characterization of these proteins and of elucidating the precise mechanism of interaction of the cell surface with gastric mucosa.

Citation: O'Toole P, Clyne M. 2001. Cell Envelope, p 69-80. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch7
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

The biosynthesis of the Lewis blood group antigens. In italics: the transferases involved in each step of biosynthesis. In bold: the blood group antigens formed after each step.

Citation: O'Toole P, Clyne M. 2001. Cell Envelope, p 69-80. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Flagellar configuration of In this negatively stained preparation (1% phosphotungstic acid), terminal and sub-terminal flagella, hook, sheath, and terminal bulb are visible.

Citation: O'Toole P, Clyne M. 2001. Cell Envelope, p 69-80. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch7
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Alm, R. A.,, L. S. Ling,, D. T. Moir,, B. L. King,, E. D. Brown,, P. C. Doig,, D. R. Smith,, B. Noonan,, B. C. Guild,, B. L. de-Jonge,, G. Carmel,, P. J. Tummino,, A. Caruso,, M. Uria-Nickelsen,, D. M. Mills,, C. Ives,, R. Gibson,, D. Merberg,, S. D. Mills,, Q. Jiang,, D. E. Taylor,, G. F. Vovis,, and T. J. Trust. 1999. Genomic sequence comparison of two unrelated isolates of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 397: 176 180.
2. Appelmelk, B. J.,, S. L. Martin,, M. A. Monteiro,, C. A. Clayton,, A. A. McColm,, P. Zheng,, T. Verboom,, J. J. Maaskant,, D. H. van den Eijnden,, C. H. Hokke,, M. B. Perry,, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls,, and J. G. Kusters. 1999. Phase variation in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide due to changes in the lengths of poly(C) tracts in alpha3-fucosyltransferase genes. Infect. Immun. 67: 5361 5366.
3. Appelmelk, B. J.,, B. Shiberu,, C. Trinks,, N. Tapsi,, P. Y. Zheng,, T. Verboom,, J. Maaskant,, C. H. Hokke,, W. E. Schiphorst,, D. Blanchard,, I. M. Simoons-Smit,, D. H. van den Eijnden,, and C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls. 1998. Phase variation in Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 66: 70 76.
4. Aspinall, G. O.,, and M. A. Monteiro. 1996. Lipopolysaccha-rides of Helicobacter pylori strains P466 and M019: structures of the O antigen and core oligosaccharide regions. Biochemistry 35: 2498 2504.
5. Aspinall, G. O.,, M. A. Monteiro,, H. Pang,, E. J. Walsh,, and A. P. Moran. 1996. Lipopolysaccharide of the Helicobacter pylori type strain NCTC 11637 (ATCC 43504): structure of the O antigen chain and core oligosaccharide regions. Biochemistry 35: 2489 2497.
6. Austin, J. W.,, P. Doig,, M. Stewart,, and T. J. Trust. 1992. Structural comparison of urease and a GroEL analog from Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 174: 7470 7473.
7. Bina, J.,, M. Bains,, and R. E. Hancock. 2000. Functional expression in Escherichia coli and membrane topology of porin HopE, a member of a large family of conserved proteins in Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 182: 2370 2375.
8. Bode, G.,, P. Malfertheiner,, G. Lehnhardt,, M. Nilius,, and H. Ditschuneit. 1993. Ultrastructural localization of urease of Helicobacter pylori. Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 182: 233 242.
9. Boren, T.,, P. Falk,, K. A. Roth,, G. Larson,, and S. Normark. 1993. Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric epithelium mediated by blood group antigens. Science 262: 1892 1895.
10. Cao, P.,, M. S. McClain,, M. H. Forsyth,, and T. L. Cover. 1998. Extracellular release of antigenic proteins by Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 66: 2984 2986.
11. Clyne, M.,, and B. Drumm. 1996. The urease enzyme of Helicobacter pylori does not function as an adhesin. Infect. Immun. 64: 2817 2820.
12. Clyne, M.,, A. Labigne,, and B. Drumm. 1995. Helicobacter pylori requires an acidic environment to survive in the presence of urea. Infect. Immun. 63: 1669 1673.
13. Clyne, M.,, T. O'Croinin,, S. Suerbaum,, C. Josenhans,, and B. Drumm. 2000. Adherence of isogenic flagella negative mutants of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae to human and ferret gastric epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 68: 4335 4339.
14. Costa, K.,, G. Bacher,, G. Allmaier,, M. G. Dominguez-Bello,, L. Engstrand,, P. Falk,, M. A. de Pedro,, and P. F. Garcia-del. 1999. The morphological transition of Helicobacter pylori cells from spiral to coccoid is preceded by a substantial modification of the cell wall. J. Bacteriol. 181: 3710 3715.
15. Covacci, A.,, and R. Rappuoli. 1998. Helicobacter pylori: molecular evolution of a bacterial quasi-species. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 1: 96 102.
16. Cover, T. 1996. The vacuolating cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori. Mol. Microbiol. 20: 241 246.
17. Curry, A.,, A. J. Fox,, and D. M. Jones. 1984. A new bacterial flagellar structure found in Campylobacters. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130: 1307 1310.
18. Cussac, V.,, R. L. Ferrero,, and A. Labigne. 1992. Expression of Helicobacter pylori urease genes in Escherichia coli grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions. J. Bacteriol. 174: 2466 2473.
19. Doig, P.,, B. L. de Jonge,, R. A. Alm,, E. D. Brown,, M. Uria-Nickelsen,, B. Noonan,, S. D. Mills,, P. Tummino,, G. Carmel,, B. C. Guild,, D. T. Moir,, G. F. Vovis,, and T. J. Trust. 1999. Helicobacter pylori physiology predicted from genomic comparison of two strains. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63: 675 707.
20. Doig, P.,, M. M. Exner,, R. E. Hancock,, and T. J. Trust. 1995. Isolation and characterization of a conserved porin protein from Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 177: 5447 5452.
21. Doig, P.,, P. W. O'Toole,, and T. J. Trust,. 1997. Molecular characterization of H. pylori surface antigens, p. 177 189. In C. L. Clayton, and H. L. T. Mobley (ed.), Helicobacter pylori Protocols. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, N.J..
22. Dubois, A.,, C. K. Lee,, N. Fiala,, H. Kleanthous,, P. T. Mehlman,, and T. Monath. 1998. Immunization against natural Helicobacter pylori infection in nonhuman primates. Infect. Immun. 66: 4340 4346.
23. Dunn, B. E.,, R. M. Roop,, C. C. Sung,, S. A. Sharma,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, and M. J. Blaser. 1992. Identification and purification of a cpn60 heat shock protein homolog from Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 60: 1946 1951.
24. Dunn, B. E.,, N. B. Vakil,, B. G. Schneider,, M. M. Miller,, J. B. Zitzer,, T. Peutz,, and S. H. Phadnis. 1997. Localization of Helicobacter pylori urease and heat shock protein in human gastric biopsies. Infect. Immun. 65: 1181 1188.
25. Eaton, K.,, D. R. Morgan,, and S. Krakowka. 1992. Motility as a factor in the colonisation of gnotobiotic piglets by Helicobacter pylori. J. Med. Microbiol. 37: 123 127.
26. Eaton, K. A.,, D. R. Morgan,, and S. Krakowka. 1989. Campylobacter pylori virulence factors in gnotobiotic piglets. Infect. Immun. 57: 1119 1125.
27. Eaton, K. A.,, S. Suerbaum,, C. Josenhans,, and S. Krakowka. 1996. Colonization of gnotobiotic piglets by Helicobacter pylori deficient in two flagellin genes. Infect. Immun. 64: 2445 2448.
28. Edwards, N. J.,, M. A. Monteiro,, G. Faller,, E. J. Walsh,, A. P. Moran,, I. S. Roberts,, and N. J. High. 2000. Lewis X structures in the O antigen side-chain promote adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric epithelium. Mol. Microbiol. 35: 1530 1539.
29. Engelhardt, H.,, S. C. Schuster,, and E. Baeuerlein. 1993. An archimedian spiral: the basal disk of the Wolinella flagellar motor. Science 262: 1046 1048.
30. Evans, D. G.,, T. K. Karjalainen,, D. J. Evans,, D. Y. Graham,, and C. H. Lee. 1993. Cloning, nucleotide sequence and expression of a gene encoding an adhesin subunit protein of Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 175: 674 683.
31. Evans, D. J., Jr.,, D. G. Evans,, H. C. Lantpert,, and H. Nakano. 1995. Identification of four new prokaryotic bacterioferrit-ins, from Helicobacter pylori, Anabaena variabilis, Bacillus subtilis and Treponema pallidum, by analysis of gene sequences. Gene 153: 123 127.
32. Evans, D. J., Jr.,, D. G. Evans,, T. Takemura,, H. Nakano,, H. C. Lampert,, D. Y. Graham,, D. N. Granger,, and P. R. Kvietys. 1995. Characterization of a Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein. Infect. Immun. 63: 2213 2220.
33. Exner, M. M.,, P. Doig,, T. J. Trust,, and R. E. Hancock. 1995. Isolation and characterization of a family of porin proteins from Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 63: 1567 1572.
34. Ferrero, R. L.,, V. Cussac,, P. Courcoux,, and A. Labigne. 1992. Construction of isogenic urease-negative mutants of Helicobacter pylori by allelic exchange. J. Bacteriol. 174: 4212 4217.
35. Ferrero, R. L.,, J. M. Thiberge,, M. Huerre,, and A. Labigne. 1994. Recombinant antigens prepared from the urease sub-units of Helicobacter spp.: evidence of protection in a mouse model of gastric infection. Infect. Immun. 62: 4981 4989.
36. Ferrero, R. L.,, J. M. Thiberge,, I. Kansau,, N. Wuscher,, M. Huerre,, and A. Labigne. 1995. The GroES homolog of Helicobacter pylori confers protective immunity against mucosal infection in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. USA 92: 6499 6503.
37. Ge, Z.,, N. W. Chan,, M. M. Palcic,, and D. E. Taylor. 1997. Cloning and heterologous expression of an alpha 1,3-fucosyl-transferase gene from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 21357 21363.
38. Geis, G.,, H. Leying,, S. Suerbaum,, U. Mai,, and W. Opferkuch. 1989. Ultrastructure and chemical analysis of Campylobacter pylori flagella. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 436 441.
39. Geis, G.,, H. Leying,, S. Suerbaum,, and W. Opferkuch. 1990. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccha-rides of Helicobacter pylori. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 930 932.
40. Goodwin, C. S.,, T. Chilvers,, M. Peters,, D. Collins,, I. Sly,, and W. McConnell. 1989. Transfer of Campylobacter pylori and Campylobacter mustelae to Helicobacter gen. nov as Helicobacter pylori comb. nov. and Helicobacter mustelae comb, nov. respectively. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39: 397 405.
41. Goodwin, C. S.,, R. K. McCulloch,, J. A. Armstrong,, and S. H. Wee. 1985. Unusual cellular fatty acids and distinctive ultrastructure in a new spiral bacterium (Campylobacter pyloridis) from the human gastric mucosa. J. Med. Microbiol. 19: 257 267.
42. Hancock, R. E. W.,, and M. Exner,. 1997. Isolation and characterization of porins from H. pylori, p. 191 204. In C. L. Clayton, and H. L. T. Mobley (ed.), Helicobacter pylori Protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, N.J..
43. Haque, M.,, Y. Hirai,, K. Yokota,, N. Mori,, I. Jahan,, H. Ito,, H. Hotta,, I. Yano,, Y. Kanemasa,, and K. Oguma. 1996. Lipid profile of Helicobacter spp.: presence of cholesteryl glucoside as a characteristic feature. J. Bacteriol. 178: 2065 2070.
44. Harris, A. G.,, S. L. Hazell,, and A. G. Netting. 2000. Use of digoxigenin-labelled ampicillin in the identification of penicillin-binding proteins in Helicobacter pylori. J . Antimicrob. Chemother. 45: 591 598.
45. Hawtin, P. R.,, A. R. Stacey,, and D. G. Newell. 1990. Investigation of the structure and localization of the urease of Helicobacter pylori using monoclonal antibodies. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136: 1995 2000.
46. Hirai, Y.,, M. Haque,, T. Yoshida,, K. Yokota,, T. Yasuda,, and K. Oguma. 1995. Unique cholesteryl glucosides in Helicobacter pylori: composition and structural analysis. J. Bacteriol. 177: 5327 5333.
47. Huang, J.,, P. Keeling,, and C. Smyth. 1992. Identification of erythrocyte-binding antigens in Helicobacter pylori. J. Gen. Microbiol. 138: 1503 1513.
48. Huesca, M.,, A. Goodwin,, A. Bhagwansingh,, P. Hoffman,, and C. A. Lingwood. 1998. Characterization of an acidic-pH-inducible stress protein (hsp70), a putative sulfatide binding adhesin, from Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 66: 4061 4067.
49. Hunt, R. H. 1994. Hp and pH—the relevance of gastric acid to the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. J. Gastroenterol. 29(Suppl. 7): 128 133.
50. Icatlo, F. C., Jr.,, M. Kuroki,, C. Kobayashi,, H. Yokoyama,, Y. Ikemori,, T. Hashi,, and Y. Kodama. 1998. Affinity purification of Helicobacter pylori urease. Relevance to gastric mucin adherence by urease protein. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 18130 18138.
51. Ikeda, F.,, Y. Yokota,, Y. Mine,, and M. Tatsuta. 1990. Activity of Cefixime against Helicobacter pylori and affinities for the penicillin-binding proteins. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34: 2426 2428.
52. liver, D.,, A. Arnqvist,, J. Ögren,, I. M. Frick,, D. Kersulyte,, E. T. Incecik,, D. E. Berg,, A. Covacci,, L. Engstrand,, and T. Boren. 1998. Helicobacter pylori adhesin binding fucosylated histo-blood group antigens revealed by retagging. Science 279: 373 377.
53. Jones, A. C.,, R. P. H. Logan,, S. Foynes,, A. Cockayne,, B. W. Wren,, and C. W. Penn. 1997. A flagellar sheath protein of Helicobacter pylori is identical to HpaA, a putative N-acetyl-neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin, but is not an adhesion for AGS cells. J. Bacteriol. 179: 5643 5647.
54. Jones, D. M.,, and A. Curry,. 1989. The ultrastructure of Campylobacter pylori, p. 48 59. In B. J. Rathbone, and R. V. Heatley (ed.), Campylobacter pylori and Gastroduodenal Disease. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, United Kingdom.
55. Jones, D. M.,, A. Curry,, and A. J. Fox. 1985. An ultrastructural study of the gastric campylobacter-like organism 'Campylobacter pyloridis'. J. Gen. Microbiol. 131: 2335 2341.
56. Josenhans, C.,, K. A. Eaton,, T. Thevenot,, and S. Suerbaum. 2000. Switching of flagellar motility in Helicobacter pylori by reversible length variation of a short homopolymeric sequence repeat in fliP, a gene encoding a basal body protein. Infect. Immun. 68: 4598 4603.
57. Josenhans, C.,, A. Labigne,, and S. Suerbaum. 1995. Comparative ultrastructural and functional studies of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae flagellin mutants: both flagellin subunits, FlaA and FlaB, are necessary for full motility in Helicobacter species. J. Bacteriol. 177: 3010 3020.
58. Keenan, J.,, J. Oliaro,, N. Domigan,, H. Potter,, G. Aitken,, R. Allardyce,, and J. Roake. 2000. Immune response to an 18-kilodalton outer membrane antigen identifies lipoprotein 20 as a Helicobacter pylori vaccine candidate. Infect. Immun. 68: 3337 3343.
59. Kidd, M.,, K. Miu,, L. H. Tang,, G. I. Perez-Perez,, M.J. Blaser,, A. Sandor,, and I. M. Modlin. 1997. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide stimulates histamine release and DNA synthesis in rat enterochromaffin-like cells. Gastroenterology 113: 1110 1117.
60. Kim, J. S.,, J. H. Chang,, S. I. Chung,, and J. S. Yum. 1999. Molecular cloning and characterization of the Helicobacter pylori fliD gene, an essential factor in flagellar structure and motility. J. Bacteriol. 181: 6969 6976.
61. Kostrzynska, M.,, J. D. Betts,, J. W. Austin,, and T. J. Trust. 1991. Identification, characterization, and spatial localization of two flagellin species in Helicobacter pylori flagella. J. Bacteriol. 173: 937 946.
62. Kostrzynska, M.,, P. W. O'Toole,, D. E. Taylor,, and T. J. Trust. 1994. Molecular characterization of a conserved 20 kDa membrane-associated lipoprotein antigen of Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 176: 5938 5948.
63. Krishnamurthy, P.,, M. Parlow,, J. B. Zitzer,, N. B. Vakil,, H. L. Mobley,, M. Levy,, S. H. Phadnis,, and B. E. Dunn. 1998. Helicobacter pylori containing only cytoplasmic urease is susceptible to acid. Infect. Immun. 66: 5060 5066.
64. Krishnamurthy, P.,, M. H. Parlow,, J. Schneider,, S. Burroughs,, C. Wickland,, N. B. Vakil,, B. E. Dunn,, and S. H. Phadnis. 1999. Identification of a novel penicillin-binding protein from Helicobacter pylori. J. Bacteriol. 181: 5107 5110.
65. Leying, H.,, S. Suerbaum,, G. Geis,, and R. Haas. 1992. Cloning and genetic characterization of a Helicobacter pylori flagellin gene. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 2863 2874.
66. Logan, S. M.,, J. W. Conlan,, M. A. Monteiro,, W. W. Wakarchuk,, and E. Altman. 2000. Functional genomics of Helicobacter pylori: identification of a beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase and generation of mutants with altered lipopolysaccharide. Mol. Microbiol. 35: 1156 1167.
67. Macnab, R. M., 1996. Flagella and motility, p. 123 145. In F. C. Neidhardt,, R. Curtiss III,, J. L. Ingraham,, E. C. C. Lin,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, W. S. Reznikoff,, M. Riley,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
68. Marais, A.,, G. L. Mendz,, S. L. Hazell,, and F. Megraud. 1999. Metabolism and genetics of Helicobacter pylori: the genome era. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 63: 642 674.
69. McGowan, C. C.,, A. Necheva,, S. A. Thompson,, T. L. Cover,, and M. J. Blaser. 1998. Acid-induced expression of an LPS-associated gene in Helicobacter pylori. Mol. Microbiol. 30: 19 31.
70. Michetti, P.,, I. Corthesy-Theulaz,, C. Davin,, R. Haas,, A. C. Vaney,, M. Heitz,, J. Bille,, J. P. Kraehenbuhl,, E. Saraga,, and A. L. Blum. 1994. Immunization of BALB/c mice against Helicobacter felis infection with Helicobacter pylori urease. Gastroenterology 107: 1002 1011.
71. Monteiro, M. A.,, K. H. Chan,, D. A. Rasko,, D. E. Taylor,, P. Y. Zheng,, B. J. Appelmelk,, H. P. Wirth,, M. Yang,, M. J. Blaser,, S. O. Hynes,, A. P. Moran,, and M. B. Perry. 1998. Simultaneous expression of type 1 and type 2 Lewis blood group antigens by Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharides. Molecular mimicry between H. pylori lipopolysaccharides and human gastric epithelial cell surface glycoforms. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 11533 11543.
72. Moran, A. P.,, I. M. Helander,, and T. U. Kosunen. 1992. Compositional analysis of Helicobacter pylori rough-form lipopolysaccharides. J. Bacteriol. 174: 1370 1377.
73. Moran, A. P.,, B. Lindner,, and E. J. Walsh. 1997. Structural characterization of the lipid A component of Helicobacter pylori rough- and smooth-form lipopolysaccharides. J. Bacteriol. 179: 6453 6463.
74. Muotiala, A.,, I. M. Helander,, L. Pyhala,, T. U. Kosunen,, and A. P. Moran. 1992. Low biological activity of Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 60: 1714 1716.
75. Namavar, F.,, M. Sparrius,, E. C. Veerman,, B. J. Appelmelk,, and C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls. 1998. Neutrophil-activating protein mediates adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to sulfated carbohydrates on high-molecular-weight salivary mucin. Infect. Immun. 66: 444 447.
76. Newell, D. G. 1987. Identification of the outer membrane proteins of Campylobacter pyloridis and antigenic cross-reactivity between C. pylortdis and C. jejuni . J. Gen. Microbiol. 133: 163 170.
77. Odenbreit, S.,, M. Till,, D. Hofreuter,, G. Faller,, and R. Haas. 1999. Genetic and functional characterization of the alpAB gene locus essential for the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric tissue. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 1537 1548.
78. Odenbreit, S.,, B. Wieland,, and R. Haas. 1996. Cloning and genetic characterization of Helicobacter pylori catalase and construction of a catalase-deficient mutant strain. J. Bacteriol. 178: 6960 6967.
79. O'Toole, P. W.,, L. Janzon,, P. Doig,, J. Huang,, M. Kostrzynska,, and T. J. Trust. 1995. The putative neuraminyllactose-binding hemagglutinin HpaA of Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 is a lipoprotein. J. Bacteriol. 177: 6049 6057.
80. O'Toole, P. W.,, M. Kostrzynska,, and T. J. Trust. 1994. Non-motile mutants of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae defective in flagellar hook production. Mol. Microbiol. 14: 691 703.
81. O'Toole, P. W.,, M. C. Lane,, and S. Porwollik. 2000. Helicobacter pylori motility. Microb. Infect. 2: 1207 1214.
82. Page, W. J.,, and D. E. Taylor. 1988. Comparison of methods used to separate the inner and outer membranes of cell envelopes of Campylobacter spp. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134: 2925 2932.
83. Pantzar, M., Å. Ljungh, and T. Wadström. 1999. A vitronectin binding protein of Helicobacter pylori is identical with catalase. Gut 45( Suppl. III): A27.
84. Peck, B.,, M. Ortkamp,, K. D. Diehl,, E. Hundt,, and B. Knapp. 1999. Conservation, localization and expression of HopZ, a protein involved in adhesion of Helicobacter pylori. Nucleic Acids Res. 27: 3325 3333.
85. Phadnis, S. H.,, M. H. Parlow,, M. Levy,, D. liver,, C. M. Caulkins,, J. B. Connors,, and B. E. Dunn. 1996. Surface localization of Helicobacter pylori urease and a heat shock protein homolog requires bacterial autolysis. Infect. Immun. 64: 905 912.
86. Porwollik, S.,, B. Noonan,, and P. W. O'Toole. 1999. Molecular characterization of a flagellar export locus of Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 67: 2060 2070.
87. Radcliff, F. J.,, S. L. Hazell,, T. Kolesnikow,, C. Doidge,, and A. Lee. 1997. Catalase, a novel antigen for Helicobacter pylori vaccination. Infect. Immun. 65: 4668 4674.
88. Scott, D. R.,, D. Weeks,, C. Hong,, S. Postius,, K. Melchers,, and G. Sachs. 1998. The role of internal urease in acid resistance of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 114: 58 70.
89. Simoons-Smit, I. M.,, B. J. Appelmelk,, T. Verboom,, R. Negrini,, J. L. Penner,, G. O. Aspinall,, A. P. Moran,, S. F. Fei,, B. S. Shi,, W. Rudnica,, A. Savio,, and J. de Graaff. 1996. Typing of Helicobacter pylori with monoclonal antibodies against Lewis antigens in lipopolysaccharide. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2196 2200.
90. Smeets, L. C.,, S. Y. Boomkens,, J. J. E. Bijlsma,, C. M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls,, and J. G. Küsters. 1999. Identification of an essential transformation gene in Helicobacter pylori. Gut 45( Suppl. III): A17.
91. Smith, J. I.,, B. Drumm,, A. W. Neumann,, Z. Policova,, and P. M. Sherman. 1990. In vitro surface properties of the newly recognized gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 58: 3056 3060.
92. Solnick, J. V.,, D. R. Canfield,, L. M. Hansen,, and S. Z. Torabian. 2000. Immunization with recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease in specific-pathogen-free rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto). Infect. Immun. 68: 2560 2565.
93. Spiegelhalder, C.,, B. Gerstenecker,, A. Kersten,, E. Schiltz,, and M. Kist. 1993. Purification of Helicobacter pylori superoxide dismutase and cloning and sequencing of the gene. Infect. Immun. 61: 5315 5325.
94. Suerbaum, S. 1995. The complex flagella of gastric Helicobacter species. Trends Microbiol. 3: 168 170.
95. Suerbaum, S.,, C. Josenhans,, and A. Labigne. 1993. Cloning and genetic characterization of the Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae flaB flagellin genes and construction of H. pylori flaA-and flaB-negative mutants by electroporation-mediated allelic exchange. J. Bacteriol. 175: 3278 3288.
96. Suerbaum, S.,, J. M. Thiberge,, I. Kansau,, R. L. Ferrero,, and A. Labigne. 1994. Helicobacter pylori hspA-hspB heat-shock gene cluster: nucleotide sequence, expression, putative function and immunogenicity. Mol. Microbiol. 14: 959 974.
97. Telford, J. L.,, P. Ghiara,, M. Dell'Orco,, M. Comanducci,, D. Burroni,, M. Bugnoli,, M. F. Tecce,, S. Censini,, A. Covacci,, and Z. Xiang. 1994. Gene structure of the Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin and evidence of its key role in gastric disease. J. Exp. Med. 179: 1653 1658.
98. Teneberg, S.,, H. Miller-Podraza,, H. C. Lampert,, D. J. Evans, Jr.,, D. G. Evans,, D. Danielsson,, and K. A. Karlsson. 1997. Carbohydrate binding specificity of the neutrophil-activating protein of Helicobacter pylori. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 19067 19071.
99. Tomb, J.-F.,, O. White,, A. R. Kerlavage,, R. A. Clayton,, G. G. Sutton,, R. D. Fleischmann,, K. A. Ketchum,, H. P. Klenk,, S. Gill,, B. A. Dougherty,, K. Nelson,, J. Quackenbush,, L. Zhou,, E. F. Kirkness,, S. Peterson,, B. Loftus,, D. Richardson,, R. Dodson,, H. G. Khalak,, A. Glodek,, K. McKenney,, L. M. Fitzegerald,, N. Lee,, M. D. Adams,, E. Hickey,, D. E. Berg,, J. D. Gocayne,, T. R. Utterback,, J. D. Peterson,, J. M. Kelley,, M. D. Cotton,, and J. C. Venter. 1997. The complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 388: 539 547.
100. Tonello, F.,, W. G. Dundon,, B. Satin,, M. Molinari,, G. Tognon,, G. Grandi,, G. Del Giudice,, R. Rappuoli,, and C. Montecucco. 1999. The Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein is an iron-binding protein with dodecameric structure. Mol. Microbiol. 34: 238 246.
101. Tufano, M. A.,, F. Rossano,, P. Catalanotti,, G. Liguori,, C. Capasso,, M. T. Ceccarelli,, and P. Marinelli. 1994. Immuno-biological activities of Helicobacter pylori porins. Infect. Immun. 62: 1392 1399.
102. Vacheron, M. J.,, M. Guinand,, A. Francon,, and G. Michel. 1979. Characterisation of a new endopeptidase from sporulating Bacillus sphaericus which is specific for the gamma-D-glutamyl-L-lysine and gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)meso-diaminopimelate linkages of peptidoglycan substrates. Eur. J. Biochem. 100: 189 196.
103. Valkonen, K. H.,, T. Wadstrom,, and A. P. Moran. 1997. Identification of the N-acerylneuraminyllactose-specific laminin-binding protein of Helicobacter pylori. Infect. Immun. 65: 916 923.
104. Vanet, A.,, and A. Labigne. 1998. Evidence for specific secretion rather than autolysis in the release of some Helicobacter pylori proteins. Infect. Immun. 66: 1023 1027.
105. Walsh, E. J.,, and A. P. Moran. 1997. Influence of medium composition on the growth and antigen expression of Helicobacter pylori. J. Appl. Microbiol. 83: 67 75.
106. Wang, G.,, P. G. Boulton,, N. W. Chan,, M. M. Palcic,, and D. E. Taylor. 1999. Novel Helicobacter pylori alpha 1,2-fucosyl-transferase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of Lewis antigens. Microbiology 145: 3245 3253.
107. Wirth, H. P.,, M. Yang,, M. Karita,, and M. J. Blaser. 1996. Expression of the human cell surface glycoconjugates Lewis x and Lewis y by Helicobacter pylori isolates is related to cagA status. Infect. Immun. 64: 4598 4605.
108. Worst, D. J.,, B. R. Otto,, and J. de Graaff. 1995. Iron-repressible outer membrane proteins of Helicobacter pylori involved in heme uptake. Infect. Immun. 63: 4161 4165.
109. Worst, D. J.,, M. Sparrius,, E. J. Kuipers,, J. G. Küsters,, and J. de Graaff. 1996. Human serum antibody response against iron-repressible outer membrane proteins of Helicobacter pylori. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 144: 29 32.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Cell-envelope proteins of

Citation: O'Toole P, Clyne M. 2001. Cell Envelope, p 69-80. In Mobley H, Mendz G, Hazell S (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818005.ch7

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error