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Chapter 14 : Development of

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Abstract:

is usually found on the bark of rotting wood, where it forms exquisitely shaped bright-orange fruiting bodies consisting of a stalk supporting several sporangioles. In older fruiting bodies the cells in the stalk lyse, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Vasquez examined the patterns of cells at various stages of aggregation and fruiting body formation by . Specific cations have a profound effect on motility, cell-cell cohesion, and development. Of major importance is calcium ion, which has many different effects on . The presence of calcium, magnesium, and manganese ions is necessary to obtain normal fruiting bodies. Fruiting body formation by is stimulated by light. Light has a clear effect on the pattern of protein synthesis. The pheromone decreases the aggregation period required for aggregates to form in the light or in the dark and, very importantly, substitutes for the light requirement. An intriguing observation is that the addition of guanosine or guanine nucleotides stimulates fruiting body formation at low cell densities in the light or in the dark and can substitute for light or the pheromone in promoting fruiting body formation. It is interesting that transposon mutagenesis has produced mutants defective in fruiting body formation that have mutations in genes that encode putative enzymes required for exo-polysaccharide biosynthesis. The combination of a biochemical and a genetic approach in this area should produce a greater understanding of what determines aggregation and the shapes of the fruiting bodies formed by .

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Scanning electron micrograph of fruiting body. Note the partial covering of the coat and the size difference between the stalk and sporangiophore cells. Bar = 8 µm. (From .)

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Scanning electron micrographs of different stages of fruiting body formation. (A) Early aggregates; (B) early stalk formation; (C) late stalk formation (mushroom stage); (D) mature fruiting bodies. Bar = 20 µm. (From .)

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Life cycle of When cells are placed on non-nutrient agar in the light, aggregates are formed in 8 to 10 h and fully mature fruiting bodies are formed in approximately 20 h. In the dark, the cells tend to aggregate into ridges and fruiting is depressed, although myxospores form. When the cell density is sufficiently low, there is a requirement for light or the addition of exogenous pheromone for aggregation to occur.

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Scanning electron micrograph of aggregation site. This is a very young aggregate. Note that the cells are arranged in concentric rings at the periphery of the aggregate, but not necessarily in the center. (From .)

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

An advanced stage of aggregation. Note the circular arrangement of cells at the base of the aggregate and the spiral pattern on the aggregate. (From .)

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Scanning electron micrograph showing cells entering aggregate at base. (From .)

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Scanning electron micrograph showing cells leaving circular ring around aggregate and entering at bottom as aggregate is lifted off the surface. (From .)

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Chemical structure of stigmolone (A), which is reversibly converted into a dihydropyrane derivative by dehydration under acidic catalysis (B). (From , and .)

Citation: White D, Schairer H. 2000. Development of , p 285-294. In Brun Y, Shimkets L (ed), Prokaryotic Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818166.ch14
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References

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