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Chapter 8 : Specific Immunity and Cytokines

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Abstract:

Specific immune mechanisms are composed of humoral and cellular arms. Specific immunity develops in response to infection or immunization with products and functions to contain and/or eradicate infection. The human antibody response to consists of antibodies to the polysaccharide capsule and to protein antigens. The antibody response to the capsular polysaccharide antigen has been extensively studied. The conjugate vaccine strategy is based on the premise that high-titer antibody responses in patients at risk for infection can enhance the efficacy of nonspecific (e.g., macrophage, neutrophil, natural killer cell) and cellular immunity to prevent clinical infection. In summary, the role of humoral immunity in defense against is complex and incompletely understood. There is convincing evidence that administration of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM)-binding monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can protect mice. The study of cytokines in mice is aided by the availability of many murine reagents and several mouse strains deficient in specific cytokines. Many cytokines have now been shown to have an important role in host defense against cryptococcal infection.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
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Figure 1

Effect of antibody administration (MAb 2H1, IgG1) on survival of mice given lethal cryptococcal infection by various routes. The degree to which antibody prolongs survival is dependent on the route of infection. For details of individual models, see the following references: intraperitoneal ( ), intravenous ( ), intracerebral ( ), and intratracheal ( ). Part of this figure was published previously ( ) and is reproduced here with permission from Cold Spring Harbor Press.

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
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Figure 2

Schematic diagram highlighting the fact that antibody molecules serve as a bridge between host effector cells and yeast cells. The antibody molecule is multifunctional, with the Fc portion being responsible for several biological effects, including half-life, phagocytosis, and complement activation. The Fv portion is composed of the variable region and is responsible for binding to antigen. For details of interactions of effector cells with , see references , and . For details of the relative efficacy of Fc region isotypes, see references , and . For details of the variable regions responsible for antigen-binding region Fv, see references , and . For details about differences in passive antibody protection depending on the strain, see reference .

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
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Figure 3

Direct interaction between a Τ lymphocyte and a cell. Photograph kindly provided by Stuart Levitz (Boston, Mass.). Details of this experiment can be found in reference . Τ lymphocytes have been shown to inhibit the replication of in vitro ( ). For a review of this phenomenon, see reference .

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
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Tables

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Table 1

Evidence that antibody immunity contributes to protection against infection

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
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Table 2

Effects of selected cytokine administration or neutralization against infection in mice

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8
Generic image for table
Table 3

In vitro cytokine effects on the efficacy of immune effector cells against

Citation: Casadevall A, Perfect J. 1998. Specific Immunity and Cytokines, p 223-269. In . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818241.ch8

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