Chapter 18 : Diseases of the Reproductive Tract of Domestic Ruminants

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Diseases of the Reproductive Tract of Domestic Ruminants, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818210/9781555811327_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818210/9781555811327_Chap18-2.gif


This chapter reviews two diseases such as chlamydial abortion and chlamydial endometritis, which are likely to be of interest to workers in the field of human chlamydiosis. The causal agent of enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) is the ovine abortifacient form of , previously designated biotype 1 and immunotype 1. Most studies have reported a remarkable degree of homogeneity of strains of in molecular terms. When EAE is experimentally reproduced in naive ewes by subcutaneous injection or by dosing via the oropharyngeal route, abortions usually occur in 40 to 50% of animals, with 75 to 90% excreting chlamydiae at lambing or at abortion. A monoclonal antibody against another surface-expressed antigen of , an 89-kDa protein, reduced infection by 60% in a tissue culture model, suggesting that antibodies against this protein may also be involved in acquired immunity. Three principal antigenic preparations have been used in vaccines: (i) inactivated forms of the cultured organism; (ii) a temperature-sensitive, attenuated mutant; and (iii) protein extracted from genetically engineered bacteria expressing the major outer membrane protein. Due to the relatively recent recognition of bovine chlamydial infertility, metritis, and salpingitis, the most reliable descriptions of its clinical expression are provided by experimental infection studies. Both forms of chlamydial infection of ruminants offer useful comparative features for human reproductive tract disease. The bovine disease is still in the very early stages of characterization, and so the full extent of its usefulness as a model for human disease remains to be determined.

Citation: Jones G. 1999. Diseases of the Reproductive Tract of Domestic Ruminants, p 293-310. In Hitchcock P, MacKay H, Wasserheit J, Binder R (ed), Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Adverse Outcomes of Pregnancy. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818210.ch18
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Aitken, I. D., 1991. Enzootic (chlamydial) abortion, p. 43 49. In W. B. Martin, and I. D. Aitken (ed.), Disease of Sheep. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom.
2. Aitken, I. D.,, G. W. Robinson,, and I. E. Anderson. 1981. Recent experimental studies on chlamydial abortion in ewes. Sheep Vet. Soc. Proc. 5: 553 560.
3. Aitken, I. D.,, I. E. Anderson,, and G.W. Robinson,. 1986. Ovine chlamydial abortion: limitations of inactivated vaccine, p. 55 65. In I. D. Aitken (ed.), Chlamydial Disease of Ruminants. CEC publication EUR 10056 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
4. Amin, J. D.,, and A. J. Wilsmore. 1995. Studies on the early phase of the pathogenesis of ovine enzootic abortion in the non-pregnant ewe. Br. Vet. J. 151: 141 155.
5. Anderson, I. E. Personal communication.
6. Anderson, I. E.,, S. I. F. Baxter,, S. Dunbar,, A. G. Rae,, H. L. Philips,, M. J. Clarkson,, and A. J. Herring. 1996. Analyses of the genomes of chlamydial isolates from ruminants and pigs support the adoption of the new species Chlamydia pecorum. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 46: 245 251.
7. Appino, S.,, and I. E. Anderson. Unpublished data.
8. Appleyard, W. T.,, I. D. Aitken,, and I. E. Anderson. 1985. Attempted venereal transmission of Chlamydia psittaci in sheep. Vet. Rec. 116: 535 538.
9. Baghian, A.,, K. Kousoulas,, R. Truax,, and J. Storz. 1996. Specific antigens of Chlamydia pecorum and their homologues in C. psittaci and C. trachomatis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 57: 1720 1725.
10. Beatty, W. L.,, G. L. Byrne,, and R. P. Morrison. 1993. Morphologic and antigenic characterization of interferon γ-mediated persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 3998 4002.
11. Bernstein, M.,, and J. Yaakobowitz. 1990. The identification and prevention of venereal transmission of C. psittaci in sheep. Isr. J. Vet. Med. 45: 192.
12. Blewett, D. A.,, F. Gisemba,, J. K. Miller,, F. W. A. Johnson,, and M. J. Clarkson. 1982. Ovine enzootic abortion: the acquisition of infection and consequent abortion within a single lambing season. Vet. Rec. 111: 499 501.
13. Bowen, R. A.,, P. Spears,, J. Storz,, and G. E. Seidel. 1978. Mechanisms of infertility in genital tract infections due to C. psittaci transmitted through contaminated semen. J. Infect. Dis. 138: 95 98.
14. Brade, L.,, S. Schramek,, U. Schade,, and H. Brade. 1986. Chemical, biological and immunochemical properties of the Chlamydia psittaci lipopolysaccharide. Infect. Immun. 54: 568 574.
15. Buxton, D. 1986. Potential danger to pregnant women of Chlamydia psittaci from sheep. Vet. Rec. 118: 510 511.
16. Buxton, D.,, R. M. Barlow,, J. Finlayson,, I. E. Anderson,, and A. Mackellar. 1990. Observations on the pathogenesis of Chlamydia psittaci infection of pregnant sheep. J. Comp. Pathol. 102: 221 237.
17. Buzoni-Gatel, D.,, and A. Rodolakis. 1983. A mouse model to compare virulence of abortive and intestinal ovine strains of Chlamydia psittaci: influence of the route of inoculation. Ann. Microbiol. (Inst. Pasteur) 134A: 91 99.
18. Buzoni-Gatel, D.,, A. Rodolakis,, and M. Plommet. 1987. T cell mediated and humoral immunity in a mouse Chlamydia psittaci systemic infection. Res. Vet. Sci. 43: 59 63.
19. Buzoni-Gatel, D.,, F. Bernard,, A. Andersen,, and A. Rodolakis. 1990. Protective effect of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against abortion in mice infected by Chlamydia psittaci. Vaccine 8: 342 346.
20. Buzoni-Gatel, D.,, L. Guilloteau,, F. Bernard,, S. Bernard,, T. Chardes,, and A. Rocca. 1992. Protection against Chlamydia psittaci in mice conferred by Lyt-2 + T cells. Immunology 77: 284 288.
21. Carlin, J. M.,, E. C. Borden,, and G. I. Byrne. 1989. Interferon-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity inhibits Chlamydia psittaci replication in human macrophages. J. Interferon Res. 9: 329 337.
22. Cevenini, R.,, M. Donati,, E. Brocchi,, F. de Simone,, and M. la Placa. 1991. Partial characterization of an 89-kDa highly immunoreactive protein from Chlamydia psittaci A/22 causing abortion. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 81: 111 116.
23. Chalmers, W. S. K.,, J. Simpson,, S. J. Lee,, and W. Baxendale. 1997. Use of a live chlamydial vaccine to prevent ovine enzootic abortion. Vet. Rec. 141: 63 67.
24. Clarkson, M. J.,, and H. L. Philips. 1997. Isolation of faecal chlamydia from sheep in Britain and their characterization by cultural properties. Vet. J. 153: 307 311.
25. Dawson, M.,, A. Zaghloul,, and A. J. Wilsmore. 1986. Ovine enzootic abortion: experimental studies of immune responses. Res. Vet. Sci. 40: 59 64.
26. Dayer, J. M.,, B. Beutler,, and A. Cerami. 1985. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor stimulates collagenase and prostaglandin E2 production by human synovial cells and dermal fibroblasts. J. Exp. Med. 162: 2163 2168.
27. Denamur, E.,, C. Sayada,, A. Souriau,, J. Orfila,, A. Rodolakis,, and J. Elion. 1991. Restriction pattern of the major outer-membrane protein gene provides evidence for a homogeneous invasive group among ruminant isolates of Chlamydia psittaci. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137: 2525 2530.
28. Dohoo, I. R.,, R. A. Curtis,, and G. G. Finlay. 1985. A survey of sheep disease in Canada. Can. J. Comp. Med. 49: 239 247.
29. Foggie, A. 1959. The duration of immunity in ewes following vaccination against ovine enzootic abortion virus. Vet. Rec. 71: 741 742.
30. Fukushi, H.,, and K. Hirai. 1992. Proposal of Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia strains derived from ruminants. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 42: 306 308.
31. Fukushi, H.,, and K. Hirai. 1993. Chlamydia pecorum—the fourth species of genus Chlamydia. Microbiol. Immunol. 37: 515 522.
32. Graham, S. P.,, G. E. Jones,, M. Livingstone,, and G. Entrican. 1995. Recombinant ovine interferon gamma inhibits the multiplication of Chlamydia psittaci in ovine cells. J. Comp. Pathol. 112: 185 195.
33. Greig, J. R. 1936. Enzootic abortion in ewes. Vet. Rec. 48: 1225 1227.
34. Greig, A.,, and K. A. Linklater. 1985. Field studies on the efficacy of a long acting preparation of oxytetracycline in controlling outbreaks of enzootic abortion of sheep. Vet. Rec. 117: 627 628.
35. Griffiths, P. C.,, H. L. Philips,, M. Dawson,, and M. J. Clarkson. 1992. Antigenic and morphological differentiation of placental and intestinal isolates of Chlamydia psittaci of ovine origin. Vet. Microbiol. 30: 165 177.
36. Hansen, D. E.,, O. R. Hedstrom,, R. J. Sonn,, and S. P. Snyder. 1990. Efficacy of a vaccine to prevent Chlamydia- or Campylobacter-induced abortions in ewes. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 196: 731 734.
37. Herring, A. J. 1993. Typing Chlamydia psittaci—a review of methods and recent findings. Br. Vet. J. 149: 455 475.
38. Holliman, A.,, R. G. Daniel,, J. G. Parr,, P. C. Griffiths,, B. J. Bevan,, T. C. Martin,, R. G. Hewinson,, M. Dawson,, and R. Munro. 1994. Chlamydiosis and abortion in a dairy herd. Vet. Rec. 134: 500 502.
39. Holtmann, H.,, Y. Shemer-Avni,, K. Wessel,, I. Sarov,, and D. Wallach. 1990. Inhibition of growth of Chlamydia trachomatis by tumor necrosis factor is accompanied by increased prostaglandin synthesis. Infect. Immun. 58: 3168 3172.
40. Huang, H.-S.,, D. Buxton,, and I. E. Anderson. 1990. The ovine immune response to Chlamydia psittaci: histopathology of the lymph node. J. Comp. Pathol. 102: 89 97.
41. Hughes, S. 1997. Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.
42. Johnson, F. W. A.,, and M. J. Clarkson,. 1986. Ovine abortion isolates: antigenic variations detected by mouse infection, p. 129 132. In I. D. Aitken (ed.), Chlamydial Diseases of Ruminants. CEC publication EUR 10056 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
43. Johnson, F. W. A.,, and D. Hobson. 1986. Intracerebral infection of mice with ovine strains of Chlamydia psittaci: an animal screening test for the assay of vaccines. J. Comp. Pathol. 96: 497 505.
44. Jones, G. E. Manuscript in preparation.
45. Jones, G. E. Unpublished data.
46. Jones, G. E.,, and I. E. Anderson. 1988. Chlamydia psittaci: is tonsillar tissue the portal of entry in ovine enzootic abortion? Res. Vet. Sci. 44: 260 261.
47. Jones, G. E.,, and I. E. Anderson. Unpublished data.
48. Jones, G. E.,, and M. Livingstone. Unpublished data.
49. Jones, G. E.,, A. J. Herring,, J. Machell,, T. W. Tan,, I. E. Anderson,, and S. Dunbar,. 1992. Preliminary studies with a recombinant major outer membrane protein vaccine: clinical efficacy of several vaccine formulations against experimental enzootic abortion of ewes, p. 63. In P.-A. Mardh,, M. la Placa,, and M. Ward (ed.), Proceedings of the European Society of Chlamydial Research, vol. 2. Uppsala University Centre for STD Research, Uppsala, Sweden.
50. Jones, G. E.,, K. A. Jones,, J. Machell,, J. Brebner,, I. E. Anderson,, and S. How. 1995. Efficacy trials with tissue-culture grown, inactivated vaccines against chlamydial abortion in sheep. Vaccine 13: 715 723.
51. Jones, G. E.,, A. Donn,, J. Machell,, and B. Biolatti. Manuscript in preparation.>
52. Jones, G. E.,, J. Machell,, S. Hughes,, and M. Livingstone. Unpublished data.
53. Keppie, J.,, A. E. Williams,, K. Witt,, and H. Smith. 1965. The role of erythritol in the tissue localization of the Brucellae. Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 46: 104 108.
54. Kwapien, R. P.,, S. D. Lincoln,, D. E. Reed,, C. E. Whiteman,, and T. L. Chow. 1970. Pathologic changes of placentas from heifers with experimentally induced epizootic bovine abortion. Am. J. Vet. Res. 31: 999 1015.
55. Lacy, D.,, G. I. Byrne,, and D. Paulnock,. 1992. Chlamydia-induced immunosuppression in mice is the result of multiple mechanisms, p. 86. In P.-A. ,, M. la Placa,, and egive Ward (ed.), Proceedings of the European Society of Chlamydial Research, vol. 2. Uppsala University Centre for STD Research, Uppsala, Sweden.
56. Leaver, H. A.,, A. Howie,, I. D. Aitken,, B. W. Appleyard,, I. E. Anderson,, G. Jones,, L. A. Hay,, G. E. Williams,, and D. Buxton. 1989. Changes in progesterone, oestradiol 17?, and intrauterine prostaglandin E2 during late gestation in sheep experimentally infected with an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135: 565 573.
57. Leonard, C.,, G. L. Caldow,, and G. J. Gunn. 1993. An estimate of the prevalence of enzootic abortion of ewes in Scotland. Vet. Rec. 133: 180 183.
58. Livingstone, M.,, G. Jones,, and N. Poyser. Unpublished data.
59. Lozano, E. A. 1986. Etiologic significance of bacterial isolates from rams with palpable epidydimitis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 47: 1153 1156.
60. Mayer, J.,, M. L. Woods,, Z. Vavrin,, and J. B. Hibbs, Jr. 1993. Gamma interferon-induced nitric oxide production reduces Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity in Mc-Coy cells. Infect. Immun. 61: 491 497.
61. McCafferty, M. C. 1990. Immunity to Chlamydia psittaci with particular reference to sheep. Vet. Microbiol. 25: 87 99.
62. McCafferty, M. C.,, and I. E. Anderson. Personal communication.
63. McClenaghan, M.,, A. J. Herring,, and I. D. Aitken. 1984. Comparison of Chlamydia psittaci isolates by DNA restriction endonuclease analysis. Infect. Immun. 45: 384 389.
64. McClenaghan, M.,, N. F. Inglis,, and A. J. Herring. 1991. Comparison of isolates of Chlamydia psittaci of ovine, avian and feline origin by analysis of polypeptide profiles from purified elementary bodies. Vet. Microbiol. 26: 269 278.
65. McEwen, A. D.,, A. I. Littlejohn,, and A. Foggie. 1951. Enzootic abortion in ewes. Some aspects of infection and resistance. Vet. Rec. 63: 489 492.
66. McEwen, A. D.,, J. B Dow,, and R. D. Anderson. 1955. Enzootic abortion in ewes. An adjuvant vaccine prepared from eggs. Vet. Rec. 67: 393 394.
67. Nabeya, M.,, K. Kaneko,, H. Ogino., D. Nakabayashi, T. Watanabe, J. Murayama, K. Hayashi, H. Fukushi, T. Yamagushi, K. Hirai, Y. Inaba, and M. Matumoto. 1991. Abortion in Japanese cows caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Vet. Microbiol. 29: 261 265.
68. Papadopoulos, O.> Personal communication.
69. Papp, J. R.,, and P. E. Shewen. 1996a. Pregnancy failure following vaginal infection of sheep with Chlamydia psittaci prior to breeding. Infect. Immun. 64: 1116 1125.
70. Papp, J. R.,, and P. E. Shewen. 1996b. Localization of chronic C. psittaci infection in the reproductive tract of sheep. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 1296 1302.
71. Papp, J. R.,, P. E. Shewen,, and C. J. Gartley. 1993. Chlamydia psittaci infection and associated infertility in sheep. Can. J. Vet. Res. 57: 185 189.
72. Papp, J. R.,, P. E. Shewen,, and C. J. Gartley. 1994. Abortion and subsequent excretion of chlamydiae from the reproductive tract of sheep during estrus. Infect. Immun. 62: 3786 3792.
73. Perez-Martinez, J. A.,, and J. Storz. 1985. Antigenic diversity of Chlamydia psittaci of mammalian origin determined by microimmunofluorescence. Infect. Immun. 50: 905 910.
74. Rank, R. G.,, K. H. Ramsey,, E. A. Pack,, and D. M. Williams. 1992. Effect of gamma interferon on resolution of murine chlamydial genital infection. Infect. Immun. 60: 4427 4429.
75. Rodolakis. A. 1983. In vitro and in vivo properties of chemically induced temperature-sensitive mutants of Chlamydia psittaci var. ovis: screening in a murine model. Infect. Immun. 42: 525530.
76. Rodolakis, A.,, and K. Bernard. 1977. Isolation of Chlamydia ovis from genital organs of rams with epidydimitis. Bull. Acad. Vet. France 50: 65 69.
77. Rodolakis, A.,, and F. Bernard. 1984. Vaccination with temperature-sensitive mutant of Chlamydia psittaci against enzootic abortion of ewes. Vet. Rec. 114: 193 194.
78. Rodolakis, A.,, and A. Souriau. 1983. Response of ewes to temperature-sensitive mutants of Chlamydia psittaci (var ovis) obtained by NTG mutagenesis. Ann. Rech. Vet. 14: 155 161.
79. Rodolakis, A.,, and A. Souriau. 1989. Variations in the virulence of strains of Chlamydia psittaci for pregnant ewes. Vet. Rec. 125: 87 190.
80. Rodolakis, A.,, F. Bernard,, and F. Lantier. 1989a. Mouse models for evaluation of virulence of Chlamydia psittaci isolated from ruminants. Res. Vet. Sci. 46: 34 39.
81. Schutte, A. P.,, and J. G. Pienaar. 1977. Chlamydiosis in sheep and cattle in South Africa. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 48: 261 265.
82. Shemer-Avni, Y.,, D. Wallach,, and I. Sarov. 1989. Reversion of the antichlamydial effect of tumor necrosis factor by tryptophan and antibodies to beta interferon. Infect. Immun. 57: 3484 3490.
83. Siarkou, V. 1992. Ph.D. thesis. Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece.
84. Smith, H.,, A. E. Williams,, J. H. Pearce,, J. Keppie,, P. W. Harris-Smith,, R. B. Fitzgeorge,, and K. Witt. 1962. Fetal erythritol: a cause of the localization of Brucella abortus in bovine contagious abortion. Nature 193: 47 49.
85. Spears, P.,, and J. Storz. 1979. Biotyping of Chlamydia psittaci based on inclusion morphology and response to diethylaminoethyl-dextran and cycloheximide. Infect. Immun. 24: 224 232.
86. Stamp, J. T.,, A. D. McEwen,, J. A. A. Watt,, and D. I. Nisbet. 1950. Enzootic abortion in ewes. 1. Transmission of the disease. Vet. Rec. 62: 251 254.
87. Steven, D. H.,, K. A. Mallon,, and P. W. Nathanielsz. 1980. Sheep trophoblast in monolayer cell culture. Placenta 1: 209 221.
88. Storz, J.,, and D. G. McKercher. 1962. Etiological studies on epizootic bovine abortion. Zen. Veterinaer-med. 9: 411 427.
89. Storz, J.,, E. J. Carroll,, E. H. Stephenson,, L. Bull,, and A. K. Eugster. 1976. Urogenital infection and seminal excretion after inoculation of bulls and rams with chlamydiae. Am. J. Vet. Res. 37: 517 5200.
90. Tan, T. W.,, A. J. Herring,, I. E. Anderson,, and G. E. Jones. 1990. Protection of sheep against Chlamydia psittaci infection with a subcellular vaccine containing the major outer membrane protein. Infect. Immun. 58: 3101 3108.
91. Thomas, S. M.,, L. F. Garrity,, C. R. Brandt,, C. S. Schobert,, G.-S. Feng,, M. W. Taylor,, J. M. Carlin,, and G. I. Byrne. 1993. IFN-γ-mediated antimicrobial response. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-deficient mutant host cells no longer inhibit intracellular Chlamydia spp. or Toxoplasma growth. J. Immunol. 150: 5529 5534.
92. Thorburn, G. D. 1991. The placenta, prostaglandins and parturition: a review. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 3: 277 294.
93. VIDA. 1992. Veterinary Investigation Diagnosis Analysis II( VIDA),1992 and 1985-92. MAFF, CVL, Weybridge, England.
94. Vretou, E.,, H. Loutrari,, L. Mariani,, K. Costelidou,, P. Eliades,, G. Conidou,, S. Karamanou,, O. Mangana,, V. Siarkou,, and O. Papadopoulos. 1996. Diversity among abortion strains of C. psittaci demonstrated by inclusion morphology, polypeptide profiles and monoclonal antibodies. Vet. Microbiol. 51: 275 289.
95. Waldhalm, D. G.,, W. J. DeLong,, and R. F. Hall. 1982. Efficacy of a bacterin prepared from Chlamydia psittaci grown in cell culture for experimental immunization of ewes. Vet. Microbiol. 7: 493 498.
96. Williams, D. M.,, D. M. Magee,, L. F. Bonewald,, J. G. Smith,, C. A. Bleicker,, G. I. Byrne,, and J. Schachter. 1990. A role in vivo for tumor necrosis factor alpha in host defense against Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect. Immun. 58: 1572 1576.
97. Wilsmore, A. J.,, V. Parsons,, and M. Dawson. 1984. Experiments to demonstrate routes of transmission of ovine enzootic abortion. Br. Vet. J. 140: 380 391.
98. Wilsmore, A. J.,, B. C. Wilsmore,, G. J. R. Dagnall,, K. A. Izzard,, R. M. Woodland,, M. Dawson,, and C. Venables. 1990. Clinical and immunological responses of ewes following vaccination with an experimental formalin-inactivated Chlamydia psittaci ( ovis) vaccine and subsequent challenge with the live organism during pregnancy. Br. Vet. J. 146: 341 348.
99. Wittenbrink, M. M.,, H. A. Schoon,, D. Schoon,, R. Mansfeld,, and W. Bisping. 1993. Endometritis in cattle experimentally induced by Chlamydia psittaci. J. Vet. Med. Ser. B. 40: 437 450.
100. Wong, S. Y.,, E. S. Gray,, D. Buxton,, J. Finlayson,, and F. W. A. Johnson. 1985. Acute placentitis and spontaneous abortion caused by Chlamydia psittaci of sheep origin: a histological and ultrastructural study. J. Clin. Pathol. 38: 707 711.
101. Woollen, N.,, E. K. Daniels,, T. Yeary,, H. W. Leipold,, and R. M. Phillips. 1990. Chlamydial infection and perinatal mortality in a swine herd. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 197: 600 601.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error