Chapter 7 : What Is the Very Model of a Modern Macrophage Pathogen?

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What Is the Very Model of a Modern Macrophage Pathogen?, Page 1 of 2

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This chapter describes the major mechanisms of killing used by the macrophage, how innate killing mechanisms, immune-regulated killing mechanisms can be modulated by the host immune response, and how different bacteria have learned to deal with this potential nemesis. Macrophages are extremely degradative cells. One of their prime tasks while they migrate through body tissues is to recognize, internalize, and digest ‘‘unwanted’’ material. Activation of macrophages by cytokines such as gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha will up-regulate the killing capacity of the phagocyte. These cytokines have pleotropic effects, affecting the killing pathways of the macrophages themselves and enhancing the responsiveness of the host’s cellular immune system. The parasitophorous vacuole in which resides is acidic, freely accessible to lysosomal tracers and is therefore likely to be actively hydrolytic. The cellular immune response is the product of the presentation of foreign antigens in the context of class I and class II major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens, or CD1 molecules. All of these molecules are expressed by macrophages, rendering them highly competent antigen-presenting cells. All intramacrophage pathogens have evolved mechanisms that confer a measure of direct resistance to the major routes of killing mobilized by the phagocyte. The killing mechanisms that appear most active are those that rely on the generation of reactive oxygen or nitrogen intermediates.

Citation: Russell D. 2000. What Is the Very Model of a Modern Macrophage Pathogen?, p 107-117. In Brogden K, Roth J, Stanton T, Bolin C, Minion F, Wannemuehler M (ed), Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818111.ch7
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