Chapter 14 : The Type III Secretion Pathway: Dictating the Outcome of Bacterial-Host Interactions

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This chapter reviews the general structure of type III secretion systems in gram-negative bacterial pathogens and the means by which these systems may have arisen and spread. It describes the present state of knowledge regarding the structural details of type III secretion in the system (referred to as Mxi-Spa). By presenting both the common features ascribed to the type III pathway and the specific structural details of one such system, the chapter illustrates how bacterial pathogens may exploit one basic mechanism for adaptation to a broad range of host interactions. Features of each secretion pathway are discussed, and major attributes that are either pathway-specific or conserved are highlighted. The net result of this work is an abundance of new insights into both the evolution of pathogenic bacteria and the mechanisms by which they interact with and manipulate basic cellular processes of a host to promote their survival. While issues regarding type III-dependent protein injection are discussed, it is worth noting that enteropathogenic (EPEC), , , and probably the plant pathogens also inject effector proteins into target host cells. The chapter presents an abridged description of the type III secretion pathway, including details of its evolution and distinguishing characteristics. Future research should be directed toward defining the true architecture of this structure and the means by which it physically transfers virulence proteins.

Citation: Schuch R, Maurelli A. 2000. The Type III Secretion Pathway: Dictating the Outcome of Bacterial-Host Interactions, p 203-224. In Brogden K, Roth J, Stanton T, Bolin C, Minion F, Wannemuehler M (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818111.ch14
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(A) The ∼20 kb Mxi-Spa locus of the virulence plasmid. With the exception of at least IpgD and IpgE (which are predicted to be a secreted effector protein and its chaperone, respectively), the products of these loci are predicted to assemble as the transmembrane Mxi-Spa type III apparatus. The known or putative location of each of these proteins is denoted within the indicated box: , cytoplasmic or peripherally associated with the IM; , mobile secretory elements; , IM-anchored; , spanning the IM and OM; , OM-anchored; S, secreted; P, periplasmic. (B) Model for Ipa secretion through Mxi-Spa. Subunit shading corresponds to the gene shading above. The Ipa proteins are shown as black bullets.

Citation: Schuch R, Maurelli A. 2000. The Type III Secretion Pathway: Dictating the Outcome of Bacterial-Host Interactions, p 203-224. In Brogden K, Roth J, Stanton T, Bolin C, Minion F, Wannemuehler M (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818111.ch14
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Type III virulence protein secretion systems

Citation: Schuch R, Maurelli A. 2000. The Type III Secretion Pathway: Dictating the Outcome of Bacterial-Host Interactions, p 203-224. In Brogden K, Roth J, Stanton T, Bolin C, Minion F, Wannemuehler M (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818111.ch14
Generic image for table

Products of the Mxi-Spa locus of

Citation: Schuch R, Maurelli A. 2000. The Type III Secretion Pathway: Dictating the Outcome of Bacterial-Host Interactions, p 203-224. In Brogden K, Roth J, Stanton T, Bolin C, Minion F, Wannemuehler M (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818111.ch14

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