Chapter 17 : Species

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This chapter provides an introduction to the rapidly expanding but still very limited knowledge about the interactions of these species and their reservoirs and vectors and the adaptations these bacteria have developed to maintain persistent infection in the host mammalian species. There are now at least 13 named species and probably an equal number of unnamed species. Of these, only four have been definitively associated with human disease: , , , and . infection may be asymptomatic or may be characterized by high fever, severe shin pain, and relapsing symptoms over weeks to months. The species most commonly associated with endocarditis in humans is , and most patients with require replacement of the infected cardiac valve. Granulomatous inflammatory disease (CSD), most commonly of the lymph nodes, occurs in immunocompetent humans infected with . In humans and cats, and bacteremia, respectively, persist despite the development of a humoral antibody response. The study of pathogenesis is still in its infancy, and although there is a tractable system for genetic manipulation (via conjugation), it will be essential to identify and characterize virulence factors. The availability of the genome sequence in the near future will greatly enhance these studies, and the next phase of comparative genomics and microarrays will provide further insight into the mechanisms of pathogenesis and persistence of .

Citation: Koehler J. 2000. Species, p 339-353. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch17
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Pattern of fever in a volunteer (vol. 2) experimentally infected with blood from vol. 1, a patient infected with . Prolonged bacteremia is present, diagnosed by positive xenodiagnosis and isolation of from the patient's blood. BAP, blood agar plates; S. C, subcutaneous; +, present; -, absent. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Koehler J. 2000. Species, p 339-353. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch17
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Reservoirs, vectors, and mammalian infections associated with species. The species are shown in boxes, with the respective mammalian reservoir just below each box. The mode of transmission (arthropod vector or cat scratch) is shown next to each arrow, and the resultant mammalian infection is shown at the end of each arrow. (Reprinted from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Koehler J. 2000. Species, p 339-353. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch17
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species and human infection

Citation: Koehler J. 2000. Species, p 339-353. In Nataro J, Blaser M, Cunningham-Rundles S (ed), Persistent Bacterial Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818104.ch17

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