1887

Chapter 2 : Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818043/9781555811679_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818043/9781555811679_Chap02-2.gif

Abstract:

Transplantation is considered to be established therapy for a variety of end-stage diseases. Despite some obvious parallels, transplantation stands in stark contrast to many other health care services. First, while cost is an extremely critical issue, donor organ supply has always been the foremost concern. Second, the gap between need and demand is narrowing. Third, this situation has been the source of highly controversial disputes. Finally, it is conceivable that if we were to resolve the supply issue, the financial one would become even more significant than it is today. Too often, naive analysts and misleading analyses give the impression that the future will be unlike the past, since both xenotransplantation and mechanical devices will enable to overcome the supply constraint. This chapter focuses on actual and potential cadaveric donors and donor organs. It presents data in tables to enable to put xenotransplantation into an appropriate perspective. Despite the data reported here, futile health policy efforts will be directed toward eliminating the disparity between the need for solid organ transplantation and the supply of human donor organs. The pace of progress may be exceedingly slow, as nonclinical issues take center stage as resource constraints become as apparent as they are real.

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

The concepts of need and demand in organ transplantation.

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

What happened to potential organ donors (January-March 1996)? (Data provided by Susan Gunderson, LifeSource, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.)

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555818043.chap2
1. Advisory Group on the Ethics of Xenotransplantation. 1997. Animal Tissue into Humans. Department of Health, London, England.
1a. Ashraf, H. 1999. Doctor and patient groups vote for presumed consent. Lancet 354: 230.
2. Associated Press. 1999. Sickest patients to receive more transplants. Mod. Healthcare 29: 4.
3. Baker, A.,, A. Dhawan,, J. Devlin,, G. Mieli-Vergani,, J. O'Grady,, R. Williams,, M. Rela,, and N. Heaton. 1999. Assessment of potential donors for living related liver transplantation. Br. J. Surg. 86: 200 205.
4. Barbers, R. G. 1998. Cystic fibrosis: bilateral living lobar versus cadaveric lung transplantation (review). Am. J. Med. Sci. 315: 155 160.
5. Barr, M. L.,, F. A. Schenkel,, R. G. Cohen,, R. G. Barbers,, C. B. Fuller,, J. A. Hagen,, W. J. Wells,, and V. A. Starnes. 1998. Recipient and donor outcomes in living related and unrelated lobar transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 30: 2261 2263.
6. Bart, K. J.,, E. J. Macon,, and A. L. Humphries. 1979. A response to the shortage of cadaveric kidneys for transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 11: 455 457.
7. Bart, K. J.,, E. J. Macon,, F. C. Whittier,, R. J. Baldwin,, and J. H. Blount. 1981. Cadaveric kidneys for transplantation: a paradox of shortage in the face of plenty. Transplant. Proc. 31: 379 382.
8. Beecham, L. 1999. BMA wants presumed consent for organ donors. Br. Med. J. 319: 141.
9. Bosch, X. 1999. Spain leads world in organ donation and transplantation. JAMA 282: 17 18.
10. Bucuvalas, J. C.,, and F. C. Ryckman 1999. The long- and short-term outcome of living-donor liver transplantation (editorial). J. Pediatr. 134: 259 261.
11. Burdick, J. F.,, A. S. Klein,, and A. M. Harper,. 1997. The debate over liver allocation in the United States: the UNOS perspective, p. 322 324. In J. M. Cecka, and P. I. Terasaki (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1996. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
12. Cattral, M. S.,, and G. A. Levy. 1994. Artificial liver support—pipe dream or reality? N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 268 269.
13. Chapman, L. E.,, T. M. Folks,, D. R. Salomon,, A. P. Patterson,, T. E. Eggerman,, and P. D. Noguchi. 1995. Xenotransplantation and xenogeneic infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 333: 1498 1501.
14. Charatan, F. 1999. Pennsylvania plans to reward organ donation. Br. Med. J. 318: 1371.
15. Chari, R. S.,, B. H. Collins,, J. C. Magee,, J. M. DiMaio,, A. D. Kirk,, R. C. Harland,, R. L. Mccann,, J. L. Platt,, and W. C. Meyers. 1994. Brief report: treatment of hepatic failure with ex vivo pig-liver perfusion followed by liver transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 234 237.
16. Cho, Y. W.,, P. I. Terasaki,, M. Cecka,, and D. W. Gjertson. 1998. Transplantation of kidneys from donors whose hearts have stopped beating. N. Engl. J. Med. 338: 221 225.
17. Christiansen, C. L.,, S. L. Gortmaker,, J. M. Williams,, C. L. Beasley,, L. E. Brigham,, C. Capossela,, M. E. Matthiesen,, and S. Gunderson. 1998. A method for estimating solid organ donor potential by organ precurement region. Am. J. Public Health 88: 1645 1650.
18.CommitteeonXenograftTransplantation. 1996. Xenotransplantation: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
19.CommitteeonXenotransplantation. 1998. Xenotransplantation. Health Council of the Netherlands, Rijswijk, Netherlands.
20. Dark, J. H. 1997. Lung: living-related transplantation (review). Br. Med. Bull. 53: 892 903.
21. Dorling, A.,, K. Riesbeck,, A. Warrens,, and R. Lechler. 1997. Clinical xenotransplantation of solid organs. Lancet 349: 867 871.
22. Durand de Bousingen, D. 1999. Europe supports moratorium on xenotransplantation. Lancet 353: 476.
23.Editorial. 1998. Making sense of hepatitis C. Lancet 352: 1485.
24. Editorial. 1999. Paying respect to organs. Lancet 353: 2085.
25. Evans, R. W. 1983. Health care technology and the inevitability of resource allocation and rationing decisions, Part I. JAMA 249: 2047 2053.
26. Evans, R. W. 1983. Health care technology and the inevitability of resource allocation and rationing decisions, Part II. JAMA 249: 2208 2219.
27. Evans, R. W. 1986. Coverage and reimbursement for heart transplantation. Int. J. Tech. Assess. Health Care 2: 425 449.
28. Evans, R. W. 1989. Money matters: should ability to pay ever be a consideration in gaining access to transplantation? Transplant. Proc. 21: 3419 3423.
29. Evans, R. W., 1990. The actual and potential supply of organ donors in the United States, p. 329 341. In P. I. Terasaki (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1990. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
30. Evans, R. W., 1990. The demand for transplantation in the United States, p. 319 325. In P. I. Terasaki (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1990. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
31. Evans, R. W. 1992. Need, demand, and supply in kidney transplantation: a review of the data, an examination of the issues, and projections through the year 2000. Semin. Nephrol. 12: 234 255.
32. Evans, R. W. 1992. Need, demand, and supply in organ transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 24: 2152 2154.
33. Evans, R. W., 1994. Organ transplantation and the inevitable debate as to what constitutes a basic health care benefit, p. 359 391. In P. I. Terasaki, and J. M. Cecka (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1993. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
34. Evans, R. W. 1995. Liver transplantation in a managed care environment. Liver Transplant. Surg. 1: 61 75.
35. Evans, R. W. 1995. Need for liver transplantation (letter). Lancet 346: 1169.
36. Evans, R. W. 1995. Socioeconomic aspects of heart transplantation. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 10: 169 179.
37. Evans, R. W. 1997. Left ventricular assist devices—permanent implant versus bridge to transplantation—is either cost-effective? J. Heart Lung Transplant. 16: 1180 1185.
38. Evans, R. W., 1998. Cardiac replacement: need, demand, and supply estimation, p. 13 24. In E. A. Rose, and L. W. Stevenson (ed.), Management of End-Stage Heart Disease. Lippincott-Raven Press, Boston, Mass.
39. Evans, R. W.,, and D. Kitzmann,. 1997. The "arithmetic" of donor liver allocation, p. 338 342. In P. I. Terasaki, and J. M. Cecka (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1996. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
40. Evans, R. W.,, and D. J. Kitzmann. 1997. Contracting for services: liver transplantation in the era of mismanaged care. Clin. Liver Dis. 1: 287 303.
41. Evans, R. W.,, and D. J. Kitzmann. 1998. An economic analysis of kidney transplantation. Surg. Clin. North Am. 78: 149 174.
42. Evans, R. W.,, C. E. Orians,, and N. L. Ascher. 1992. The potential supply of organ donors: an assessment of the efficiency of organ procurement efforts in the United States. JAMA 267: 239 246.
43. Fishman, J.,, D. Sachs,, and R. Shaikh. 1998. Xenotransplantation: Scientific Frontiers and Public Policy. Academy of Sciences, New York, N.Y.
44. Forsythe, J. L. R. 1997. Transplantation Surgery. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa.
45. Garrison, R. N.,, F. R. Bentley,, G. H. Raque,, H. C. Polk Jr.,, L. C. Sladek,, M. J. Evanisko, and B. A. Lucas. 1991. There is an answer to the shortage of organ donors. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 173: 391 396.
46. Goldstein, D. J.,, M. C. Oz,, and E. A. Rose. 1998. Implantable left ventricular assist devices. N. Engl. J. Med. 339: 1522 1533.
47. Gortmaker, S. L.,, C. L. Beasley,, L. E. Brigham,, H. G. Franz,, R. N. Garrison,, B. A. Lucas,, R. H. Patterson,, A. M. Sobol,, N. A. Grenvik,, and M. J. Evanisko. 1996. Organ donor potential and performance: size and nature of the organ donor shortfall. Crit. Care Med. 24: 432 439.
48. Hakim, N. S. 1997. Introduction to Organ Transplantation. Imperial College Press, London, England.
49. Hauboldt, R. H. 1993. Cost Implications of Human Organ Transplantations, An Update: 1993. Milliman and Robertson, Inc., Brookfield, Wis.
50. Hauboldt, R. H. 1996. Cost Implications of Human Organ and Tissue Transplantation, An Update: 1996. Milliman & Robertson, Brookfield, Wis.
51. Hayashi, M.,, S. Cao,, W. Concepcion,, H. Monge,, O. Ojogho,, S. So,, and C. Esquivel. 1998. Current status of living-related liver transplantation. Pediatr. Transplant. 2: 16 25.
52. Hensley, S. 1999. Panel seeks wider sharing of organs. Mod. Healthcare 29: 24.
53. Hughes, R. D.,, and R. Williams. 1995. Evaluation of extracorporeal bioartificial liver devices. Liver Transplant. Surg. 1: 200 206.
54. Inomata, Y.,, K. Tanaka,, S. Uemoto,, K. Asonuma,, H. Egawa,, T. Kiuchi,, S. Fujita,, and M. Hayashi. 1999. Living donor liver transplantation: an 8-year experience with 379 consecutive cases. Transplant. Proc. 31: 381.
55.InstituteofMedicine. 1999. Organ Procurement and Transplantation: Assessing Current Policies and the Potential Impact of the DHHS Final Rule. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
56. Johnson, E. M.,, J. S. Najarian,, and A. J. Matas,. 1998. Living kidney donation: donor risks and quality of life, p. 231 240. In J. M. Cecka, and P. I. Terasaki (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1997. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
57. Julvez, J.,, P. Tuppin,, and S. Cohen. 1999. Survey in France of response to xenotransplantation. Lancet 353: 726.
58. Kennedy, I.,, R. A. Sells,, A. S. Daar,, R. D. Guttmann,, R. Hoffenberg,, M. Lock,, J. Radcliffe-Richards,, and N. Tilney. 1998. The case for "presumed consent" in organ donation. Lancet 351: 1650 1652.
59. Kiuchi, T.,, Y. Inomata,, S. Uemoto,, K. Asonuma,, H. Egawa,, M. Hayashi,, S. Fujita,, and K. Tanaka,. 1998. Living donor liver transplantation in Kyoto, 1997, p. 191 198. In J. M. Cecka, and P. I. Terasaki (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1997. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
60. Life Source Board of Directors. 1996. What Happened to Potential Donors, 1995-96? LifeSource, Upper Midwest Organ Procurement Organization, Minneapolis, Minn.
61. Loebe, M.,, Y. Weng,, J. Muller,, M. Dandel,, R. Halfmann,, S. Spiegelsberger,, and R. Hetzer. 1997. Successful mechanical circulatory support for more than two years with a left ventricular assist devide in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 16: 1176 1179.
62. Mallory, G. B. Jr.,, and A. H. Cohen. 1997. Donor considerations in living-related donor lung transplantation. Clin. Chest Med. 18: 239 244.
63.Maximus,Inc. 1985. Assessment of the Potential Donor Organ Pool. Assessment of Estimating Potential National Data Sources With Demonstration Estimate. Maximum, Inc., McLean, Va.
64. McNamara, P.,, and C. Beasley,. 1998. Determinants of familial consent to organ donation in the hospital setting, p. 219 229. In P. I. Terasaki, and J. M. Cecka (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1997. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
65. Milford, E. L. 1998. Organ transplantation—barriers, outcomes, and evolving policies. JAMA 280: 1184 1185.
66. Mussivand, T.,, D. Eng,, P. J. Hendry,, R. G. Masters,, and W. J. Keon. 1999. Development of a ventricular assist device for out-of-hospital use. J. Heart Lung Transplant. 18: 166 171.
67. Nathan, H. M.,, B. E. Jarrell,, B. Broznik,, R. Kochik,, B. Hamilton,, S. Stuart,, T. Ackroyd,, and M. Nell. 1991. Estimation and characterization of the potential renal organ donor pool in Pennsylvania. Report of the Pennsylvania Statewide Donor Study. Transplantation 51: 142 149.
68.NationalTaskForceonOrganTransplantation. 1986. Organ Transplantation: Issues and Recommendations. Office of Organ Transplantation, Health Resources and Services Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Md.
69.NuffieldCouncilonBioethics. 1996. Animal-to-Human Transplants: The Ethics of Xenotransplantation. Nuffield Council on Bioethics, London, England.
70. Orians, C. E.,, R. W. Evans,, and N. L. Ascher. 1993. Estimates of organ-specific donor availability for the United States. Transplant. Proc. 25: 1541 1542.
71. Radcliffe-Richards, J.,, A. S. Daar,, R. D. Guttmann,, R. Hoffenberg,, I. Kennedy,, M. Lock,, R. A. Sells,, and N. Tilney. 1998. The case for allowing kidney sales. Lancet 351: 1950 1952.
72. Rose, E. A.,, and L. W. Stevenson. 1998. Management of End-Stage Heart Disease. Lippincott-Raven Press, Boston, Mass.
73. Ross, L. F.,, D. T. Rubin,, M. Siegler,, M. A. Josephson,, J. R. Thistlethwaite Jr.,, and E. S. Woodle. 1997. Ethics of a paired-kidney-exchange program. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 1752 1755.
74. Shelton, D. L. 1998. Quiet epidemic coming to light. Am. Med. News 41: 26.
75. Shelton, D. L. 1999. Increasing split livers will decrease organ shortage. Am. Med. News 42: 1.
76. Siminoff, L. A.,, and K. A. Nelson. 1999. The accuracy of hospital reports of organ donation eligibility, requests, and consent: a cross-validation study. Joint Comm. J. Qual. Improve. 25: 129 136.
77. Sindhi, R.,, J. Rosendale,, D. Mundy,, S. Taranto,, P. Baliga,, A. Reuben,, P. R. Rajagopalan,, A. Hebra,, E. Tagge,, and H. B. Othersen. Jr. 1999. Impact of segmental grafts on pediatric liver transplantation— a review of the United Network for Organ Sharing Scientific Registry data (1990-1996). J. Pediatr. Surg. 34: 107 110.
78. Skolnick, A. A. 1998. Using ventricular assist devices as long-term therapy for heart failure. JAMA 279: 1509 1510.
79. Starnes, V. A.,, M. L. Barr,, F. A. Schenkel,, M. V. Horn,, R. G. Cohen,, J. A. Hagen,, and W. J. Wells. 1997. Experience with living-donor lobar transplantation for indications other than cystic fibrosis. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 114: 917 921.
80. Superina, R. A.,, C. Harrison,, E. M. Alonso,, and P. F. Whitington. 1999. Ethical issues in pediatric liver transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 31: 1342 1344.
81. Terasaki, P. I.,, J. M. Cecka,, D. W. Gjertson,, and Y. W. Cho,. 1998. Spousal and other living renal donor transplants, p. 269 284. In J. M. Cecka, and P. I. Terasaki (ed.), Clinical Transplants, 1997. UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory, Los Angeles, Calif.
83. Touraine, J. L.,, J. Traeger,, H. Betuel,, J. M. Dubernard,, J. P. Revillard,, and C. Dupuy. 1995. Organ Shortage: The Solutions. Kluwer Academic, Boston, Mass.
84. Ubel, P. A. 1996. Can we continue to afford organ transplants in an era of managed care? Am. J. Managed Care 2: 293 297.
85. Ubel, P. A.,, and A. L. Caplan. 1998. Geographic favoritism in liver transplantation—unfortunate or unfair? N. Engl. J. Med. 339: 1322 1325.
86. United Network for Organ Sharing. 1998. 1997 Annual Report: The U.S. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network: Transplant Data 1988-1996. United Network for Organ Sharing, Richmond, Va.
87. United Network for Organ Sharing. 1996. 1996 Annual Report of the U.S. Scientific Registry for Transplant Recipients and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network—Transplant Data. United Network for Organ Sharing and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Richmond, Va.
88. United Network for Organ Sharing. 1996. 1995 Annual Report of the U.S. Scientific Registry of Organ Transplant Recipients and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. Transplant Data: 1988-1994. United Network for Organ Sharing, Richmond, Va.
89. U.S. Renal Data System. 1998. USRDS 1998 Annual Report. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
90. U.S. Renal DataSystem. 1996. 1996 Annual Data Report. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.
91. Weiss, R. A. 1998. Xenotransplantation. Br. Med. J. 317: 931 934.
92. Williams, B. A. H.,, and M. Sandiford-Guttenbeil. 1996. Trends in Organ Transplantation. Springer Publishing, New York, N.Y.
93. Williams, N. 1998. Paving the way for British xenotransplants. Science 281: 767.
94. Woo, M. S.,, E. F. McLaughlin,, M. V. Horn,, and P. C. Wong. 1998. Living donor lobar lung transplantation: the pediatric experience. Pediatr. Transplant. 2: 185 190.
95. Yamaoka, Y.,, T. Mormoto,, Y. Inamoto,, A. Tanaka,, K. Honda,, I. Ikai,, K. Tanaka,, M. Ichimiya,, M. Ueda,, and Y. Shimahara. 1995. Safety of the donor in living-related liver transplantation—an analysis of 100 parental donors. Transplantation 59: 224.
96. Youngner, S. J.,, R. C. Fox,, and L. J. O'Connell. 1996. Organ Transplantation: Meaning and Reality. University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Definitions of concepts

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 2

Age criteria for various organ transplants

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3

Total need for transplantation, 1979-97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 4

Year-end waiting list for transplantation, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 5

Reported deaths on the waiting list, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 6

Number of cadaveric organ transplants by year, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 7

The total demand for cadaveric transplantation, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 8

Estimates of the unrecognized need for transplantation, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 9

Estimates of the unmet demand for transplantation, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 10

Estimates of the unmet need for transplantation, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 11

Estimates of potential donor supply in the United States

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 12

Number of cadaveric organ donors, 1980-97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 13

Number of cadaveric organ donors by year, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 14

Number of organs recovered from cadaveric donors, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 15

Estimated number of potential cadaveric organ donors by year, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 16

Potential supply of cadaveric organ donors

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 17

Potential supply of cadaveric donor organs

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 18

Potential supply of cadaveric organ donors by donor type, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 19

Percentage of potential cadaveric organ donors from which organs were procured, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 20

Potential supply of cadaveric donor organs by donor type, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 21

Percentage of potential cadaveric donor organs procured, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 22

Cadaveric kidney transplantation: need, demand, and supply, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 23

Cadaveric liver transplantation: need, demand, and supply, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 24

Cadaveric pancreas transplantation: need, demand, and supply, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 25

Cadaveric heart transplantation: need, demand, and supply, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 26

Cadaveric lung transplantation: need, demand, and supply, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 27

Cadaveric heart-lung transplantation: need, demand, and supply, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 28

Cadaveric transplantation: need, demand, and supply, 1988–97

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 29

Cadaveric transplantation: percentage change in estimates from 1988 to 1997

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 30

Discrepancy between the need for cadaveric transplantation and the supply of cadaveric donor organs, 1997

Citation: Evans R. 2001. Coming to Terms with Reality: Why Xenotransplantation Is a Necessity, p 29-51. In Platt J (ed), Xenotransplantation. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818043.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error