Chapter 3 : Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8)

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8), Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818289/9781555811303_Chap03-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818289/9781555811303_Chap03-2.gif


As epidemiologic evidence accumulates, it is becoming increasingly clear that Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (or human herpesvirus 8 [HHV-8]) is the likely infectious cause of KS and related neoplastic disorders. Immunosuppression is an important cofactor in KS pathogenesis, as shown by the occurrence of KS in post-transplant patients and its occasional regression after the reduction of iatrogenic immunosuppression. Whether KS is a hyperplastic process driven by cytokine dysregulation or represents the oligo-or monoclonal-expansion of virus-transformed endothelial cells remains controversial. Near-universal detection of KSKSHV DNA in all of the histologically indistinguishable forms of KS suggests that they share a common etiology. In addition to studies suggesting persistence of KSHV in prostate tissues from KS patients, one study has found that dorsal root ganglia may harbor viral DNA in patients with AIDS-KS. Cultivation of the virus in cells uninfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has led to the development of serologic tests and studies of KSHV gene expression during latency and lytic replication. The close correspondence between signal pathways activated by EBV infection and those activated by virus-encoded homologs during KSHV infection is seen for interleukin-6 (IL-6) signal transduction. DNA tumor viruses have been essential tools in dissecting out transformation pathways, and KSHV promises to provide a unique model for investigating virus-induced transformation. The unique epidemiology of KSHV and its public health importance, especially to parts of sub-Saharan Africa, suggest that this virus be accorded an important priority in the development of techniques for its control and treatment.

Citation: Schulz T, Chang Y, Moore P. 1998. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8), p 87-134. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex
Reverse Transcriptase PCR
Human herpesvirus 8
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Photomicrograph of a KS lesion showing characteristic spindle cells interwoven into the dermis and forming intersecting bands of tumor cells with irregular capillary channels underneath an intact epidermis. A prominent inflammatory infiltrate of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages is frequently present, suggesting an immunologic response to tumor-specific antigens (magnification, ×23; hematoxylin and eosin stain).

Citation: Schulz T, Chang Y, Moore P. 1998. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8), p 87-134. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Characteristic immunofluorescence staining of the KSHV-infected BCP-1 cell line with serum at 1:160 dilution from a patient with KS. The KSHV LANA encoded by ORF73 forms a speckled nuclear pattern, suggesting sub-nuclear localization, which is distinguishable from the diffuse, nonspecific cytoplasmic seroreactivity that is commonly seen with BCBL/PEL cell lines ( ).

Citation: Schulz T, Chang Y, Moore P. 1998. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8), p 87-134. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

(A) Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody kinetics of seroconversion with the LANA IFA for six homosexual, HIV-positive men followed by the MACS study who developed KS. All six patients seroconverted from a LANA IFA endpoint titer of 1:40 or less to greater than 1:160 at time 0 and were subsequently followed for 43 to 96 months until they developed KS (marked by X). Antibody titers did not significantly vary after seroconversion, suggesting that seroconversion is caused by initial KSHV infection rather than reactivation associated with immunosuppression. (B) Cumulative LANA seropositivity rate by IFA (solid line) and WB (dashed line) for 40 homosexual, HIV-positive men from entry into the MACS study until development of KS at time 0. Seroconversion rates were linear over time for both assays, with the median seropositivity rate being 32 months by WB and 46 months by IFA. Estimated sensitivities of these latent antigen assays at KS onset (0 timepoint) are 80 to 90%. Reprinted with permission from reference .

Citation: Schulz T, Chang Y, Moore P. 1998. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8), p 87-134. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Extracellular, mature KSHV particles, found among cellular debris of lysed KS-1 cells which were derived from a body cavity-based lymphoma chronically infected with KSHV. These virus particles are seen exhibiting two different planes of sectioning through the center of the virus particles. Both of these mature herpesvirus particles exhibit an electron-dense viral DNA core region, surrounded by spherical capsid structure. The capsids of the virions are enclosed by an electron-lucent layer surrounded by the viral envelopes, which are seen with attached protein spikes. (Courtesy D. Ablashi.)

Citation: Schulz T, Chang Y, Moore P. 1998. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8), p 87-134. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

The KSHV -140.5-kb LUR encodes at least 81 ORFs and is flanked by the TR region composed of multiple TR units. Additional genes are likely to be delineated through experimental studies. Genes with homology to other herpesviruses (solid black) fall into regions which are well characterized gene blocks (1 through 7; open segments) conserved among herpesviruses. Genes unique to KSHV and related rhadinoviruses, some of which are homologs to cell signaling and regulatory genes, are designated with a K prefix (open segments) and lie in intervening nonconserved gene blocks. Terminal repeat sequences are composed of reiterated arrays of 801-bp units having high G:C content. Reprinted with permission from reference .

Citation: Schulz T, Chang Y, Moore P. 1998. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8), p 87-134. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

vIL-6 expression (Vector Red chromagen) in KSHV-infected plasmacytoid infiltrate found in the spleen of a patient with posttransplantation KS and generalized lymphadenopathy ( ). Cells show typical cytoplasmic immunostaining for vIL-6 expression (red) with nuclear exclusion (magnification, × 230; Mayer's hematoxylin counterstain).

Citation: Schulz T, Chang Y, Moore P. 1998. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (Human Herpesvirus 8), p 87-134. In McCance D (ed), Human Tumor Viruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818289.ch3
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Adams, P. D.,, and W. J. Kaelin. 1995. Transcriptional control by E2F. Semin. Cancer Biol. 6: 99 108.
2. Adams, P. D.,, and W. J. Kaelin. 1996. The cellular effects of E2F overexpression. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 208: 79 93.
3. Adams, V.,, W. Kempf,, M. Schmid,, B. Muller,, J. Briner,, and G. Burg. 1995. Absence of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in skin cancers of non-immunosuppressed patients. Lancet 346: 1715.
4. Ahuja, S. K.,, J. L. Gao,, and P. M. Murphy. 1994. Chemokine receptors and molecular mimicry. Immunol. Today 15: 281 287.
5. Albrecht, J.-C.,, J. Nicholas,, D. Biller,, K. R. Cameron,, B. Biesinger,, C. Newman,, S. Wittmann,, M. A. Craxton,, H. Coleman,, B. Fleckenstein,, and R. W. Honess. 1992. Primary structure of the Herpesvirus saimiri genome. J. Virol. 66: 5047 5058.
6. Aluigi, M. G.,, A. Albini,, S. Carlone,, L. Repetto,, R. De Marchi,, A. Icardi,, M. Moro,, D. Noonan,, and R. Benelli. 1996. KSHV sequences in biopsies and cultured spindle cells of epidemic, iatrogenic and Mediterranean forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. Res. Virol. 147: 267 275.
7. Ambroziak, J. A.,, D. J. Blackbourn,, B. G. Herndier,, R. G. Glogau,, J. H. Gullett,, A. R. McDonald,, E. T. Lennette,, and J. A. Levy. 1995. Herpes-like sequences in HIV-infected and uninfected Kaposi's sarcoma patients. Science 268: 582 583.
8. Andre, S.,, O. Schatz,, J. R. Bogner,, H. Zeichhardt,, M. M. Stoffler,, H. U. Jahn,, R. Ullrich,, A. K. Sonntag,, R. Kehrn,, and J. Haas. 1997. Detection of antibodies against viral capsid proteins of human herpesvirus 8 in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. J. Mol. Med. 75: 145 152.
9. Ansari, M. Q.,, D. B. Dawson,, R. Nador,, C. Rutherford,, N. R. Schneider,, M. J. Latimer,, L. Picker,, D. M. Knowles,, and R. W. McKenna. 1996. Primary body cavity-based AIDS-related lymphomas. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 105: 221 229.
9a.. Ariyoshi, K.,, M. Schim van der Loeff,, T. Corrah,, F. Cham,, P. M. Cook,, D. Whitby,, R. A. Weiss,, and T. F. Schulz. Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection in The Gambia. J. Hum. Virol., in press.
10. Arvanitakis, L.,, R. E. Geras,, A. Varma,, M. C. Gershengorn,, and E. Cesarman. 1997. Human herpesvirus KSHV encodes a constitutively active G-protein-coupled receptor linked to cell proliferation. Nature 385: 347 350.
11. Arvanitakis, L.,, E. A. Mesri,, R. G. Nador,, J. W. Said,, A. S. Asch,, D. M. Knowles,, and E. Cesarman. 1996. Establishment and characterization of a primary effusion (body cavity-based) lymphoma cell line (BC-3) harboring Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8) in the absence of Epstein-Barr virus. Blood 88: 2648 2654.
12. Baer, R.,, A. T. Bankier,, P. L. Biggin,, P. L. Deininger,, P. J. Farrell,, T. J. Gibson,, G. Hatfull,, G. S. Hudson,, S. C. Satchwell,, C. Seguin,, P. S. Tufmell,, and B. G. Barrell. 1984. DNA sequence and expression of the B95-8 Epstein-Barr virus genome. Nature 310: 207 211.
12a.. Bais, C,, B. Santomasso,, O. Coso,, L. Arvanitakis,, E. Geras-Raaka,, J. S. Gutkind,, A. S. Asch,, E. Cesarman,, M. C. Gerhengorn,, and E. A. Mesri. 1998. G-protein-coupled receptor of Kaposi's sarcoma-assocated herpesvirus is a viral oncogene and angiogenesis activator. Nature 391: 86 89.
13. Barozzi, P.,, M. Luppi,, L. Masini,, R. Marasca,, M. Savarino,, M. Morselli,, M. G. Ferrari,, M. Bevini,, G. Bonacorsi,, and G. Torelli. 1996. Lymphotrophic herpesvirus (EBV, HHV-6, HHV-8) DNA sequences in HIV negative Castleman's disease. J. Clin. Pathol. Mol. Pathol. 49: M232 M235.
14. Beral, V. 1991. Epidemiology of Kaposi's sarcoma. Cancer Surveys 10: 5 22.
15. Beral, V.,, D. Bull,, S. Darby,, I. Weller,, C. Carne,, M. Beecham,, and H. Jaffe. 1992. Risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and sexual practices associated with faecal contact in homosexual or bisexual men with AIDS. Lancet 339: 632 635.
16. Beral, V.,, T. A. Peterman,, R. L. Berkelman,, and H. W. Jaffe. 1990. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet 335: 123 128.
17. Bertin, J.,, R. C. Armstrong,, S. Ottilie,, D. A. Martin,, Y. Wang,, S. Banks,, G. H. Wang,, T. G. Senkevich,, E. S. Alnemri,, B. Moss,, M. J. Lenardo,, K. J. Tomaselli,, and J. I. Cohen. 1997. Death effector domam-containing herpesvirus and poxvirus proteins inhibit both Fas- and TNFRl-induced apoptosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 1172 1176.
18. Bigoni, B.,, R. Dolcetti,, L. De Lellis,, A. Carbone,, M. Boiocchi,, E. Cassai,, and D. DiLuca. 1996. Human herpesvirus 8 is present in the lymphoid system of healthy persons and can reactivate in the course of AIDS. J. Infect. Dis. 173: 542 549.
19. Blackbourn, D. J.,, J. Ambroziak,, E. Lennette,, M. Adams,, B. Ramachandran,, and J. A. Levy. 1997. Infectious human herpesvirus 8 in a healthy North American blood donor. Lancet 349: 609 611.
19a.. Blackbourn, D. J.,, E. T. Lennette,, J. Ambroziak,, D. V. Mourich,, and J. A. Levy. 1998. Human herpesvirus 8 detection in nasal secretions and saliva. J. Infect. Dis. 177: 213 216.
19b.. Blackbourn, D.,, and J. A. Levy. 1997. Human herpesvirus 8 in semen and prostate. AIDS 11: 249 250.
19c.. Blasis, C,, C. Zietz,, B. Haar,, F. Neipel,, S. Esser,, N. H. Brockmeyer,, E. Tsachler,, S. Colombini,, B. Ensoli,, and M. Sturzl. 1997. Monocytes in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions are productively infected by human herpesvirus 8. J. Virol. 71: 7963 7968.
20. Boldough, I.,, P. Szaniszlo,, W. A. Bresnahan,, C. M. Flaitz,, M. C. Nichols,, and T. Albrecht. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in the saliva of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23: 406 407.
21. Boshoff, C,, S.-J. Gao,, L. Healy,, S. Matthews,, A. Thomas,, R. Warnke,, J. Strauchen,, E. Matutes,, R. A. Weiss,, P. S. Moore,, O. W. Kamel,, and Y. Chang. In vivo characterization of KSHV positive primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells. Blood, in press.
22. Boshoff, C,, Y. Endo,, P. D. Collins,, Y. Takeuchi,, J. D. Reeves,, V. L. Schweikert,, M. Siani,, T. Sasaki,, T. J. Williams,, P. W. Gray,, P. S. Moore,, Y. Chang,, and R. A. Weiss. 1997. Angiogenic and HIV inhibitory functions of KSHV-encoded chemokines. Science 278: 290 294.
23. Boshoff, C,, T. F. Schulz,, M. M. Kennedy,, A. K. Graham,, C. Fisher,, A. Thomas,, J. O. McGee,, R. A. Weiss,, and J. J. O'Leary. 1995. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects endothelial and spindle cells. Nat. Med. 1: 1274 1278.
24. Boshoff, C,, S. Talbot,, M. Kennedy,, J. O'Leary,, T. Schulz,, and Y. Chang. 1996. HHV8 and skin cancers in immunosuppressed patients. Lancet 347: 338 339. (Letter.)
25. Boshoff, C,, D. Whitby,, T. Hatziionnou,, C. Fisher,, J. van der Walt,, A. Hatzakis,, R. Weiss,, and T. Schulz. 1995. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in HlV-negative Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet 345: 1043 1044.
26. Brambilla, L.,, V. Boneschi,, E. Berti,, M. Corbellino,, and C. Parravicini. 1996. HHV8 cell-associated viraemia and clinical presentation of Mediterranean Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet 347: 1338.
27. Brandt, S. J.,, D. M. Bodine,, C. E. Dunbar,, and A. W. Nienhuis. 1990. Dysregulated interleukin 6 expression produces a syndrome resembling Castleman's disease in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 86: 592 599.
28. Brandt, S. J.,, D. M. Bodine,, C. E. Dunbar,, and A. W. Nienhuis. 1990. Retroviral-mediated transfer of interleukin-6 into hematopoietic cells of mice results in a syndrome resembling Castleman's disease. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 166: 37 41.
29. Browning, P. J.,, J. M. Sechler,, M. Kaplan,, R. H. Washington,, R. Gendelman,, R. Yarchoan,, B. Ensoli,, and R. C. Gallo. 1994. Identification and culture of Kaposi's sarcoma-like spindle cells from the peripheral blood of human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals and normal controls. Blood 84: 2711 2720.
30. Buonaguro, F. M.,, M. L. Tornesello,, E. Beth-Giraldo,, A. Hatzakis,, N. Mueller,, R. Downing,, B. Biryamwaho,, S. D. K. Sempala,, and G. Giraldo. 1996. Herpesvirus-like DNA sequences detected in endemic, classic, iatrogenic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) biopsies. Int. J. Cancer 65: 25 28.
31. Burger, R.,, J. Wendler,, K. Antoni,, G. Helm,, J. R. Kalden,, and M. Gramatzki. 1994. Interleukin-6 production in B-cell neoplasias and Castleman's disease: evidence for an additional paracrine loop. Ann. Hematol. 69: 25 31.
31a.. Calabro, L.,, J. Sheldon,, A. Favero,, G. R. Simpson,, J. R. Fiore,, E. Gomez,, G. Angar-ano,, L. Chieco-Bianchi,, and T. F. Schulz. Seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) in different regions of Italy. J. Hum. Virol, in press.
32. Carbone, A.,, A. Gloghini,, E. Vaccher,, V. Zagonel,, C. Pastore,, P. Dalla Palma,, F. Branz,, G. Saglio,, R. Volpe,, V. Tirelli,, and G. Gaidano. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA sequences in AIDS-related and AIDS-unrelated lymphomatous effusions. Br. J. Haematol. 94: 533 543.
33. Cesarman, E.,, Y. Chang,, P. S. Moore,, J. W. Said,, and D. M. Knowles. 1995. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences are present in AIDS-related body cavity based lymphomas. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 1186 1191.
34. Cesarman, E.,, P. S. Moore,, P. H. Rao,, G. Inghirami,, D. M. Knowles,, and Y. Chang. 1995. In vitro establishment and characterization of two AIDS-related lymphoma cell lines containing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like (KSHV) DNA sequences. Blood 86: 2708 2714.
35. Cesarman, E.,, R. Nador,, and D. M. Knowles. 1996. Body-cavity-based lymphoma in an HIV-seronegative patient without Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 272 273. (Reply.)
36. Cesarman, E.,, R. G. Nador,, F. Bai,, R. A. Bohenzky,, J. J. Russo,, P. S. Moore,, Y. Chang,, and D. M. Knowles. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus contains G protein-coupled receptor and cyclin D homologs which are expressed in Kaposi's sarcoma and malignant lymphoma. J. Virol. 70: 8218 8223.
37. Chang, Y.,, E. Cesarman,, M. S. Pessin,, F. Lee,, J. Culpepper,, D. M. Knowles,, and P. S. Moore. 1994. Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 265: 1865 1869.
38. Chang, Y.,, P. S. Moore,, S. J. Talbot,, C. H. Boshoff,, T. Zarkowska,, D. Godden-Kent,, H. Paterson,, R. A. Weiss,, and S. Mittnacht. 1996. Cyclin encoded by KS herpesvirus. Nature 382: 410.
38a.. Chang, Y., J. L. Ziegler, H. Wabinga, E. Katongle-Mbidde, C. Boshoff, D. Whitby, T. F. Schulz, R. A. Weiss, and P. S. Moore. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Kaposi's sarcoma in Africa. Arch. Intern. Med. 156: 202204.
39. Chee, M. S.,, S. B. Bankier,, C. M. Bohni,, R. C. Brown,, T. Horsnell,, C. A. Hutchison,, T. Kouzarides,, J. A. Martignetti,, E. Preddie,, S. C. Satchwell,, P. Tomlinson,, K. M. Weston,, and B. G. Barrell. 1990. Analysis of the protein coding content of the sequence of cytomegalovirus strain AD169. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 154: 125 169.
40. Cheng, E. H.,, J. Nicholas,, D. S. Bellows,, G. S. Hayward,, H. G. Guo,, M. S. Reitz,, and J. M. Hardwick. 1997. A Bcl-2 homolog encoded by Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus, human herpesvirus 8, inhibits apoptosis but does not heterodimerize with Bax or Bak. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 690 694.
41. Chuck, S.,, R. M. Grant,, E. Katongole-Mbidde,, M. Conant,, and D. Ganem. 1996. Frequent presence of a novel herpesvirus genome in lesions of human immunodeficiency virus-negative Kaposi's sarcoma. J. Infect. Dis. 173: 248 251.
42. Cleary, M. L.,, S. D. Smith,, and J. Sklar. 1986. Cloning and structural analysis of cDNAs for bcl-2 and a hybrid bcl-2/immunoglobulin transcript resulting from the t(14;18) translocation. Cell 47: 19 28.
43. Cocchi, F.,, A. L. DeVico,, D. A. Garzino,, S. K. Arya,, R. C. Gallo,, and P. Lusso. 1995. Identification of RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, and MIP-1 beta as the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T cells. Science 270: 1811 1815.
44. Collandre, H.,, S. Ferris,, O. Grau,, L. Montagnier,, and A. Blanchard. 1995. Kaposi's sarcoma and new herpesvirus. Lancet 345: 1043.
45. Corbellino, M.,, G. Bestetti,, M. Galli,, and C. Parravicini. 1996. Absence of HHV-8 in prostate and semen. N. Engl. J. Med. 335: 1238 1239. (Letter.)
46. Corbellino, M.,, C. Parravicini,, J. T. Aubin,, and E. Berti. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma and herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in sensory ganglia. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 1341 1342. (Letter.)
47. Corbellino, M.,, L. Poirel,, G. Bestetti,, M. Pizzuto,, J. T. Aubin,, M. Capra,, C. Bifulco,, E. Berti,, H. Agut,, G. Rizzardini,, M. Galli,, and C. Parravicini. 1996. Restricted tissue distribution of extralesional Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 12: 651 657.
48. Costagliola, D.,, and M. Mary-Krause. 1995. Clinical Epidemiology Group from Centres d'Information et de Soins de l'Immunodeficience Humaine. 1995. Can antiviral agents decrease the occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma? Lancet 346: 578. (Letter.)
49. Davis, D. A.,, R. W. Humphrey,, F. M. Newcomb,, T. R. O'Brien,, J. J. Goedert,, S. E. Straus,, and R. Yarchoan. 1997. Detection of serum antibodies to a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-specific peptide. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 1071 1079.
50. Debbas, M.,, and E. White. 1993. Wild-type p53 mediates apoptosis by E1A, which is inhibited by E1B. Genes Dev. 7: 546 554.
51. Decker, L. L.,, P. Shankar,, G. Khan,, R. B. Freeman,, B. J. Dezube,, J. Lieberman,, and L. D. Thorley. 1996. The Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is present as an intact latent genome in KS tissue but replicates in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of KS patients. J. Exp. Med. 184: 283 288.
51a. Delabesse, E.,, E. Oksenhendel,, C. Lebbe,, O. Verola,, and B. Varet. 1997. Molecular analysis of clonality in Kaposi's sarcoma. J. Clin. Pathol. 50: 664 668.
51b. Desrosiers, R. C.,, V. G. Sasseville,, S. C. Czajak,, X. Zhang,, K. G. Mansfield,, A. Kaur,, R. P. Johnson,, A. A. Lackner,, and J. U. Jung. 1997. A herpesvirus of rhesus monkeys related to the human Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J. Virol. 71: 9764 9769.
52. Di Alberti, L.,, S. L. Ngui,, S. R. Porter,, P. M. Speight,, C. M. Scully,, J. M. Zakrewska,, I. G. Williams,, L. Artese,, A. Piattelli,, and C. G. Teo. 1997. Presence of human herpesvirus 8 variants in the oral tissues of human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 703 707.
53. Dictor, M.,, E. Rambech,, D. Way,, M. Witte,, and N. Bendsoe. 1996. Human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) DNA in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma cell lines, endothelial Kaposi's sarcoma simulators, and the skin of immunosuppressed patients. Am. J. Pathol. 148: 2009 2016.
54. Dragic, T.,, V. Litwin,, G. P. Allaway,, S. R. Martin,, Y. Huang,, K. A. Nagashima,, C. Cayanan,, P. J. Maddon,, R. A. Koup,, J. P. Moore,, and W. A. Paxton. 1996. HIV-1 entry into CD4 + cells is mediated by the chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5. Nature 381: 667 673.
55. Dupin, N.,, M. Grandadam,, V. Calvez,, I. Gorin,, J. T. Aubin,, S. Harvard,, F. Lamy,, M. Leibowitch,, J. M. Huraux,, J. P. Escande,, and H. Agut. 1995. Herpesvirus-like DNA in patients with Mediterranean Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet 345: 761 762.
56. Economides, A. N.,, J. V. Ravetch,, G. D. Yancopoulos,, and N. Stahl. 1995. Designer cytokines: targeting actions to cells of choice. Science 270: 1351 1353.
57. Elledge, S. J. 1996. Cell cycle checkpoints: preventing an identity crisis. Science 274: 1664 1671.
58. Ewen, M. E.,, H. K. Sluss,, C. J. Sherr,, H. Matsushime,, J. Kato,, and D. M. Livingston. 1993. Functional interactions of the retinoblastoma protein with mammalian D-type cyclins. Cell 73: 487 497.
59. Flamand, L.,, R. A. Zeman,, J. L. Bryant,, I. Y. Lunardi,, and R. C. Gallo. 1996. Absence of human herpesvirus 8 DNA sequences in neoplastic Kaposi's sarcoma cell lines. J. AIDS Hum. Retrovir. 13: 194 197.
59a. Foreman, K. E.,, P. E. Bacon,, E. D. Hsi,, and B. J. Nickoloff. 1997. In situ polymerase chain-reaction-based localization studies support role of human herpesvirus 8 as the cause of two AIDS-related neoplasms. J. Clin. Invest. 99: 2971 2978.
60. Foreman, K. E.,, J. J. Friborg,, W. P. Kong,, C. Woffendin,, P. J. Polverini,, B. J. Nickoloff,, and G. J. Nabel. 1997. Propagation of a human herpesvirus from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 163 171.
61. Gaidano, G.,, D. Capello,, C. Pastore,, A. Antinori,, A. Gloghini,, A. Carbone,, L. M. Larocca,, and G. Saglio. 1997. Analysis of human herpesvirus type 8 infection in AIDS-related and AlDS-unrelated central nervous system lymphoma. J. Infect. Dis. 175: 1193 1197.
62. Gaidano, G.,, K. Cechova,, Y. Chang,, P. S. Moore,, D. M. Knowles,, and F. R. Dalla. 1996. Establishment of AIDS-related lymphoma cell lines from lymphomatous effusions. Leukemia 10: 1237 1240.
63. Gao, S.-J.,, C. Boshoff,, S. Jayachandra,, R. A. Weiss,, Y. Chang,, and P. S. Moore. 1997. KSHV ORF K9 (vIRF) is an oncogene that inhibits the interferon signaling pathway. Oncogene 15: 1979 1986.
64. Gao, S.-J.,, L. Kingsley,, D. R. Hoover,, T. J. Spira,, C. R. Rinaldo,, A. Saah,, J. Phair,, R. Detels,, P. Parry,, Y. Chang,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. Seroconversion of antibodies to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-related latent nuclear antigens prior to onset of Kaposi's sarcoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 335: 233 241.
65. Gao, S. J.,, L. Kingsley,, M. Li,, W. Zheng,, C. Parravicini,, J. Ziegler,, R. Newton,, C. R. Rinaldo,, A. Saah,, J. Phair,, R. Detels,, Y. Chang,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. KSHV antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with and without Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat. Med, 2: 925 928.
66. Gessain, A.,, J. Briere,, D. C. Angelin,, F. Valensi,, H. M. Beral,, F. Davi,, M. A. Nicola,, A. Sudaka,, N. Fouchard,, J. Gabarre,, X. Troussard,, E. Dulmet,, J. Audouin,, J. Die-bold,, and G. de The. 1997. Human herpes virus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus) and malignant lymphoproliferations in France: a molecular study of 250 cases including two AIDS-associated body cavity based lymphomas. Leukemia 11: 266 272.
67. Gessain, A.,, A. Sudaka,, J. Briere,, N. Fouchard,, M.-A. Nicola,, B. Rio,, M. Arborio,, X. Troussard,, J. Audouin,, J. Diebold,, and G. de The. 1996. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes-like virus (human herpesvirus type 8) DNA sequences in multicentric Castleman's disease: is there any relevant association in non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients? Blood 87: 414 416.
68. Giraldo, G.,, E. Beth,, and F. M. Buonaguro. 1984. Kaposi's sarcoma: a natural model of interrelationships between viruses, immunologic responses, genetics and oncogenesis. Antibiot. Chemother. 32: 1 11.
69. Giraldo, G.,, E. Beth,, and F. Haguenau. 1972. Herpes-type particles in tissue culture of Kaposi's sarcoma from different geographic regions. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 1509.
70. Glesby, M. J.,, D. R. Hoover,, S. Weng,, N. M. H. Graham,, J. P. Phair,, R. Detels,, M. Ho,, and A. Saah. 1996. Use of antiherpes drugs and the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma: data from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. J. Infect. Dis. 173: 1477 1480.
71. Godden-Kent, D.,, S. J. Talbot,, C. Boshoff,, Y. Chang,, P. S. Moore,, R. A. Weiss,, and S. Mitrnacht. 1997. The cyclin encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) stimulates cdk6 to phosphorylate the retinoblastoma protein and histone H1. J. Virol. 71: 4193 4198.
72. Gompels, U. A.,, J. Nicholas,, G. Lawrence,, M. Jones,, B. J. Thomson,, M. E. Martin,, S. Efstathiou,, M. Craxton,, and H. A. Macaulay. 1995. The DNA sequence of human herpesvirus-6: structure, coding content, and genome evolution. Virology 209: 29 51.
73. Grassmann, R.,, B. Fleckenstein,, and R. C. Desrosiers. 1994. Viral transformation of human T lymphocytes. Adv. Cancer Res. 63: 211 244.
74. Gralich, A. E.,, J. M. Kaldor,, O. Hendry,, K. H. Luo,, N. J. Bodsworth,, and D. A. Cooper. 1997. Risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and oroanal sexual contact. Am. J. Epidemiol. 145: 673 679.
75. Grulich, A. E.,, S. J. Olsen,, K. Luo,, O. Hendry,, P. Cunningham,, D. Cooper,, S. J. Gao,, Y. Chang,, P. S. Moore,, and J. Kaldor. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: a sexually transmissible infection. Submitted for publication.
75a. Guo, H. G.,, P. Browning,, J. Nicholas,, G. S. Hayward,, E. Tsachler,, J. W. Jiang,, M. Sadowska,, M. Raffeld,, S. Colombini,, R. C. Gallo,, and M. J. Reitz. 1997. Characterization of a chemoline receptor-related gene in human herpesvirus 8 and its expression in Kaposi's sarcoma. Virology 228: 371 378.
76. Gupta, P.,, M. K. Singh,, C. Rinaldo,, M. Ding,, H. Farzadegan,, A. Saah,, D. Hoover,, P. Moore,, and L. Kingsley. 1996. Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus DNA in semen of homosexual men with Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS 10: 1596 1598.
77. Gyulai, R.,, L. Kemeny,, E. Adam,, F. Nagy,, and A. Dobozy. 1996. HHV8 DNA in angiolymphoid hyperplasia of the skin. Lancet 347: 1837. (Letter.)
78. Gyulai, R.,, L. Kemeny,, M. Kiss,, E. Adam,, F. Nagy,, and A. Dobozy. 1996. Herpesvirus-like DNA sequence in angiosarcoma in a patient without HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 540 541.
79. Harada, H.,, M. Kitagawa,, N. Tanaka,, H. Yamamoto,, K. Harada,, M. Ishihara,, and T. Taniguchi. 1993. Anti-oncogenic and oncogenic potentials of interferon regulatory factors-1 and -2. Science 259: 971 974.
80. Hardin, J.,, S. MacLeod,, I. Grigorieva,, R. Chang,, B. Barlogie,, H. Xiao,, and J. Epstein. 1994. Interleukin-6 prevents dexamethasone-induced myeloma cell death. Blood 84: 3063 3070.
81. Harwood, A. R.,, D. Osoba,, and S. L. Hofstader. 1979. Kaposi's sarcoma in recipients of renal transplants. Am. J. Med. 67: 759 765.
82. Hawkins, C. J.,, and D. L. Vaux. 1994. Analysis of the role of bcl-2 in apoptosis. Immunol. Rev. 142: 127 139.
83. Hiebert, S. W.,, G. Packham,, D. K. Strom,, R. Haffner,, M. Oren,, G. Zambetti,, and J. L. Cleveland. 1995. E2F-1:DP-1 induces p53 and overrides survival factors to trigger apoptosis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15: 6864 6874.
84. Hilbert, D. M.,, M. Kopf,, B. A. Mock,, G. Kohler,, and S. Rudikoff. 1995. Interleukin 6 is essential for in vivo development of B lineage neoplasms. J. Exp. Med. 182: 243 248.
85. Hirano, T.,, S. Suematsu,, T. Matsusaka,, T. Matsuda,, and T. Kishimoto. 1992. The role of interleukin 6 in plasmacytomagenesis. CIBA Found. Symp. 167: 188 196.
86. Hoang, T.,, A. Haman,, O. Goncalves,, G. G. Wong,, and S. C. Clark. 1988. Interleukin-6 enhances growth factor-dependent proliferation of the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Blood 72: 823 826.
87. Hobeika, A. C, P. S. Subramaniam, and H. M. Johnson. 1997. IFNa induces the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 in human prostate cancer cells. Oncogene 14: 1165 1170.
88. Holmberg, S.,, S. Buchbinder,, L. Conley,, L. Wong,, M. Katz,, K. Penley,, R. Hershow,, and F. Judson. 1995. The spectrum of medical conditions and symptoms before acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in homosexual and bisexual men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Epidemiol. 141: 395 404.
89. Howard, M. R.,, D. Whitby,, G. Bahadur,, F. Suggett,, C. Boshoff,, F. M. Tenant,, T. F. Schulz,, S. Kirk,, S. Matthews,, I. Weller,, R. S. Tedder,, and R. A. Weiss. 1997. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 DNA in semen from HIV-infected individuals but not healthy semen donors. AIDS 11: F15 F19.
90. Hsu, S. M.,, J. A. Waldron,, S. S. Xie,, and B. Barlogie. 1993. Expression of interleukin-6 in Castleman's disease. Hum. Pathol. 24: 833 839.
91. Humphrey, R. W.,, T. R. O'Brien,, F. M. Newcomb,, H. Nishihara,, K. M. Wyvill,, G. A. Ramos,, M. W. Saville,, J. J. Goedert,, S. E. Straus,, and R. Yarchoan. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: association with KS and persistence in patients receiving anti-herpesvirus drugs. Blood 88: 297 301.
92. Ioachim, H. L. 1995. Kaposi's sarcoma and KSHV. Lancet 346: 1360. (Letter.)
93. Jin, Y.-T.,, S.-T. Tsai,, J.-J. Yan,, F.-F. Chen,, W.-Y. Lee,, W.-Y. Li,, H. Chiang,, and I.-J. Su. 1996. Presence of human herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in oral Kaposi's sarcoma. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 81: 442 444.
94. Jin, Y.-T.,, S.-T. Tsai,, J.-J. Yan,, J.-H. Hsiao,, Y.-Y. Lee,, and L.-J. Su. 1996. Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequence in vascular lesions: a reliable diagnostic marker for Kaposi's sarcoma. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 105: 360 363.
95. Jones, J.,, T. Peterman,, S. Chu,, and H. Jaffe. 1995. AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 267: 1078 1079.
96. Karcher, D. S.,, F. Dawkins,, and C. T. Garrett. 1992. Body cavity-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in HIV-infected patients: B-cell lymphoma with unusual clinical, immunophenotypic, and genotypic features. Lab. Invest. 92: 80a.
97. Kato, J.,, H. Matsushime,, S. W. Hiebert,, M. E. Ewen,, and C. J. Sherr. 1993. Direct binding of cyclin D to the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and pRb phosphorylation by the cyclin D-dependent kinase CDK4. Genes Dev. 7: 331 342.
98. Kawano, M.,, H. Tanaka,, H. Ishikawa,, M. Nobuyoshi,, K. Iwato,, H. Asaoku,, O. Tanabe,, and A. Kuramoto. 1989. Interleukin-1 accelerates autocrine growth of myeloma cells through interleukin-6 in human myeloma. Blood 73: 2145 2148.
99. Kedes, D. H.,, and D. Ganem. 1997. Sensitivity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication to antiviral drugs. Implications for potential therapy. J. Clin. Invest. 99: 2082 2086.
100. Kedes, D. H.,, D. Ganem,, N. Ameli,, P. Bacchetti,, and R. Greenblatt. 1997. The prevalence of serum antibody to human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) among HIV-seropositive and high-risk HIV-seronegative women. JAMA 277: 478 481.
101. Kedes, D. H.,, E. Operskalski,, M. Busch,, R. Kohn,, J. Flood,, and D. Ganem. 1996. The seroepidemiology of human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus): distribution of infection in KS risk groups and evidence for sexual transmission. Nat. Med. 2: 918 924.
101a. Kledal, T. N.,, M. M. Rosenkilde,, F. Coulin,, G. Simmons,, A. H. Johnson,, S. Alouani,, C. A. Power,, H. R. Luttichau,, J. Gerstoft,, P. R. Clapham,, I. Clark-Lewis,, R. N. C. Wells,, and T. W. Schwartz. 1997. A broad-spectrum chemokine antagonist encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Science 277: 1656 1659.
102. Klein, B.,, and R. Bataille. 1992. Cytokine network in human multiple myeloma. Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 6: 273 284.
103. Klein, B.,, X. G. Zhang,, M. Jourdan,, J. Content,, F. Houssiau,, L. Aarden,, M. Piechaczyk,, and R. Bataille. 1989. Paracrine rather than autocrine regulation of myeloma-cell growth and differentiation by interleukin-6. Blood 73: 517 526.
104. Knowles, D. M.,, G. Inghirami,, A. Ubriaco,, and R. Dalla-Favera. 1989. Molecular genetic analysis of three AIDS-associated neoplasms of uncertain lineage demonstrates their B-cell derivation and the possible pathogenetic role of Epstein-Barr virus. Blood 73: 792 799.
105. Koelle, D. M.,, M.-L. Huang,, B. Chandran,, J. Vieira,, M. Piepkorn,, and L. Corey. 1997. Frequent detection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) DNA in saliva of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men: clinical and immunologic correlates. J. Infect. Dis. 176: 94 102.
106. Komanduri, K. V.,, J. A. Luce,, M. S. McGrath,, B. G. Herndier,, and V. L. Ng. 1996. The natural history and molecular heterogeneity of HIV-associated primary malignant lymphomatous effusions. J. AIDS Hum. Retrovir. 13: 215 226.
107. Kowalik, T. F.,, J. DeGregori,, J. K. Schwarz,, and J. R. Nevins. 1995. E2F1 overexpression in quiescent fibroblasts leads to induction of cellular DNA synthesis and apoptosis. J. Virol. 69: 2491 2500.
107a. Lagunoff, M.,, and D. Ganem. 1997. The structure and coding organization of the genomic termini of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8). Virology 236: 147 154.
108. Lebbe, C.,, P. de Cremoux,, M. Rybojad,, C. Costa da Cunha,, P. Morel,, and F. Calvo. 1995. Kaposi's sarcoma and new herpesvirus. Lancet 345: 1180.
109. Lebbe, C.,, C. Pellet,, R. Tatoud,, F. Agbalika,, P. Dosquet,, J. P. Desgrez,, P. Morel,, and F. Calvo. 1997. Absence of human herpesvirus 8 sequences in prostate specimens. AIDS 11: 270.
110. Lefrere, J. J.,, M. C. Meyohas,, M. Mariotti,, J. L. Meynard,, M. Thauvin,, and J. Frottier. 1996. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 DNA sequences before the appearance of Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive subjects with a known date of HIV seroconversion. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 283 287.
111. Leger-Ravet, M. B.,, M. Peuchmaur,, O. Devergne,, J. Audouin,, M. Raphael,, D. J. Van,, P. Galanaud,, J. Diebold,, and D. Emilic. 1991. Interleukin-6 gene expression in Castleman's disease. Blood 78: 2923 2930.
112. Lennette, E. T.,, D. J. Blackbourne,, and J. A. Levy. 1996. Antibodies to human herpesvirus type 8 in the general population and in Kaposi's sarcoma patients. Lancet 348: 858 861.
113. Li, J. J.,, Y. Q. Huang,, C. J. Cockerell,, and K. A. Friedman. 1996. Localization of human herpes-like virus type 8 in vascular endothelial cells and perivascular spindle-shaped cells of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions by in situ hybridization. Am. J. Pathol. 148: 1741 1748.
114. Li, M.,, H. Lee,, D. W. Yoon,, J. C. Albrecht,, B. Fleckenstein,, F. Neipel,, and J. U. Jung. 1997. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a functional cyclin. J. Virol. 71: 1984 1991.
115. Lichtenstein, A.,, Y. Tu,, C. Fady,, R. Vescio,, and J. Berenson. 1995. Interleukin-6 inhibits apoptosis of malignant plasma cells. Cell. Immunol. 162: 248 255.
116. Lin, J.-C, S.-C. Lin, E.-C. Mar, P. E. Pellett, F. R. Stamey, J. A. Stewart, and T. J. Spira. 1995. Is Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus detectable in semen of HIV-infected homosexual men? Lancet 346: 1601 1602.
117. Lin, S. F.,, R. Sun,, L. Heston,, L. Gradoville,, D. Shedd,, K. Haglund,, M. Rigsby,, and G. Miller. 1997. Identification, expression, and immunogenicity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded small viral capsid antigen. J. Virol. 71: 3069 3076.
118. Lunardi-Iskandar, Y.,, P. Gill,, V. H. Lam,, R. A. Zeman,, F. Michaels,, D. L. Mann,, M. S. Reitz,, M. Kaplan,, Z. N. Berneman,, D. Carter,, J. L. Bryant,, and R. C. Gallo. 1995. Isolation and characterization of an immortal neoplastic cell line (KS Y-l) from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87: 974 981.
119. Luppi, M.,, P. Barozzi,, A. Maiorana,, T. Artusi,, R. Trovato,, R. Marasca,, M. Savarino,, N. L. Ceccherini,, and G. Torelli. 1996. Human herpesvirus-8 DNA sequences in human immunodeficiency virus-negative angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and benign lymphadenopathy with giant germinal center hyperplasia and increased vascularity. Blood 87: 3903 3909.
119a. Mackenzie, J.,, J. Sheldon,, G. Morgan,, G. Cook,, T. F. Schulz,, and R. F. Jarrett. 1997. HHV-8 and multiple myeloma in the U.K. Lancet. 350: 1144 1145. (Letter.)
120. Mandler, R. N.,, D. P. Kerrigan,, J. Smart,, W. Kuis,, P. Villiger,, and M. Lotz. 1992. Castleman's disease in POEMS syndrome with elevated interleukin-6. Cancer 69: 2697 2703.
120a. Marcelin, A. G.,, N. Dupin,, D. Bouscary,, P. Bossi,, P. Cacoub,, P. Ravaud,, and V. Calvez. 1997. HHV-8 and multiple myeloma in France. Lancet 350: 1144. (Letter.)
121. Marchioli, C. C.,, J. L. Love,, L. Z. Abbott,, Y. Q. Huang,, S. C. Remick,, R. N. Surtento,, R. E. Hutchison,, D. Mildvan,, K. A. Friedman,, and B. J. Poiesz. 1996. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 DNA sequences in several patient populations. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 2635 2638.
122. Massung, R. F.,, L. I. Liu,, J. Qi,, J. C. Knight,, T. E. Yuran,, A. R. Kerlavage,, J. M. Parsons,, J. C. Venter,, and J. J. Esposito. 1994. Analysis of the complete genome of smallpox variola major virus strain Bangladesh-1975. Virology 201: 215 240.
123. Matsushima, A.,, J. A. Strauchen,, G. Lee,, E. Scigilano,, E. E. Hale,, M. T. Weisse,, D. Burstein,, P. S. Moore,, and Y. Chang. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative syndrome due to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Submitted for publication.
124. McDonagh, D. P.,, J. Liu,, M. J. Gaffey,, L. J. Layfield,, N. Azumi,, and S. T. Traweek. 1996. Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequence in angiosarcoma. Am. J. Pathol. 149: 1363 1368.
124a. Medveczky, M. M.,, E. Horvath,, T. Lund,, and P. G. Medveczky. 1997. In vitro sensitivity of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. AIDS 11: 1327 1332.
125. Meinl, E.,, R. Hohlfeld,, H. Wekerle,, and B. Fleckenstein. 1995. Immortalization of human T cells by Herpesvirus saimiri. Immunol. Today. 16: 55 58.
126. Melbye, M.,, P. M. Cook,, H. Hjalgrim,, K. Begtrup,, G. R. Simpson,, R. J. Biggar,, P. Ebbesen,, and T. F. Schulz. 1997. Transmission of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8) among homosexual men follows the pattern of a ‘Kaposi's sarcoma agent.’ JAMA, in press.
127. Mesri, E. A.,, E. Cesarman,, L. Arvanitakis,, S. Rafii,, M. A. S. Moore,, D. N. Posnett,, D. M. Knowles,, and A. S. Asch. 1996. Human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is a new transmissible virus that infects B cells. J. Exp. Med. 183: 2385 2390.
128. Miller, G.,, L. Heston,, E. Grogan,, L. Gradoville,, M. Rigsby,, R. Sun,, D. Shedd,, V. M. Kushnaryov,, S. Grossberg,, and Y. Chang. 1997. Selective switch between latency and lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus and Epstein-Barr virus in dually infected body cavity lymphoma cells. J. Virol. 71: 314 324.
129. Miller, G.,, M. Rigsby,, L. Heston,, E. Grogan,, R. Sun,, C. Metroka,, S.-J. Gao,, Y. Chang,, and P. Moore. 1996. Antibodies to butyrate inducible antigens of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in HIV-1 infected patients. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 1292 1297.
130. Minn, A. J.,, P. Velez,, S. L. Schendel,, H. Liang,, S. W. Muchmore,, S. W. Fesik,, M. Fill,, and C. B. Thompson. 1997. Bcl-x(L) forms an ion channel in synthetic lipid membranes. Nature 385: 353 357.
131. Miyamoto, M.,, T. Fujita,, Y. Kimura,, M. Maruyama,, H. Harada,, Y. Sudo,, T. Miyata,, and T. Taniguchi. 1988. Regulated expression of a gene encoding a nuclear factor, IRF-1, that specifically binds to IFN-beta gene regulatory elements. Cell 54: 903 913.
132. Mocroft, A.,, M. Youle,, B. Gazzard,, J. Morcinek,, R. Halai,, and A. N. Phillips. 1996. Anti-herpesvirus treatment and risk of Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV infection. AIDS 10: 1101 1105.
133. Molden, J.,, C. Y., P. S. Moore,, and M. A. Goldsmith. 1997. A KSHV-encoded cytokine activates signaling through the shared gp130 receptor subunit. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 19625 19631.
134. Monini, P.,, L. de Lellis,, and E. Cassai. 1996. Absence of HHV-8 in prostate and semen. N. Engl. J. Med. 335: 1238 1239. (Letter.)
135. Monini, P.,, L. de Lellis,, M. Fabris,, F. Rigolin,, and E. Cassai. 1996. Kaposi's sacoma-associated herpesvirus DNA sequences in prostate tissue and human semen. N. Engl. J. Med. 334: 1168 1172.
136. Moore, P. S.,, C. Boshoff,, R. A. Weiss,, and Y. Chang. 1996. Molecular mimicry of human cytokine and cytokine response pathway genes by KSHV. Science 274: 1739 1744.
137. Moore, P. S.,, and Y. Chang. 1995. Detection of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions from persons with and without HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 332: 1181 1185.
138. Moore, P. S.,, and Y. Chang. KSHV-encoded oncogenes and oncogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., in press.
138a. Moore, P. S.,, and Y. Chang. Antiviral activity of tumor suppressor pathways: clues from molecular piracy by KSHV. Trends Genet., in press.
139. Moore, P. S.,, S.-J. Gao,, G. Dominguez,, E. Cesarman,, O. Lungu,, D. M. Knowles,, R. Garber,, D. J. McGeoch,, P. Pellett,, and Y. Chang. 1996. Primary characterization of a herpesvirus-like agent associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. J. Virol. 70: 549 558.
140. Moore, P. S.,, L. Kingsley,, S. D. Holmberg,, T. Spira,, L. J. Conley,, D. Hoover,, P. Gupta,, H. Jaffe,, and Y. Chang. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection prior to onset of Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS 10: 175 180.
141. Morfeldt, L.,, and J. Torsander. 1994. Long-term remission of Kaposi's sarcoma following foscarnet treatment in HIV-infected patients. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 26: 749.
142. Motokura, T.,, and A. Arnold. 1993. PRAD1/Cyclin 1 proto-oncogenes: genomic organization, 5′ DNA sequence, and sequence of a tumor-specific rearrangement breakpoint. Gene Chromosome Cancer 7: 89 95.
143. Murphy, P. M. 1997. AIDS—pirated genes in Kaposi's sarcoma. Nature 385: 296 297.
144. Murray, P. G.,, L. J. Swinnen,, C. M. Constandinou,, J. M. Pyle,, T. J. Carr,, J. M. Hardwick,, and R. F. Ambinder. 1996. BCL-2 but not its Epstein-Barr virus-encoded homologue, BHRF1, is commonly expressed in posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. Blood 87: 706 711.
145. Nador, R. G.,, E. Cesarman,, A. Chadburn,, D. B. Dawson,, M. Q. Ansari,, J. Said,, and D. M. Knowles. 1996. Primary effusion lymphoma: a distinct clinicopathologic entity associated with the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus. Blood 88: 645 656.
146. Nava, V. E.,, E. H.-Y. Cheng,, M. Veliuona,, S. Zou,, R. J. Clem,, M. L. Mayer,, and J. M. Hardwick. 1997. Herpesvirus saimiri encodes a functional homolog of the human bcl-2 oncogene. J. Virol. 71: 4118 4122.
147. Neil, J. C, E. R. Cameron, and E. W. Baxter. 1997. p53 and tumour viruses: catching the guardian off-guard. Trends Microbiol. 5: 115 120.
148. Neipel, F.,, J.-C. Albrecht,, and B. Fleckenstein. 1997. Cell-homologous genes in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated rhadinovirus human herpesvirus 8: determinants of its pathogenicity? J. Virol. 71: 4187 4192.
149. Neipel, F.,, J. C. Albrecht,, A. Ensser,, Y. Q. Huang,, J. J. Li,, K. A. Friedman,, and B. Fleckenstein. 1997. Human herpesvirus 8 encodes a homolog of interleukin-6. J. Virol. 71: 839 842.
149a. Neyts, S.,, and E. Clercq. 1997. Antiviral drug susceptibility of human herpesvirus 8. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 2754 2756.
150. Nicholas, J. 1996. Determination and analysis of the complete nucleotide sequence of human herpesvirus. J. Virol. 70: 5975 5989.
151. Nicholas, J.,, K. R. Cameron,, and R. W. Honess. 1992. Herpesvirus saimiri encodes homologues of G protein-coupled receptors and cyclins. Nature 355: 362 365.
152. Nicholas, J.,, V. Ruvolo,, J. Zong,, D. Ciufo,, H. G. Guo,, M. S. Reitz,, and G. S. Hay-ward. 1997. A single 13-kilobase divergent locus in the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) genome contains nine open reading frames that are homologous to or related to cellular proteins. J. Virol. 71: 1963 1974.
153. Nicholas, J.,, V. R. Ruvolo,, W. H. Burns,, G. Sandford,, X. Wan,, D. Ciufo,, S. B. Hendrickson,, H. G. Guo,, G. S. Hayward,, and M. S. Reitz. 1997. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus-8 encodes homologues of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 and interleukin-6. Nat. Med. 3: 287 292.
153a. Nicholas, J.,, J. C. Zong,, D. J. Alcendor,, D. M. Cinto,, L. J. Poole,, R. J. Sarisky,, J. C. Chiou,, X. Zhang,, X. Wan,, H. G. Guo,, M. S. Reitz,, and G. S. Hayward. Novel organizational features, captured cellular genes and strain variability within the genome of KSHV/HHV8. J. Natl. Cancer Inst, in press.
154. Noel, J. C.,, P. Hermans,, J. Andre,, I. Fayt,, T. H. Simonart,, A. Verhest,, J. Haot,, and A. Burny. 1996. Herpesvirus-like DNA sequences and Kaposi's sarcoma: relationship with epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and histologic features. Cancer 77: 2132 2136.
155. Oettle, A. G., 1962. Geographic and racial differences in the frequency of Kaposi's sarcoma as evidence of environmental or genetic causes, p. 330 335. In L. V. Ackerman, and J. F. Murray (ed.), Symposium on Kaposi's Sarcoma, vol. 18. Karger, Basel.
156. Olsen, S. J.,, and P. S. Moore,. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) and the etiology of KS. In H. Freidman,, P. Medveczky,, and M. Bendinelli (ed.), Molecular Immunology of Herpesviruses, in press. Plenum Publishing, New York.
157. Olsen, S. J.,, W. Sherman,, K. Tarte,, B. Klein,, A. Orazi,, E. E. Hale,, M. T. Weisse,, and Y. Chang. Examination of KSHV infection in multiple myeloma patients. Submitted for publication.
158. Orenstein, J. M.,, S. Alkan,, A. Blauvelt,, K. T. Jeang,, M. D. Weinstein,, D. Ganem,, and B. Herndier. 1997. Visualization of human herpesvirus type 8 in Kaposi's sarcoma by light and transmission electron microscopy. AIDS 11: F35 F45.
159. Otsuki, T.,, S. Kumar,, B. Ensoli,, D. W. Kingma,, T. Yano,, S. M. Stetler,, E. S. Jaffe,, and M. Raffeld. 1996. Detection of HHV-8/KSHV DNA sequences in AIDS-associated extranodal lymphoid malignancies. Leukemia 10: 1358 1362.
159a. Parravicini, C.,, M. Corbellino,, M. Paulli,, U. Magrini,, M. Lazzarino,, P. S. Moore,, and Y. Chang. 1997. Expression of a virus-derived cytokine, KSHV vIL-6, in HIV-seronegative Castleman's disease. Am. J. Pathol. 151: 1517 1522.
160.Pastore, C, A. Gloghini, G. Volpe, J. Nomdedeu, E. Leonardo, U. Mazza, G. Saglio, A. Carbone, and G. Gaidano. 1995. Distribution of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus sequences among lymphoid malignancies in Italy and Spain. Br. J. Haematol. 91: 918920.
161. Pawson, R.,, D. Catovsky,, and T. F. Schulz. 1996. Lack of evidence of HHV-8 in mature T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Lancet 348: 1450 1451. (Letter.)
162. Penn, I. 1979. Kaposi's sarcoma in organ transplant recipients: report of 20 cases. Transplantation 27: 8 11.
163. Peterman, T. A.,, H. W. Jaffe,, and V. Beral. 1993. Epidemiologic clues to the etiology of Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS 7: 605 611.
164. Peterson, B. A.,, and G. Frizzera. 1993. Multicentric Castleman's disease. Semin. Oncol. 20: 636 647.
165. Popescu, N. C, D. B. Zimonjic, K. S. Leventon, J. L. Bryant, I. Y. Lunardi, and R. C. Gallo. 1996. Deletion and translocation involving chromosome 3 (pl4) in two tumorigenic Kaposi's sarcoma cell lines. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88: 450 455.
166. Quelle, D. E.,, R. A. Ashmun,, S. A. Shurtleff,, J. Y. Kato,, S. D. Bar,, M. F. Roussel,, and C. J. Sherr. 1993. Overexpression of mouse D-type cyclins accelerates Gl phase in rodent fibroblasts. Genes Dev. 7: 1559 1571.
167. Qunibi, W.,, M. Akhtar,, K. Sheth,, H. E. Ginn,, F. O. Al,, E. B. DeVol,, and S. Taher. 1988. Kaposi's sarcoma: the most common tumor after renal transplantation in Saudi Arabia. Am. J. Med. 84: 225 232.
168. Raab-Traub, N.,, and K. Flynn. 1986. The structure of the termini of the Epstein-Barr virus as a marker of clonal cellular proliferation. Cell 47: 883 889.
169. Rabkin, C. S.,, G. Bedi,, E. Musaba,, R. Sunkutu,, N. Mwansa,, D. Sidransky,, and R. J. Biggar. 1995. AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma is a clonal neoplasm. Clin. Cancer Res. 1: 257 260.
170. Rabkin, C. S.,, S. Janz,, A. Lash,, A. E. Coleman,, E. Musaba,, L. Liotta,, R. J. Biggar,, and Z. P. Zhuang. 1997. Monoclonal origin of multicentric Kaposi's sarcoma lesions. N. Engl. J. Med. 336: 988 993.
171. Rady, P. L.,, A. Yen,, J. L. Rollefson,, I., Orengo,, S. Bruce,, T. K. Hughes,, and S. K. Tyring. 1995. Herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in non-Kaposi's sarcoma skin lesions of transplant patients. Lancet 345: 1339 1340.
172. Rainbow, L.,, G. M. Piatt,, G. R. Simpson,, R. Sarid,, S.-J. Gao,, H. Stoiber,, S. Herrington,, P. S. Moore,, and T. F. Schulz. 1997. The 222- to 234-kilodalton latent nuclear protein (LNA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) is encoded by orf73 and is a component of the latency-associated nuclear antigen. J. Virol. 71: 5915 5921.
173. Renne, R.,, M. Lagunoff,, W. Zhong,, and D. Ganem. 1996. The size and conformation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) DNA in infected cells and virions. J. Virol. 70: 8151 8154.
174. Renne, R.,, W. Zhong,, B. Herndier,, M. McGrath,, N. Abbey,, D. Kedes,, and D. Ganem. 1996. Lytic growth of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) in culture. Nat. Med. 2: 342 346.
175. Rettig, M. B.,, H. J. Ma,, R. A. Vescio,, M. Pold,, G. Schiller,, D. Belson,, A. Savage,, C. Nishikubo,, C. Wu,, J. Fraser,, J. W. Said,, and J. R. Berenson. 1997. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of bone marrow dendritic cells from multiple myeloma patients. Science 276: 1851 1854.
176. Rickinson, A. B. 1996. Changing seroepidemiology of HHV-8. Lancet 348: 1110 1111.
177.Robert, C, F. Agbalika, F. Blanc, and L. Dubertret. 1996. HIV-negative patient with HHV-8 DNA follicular B-cell lymphoma associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet 347: 10421043. (Letter.)
178. Roizman, B., 1993. The family Herpesviridae, p. 1 9. In B. Roizman,, R. J. Whitley,, and C. Lopez (ed.), The Human Herpesviruses. Raven Press, Ltd., New York.
179. Rose, T. M.,, K. B. Strand,, E. R. Schultz,, G. Schaefer,, G. J. Rankin,, M. E. Thouless C. C. Tsai, and M. L. Bosch. 1997. Identification of two homologs of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) in retroperitoneal fibromatosis of different macaque species. J. Virol. 71: 4138 4144.
180. Rubin, M. A.,, J. P. Parry,, and B. Singh. 1998. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA sequences: lack of detection in prostatic tissue of HIV-negative immunocompetent adults. J. Urol. 159: 146 148.
181. Russo, J. J.,, R. A. Bohenzky,, M. C. Chien,, J. Chen,, M. Yan,, D. Maddalena,, J. P. Parry,, D. Peruzzi,, I. S. Edelman,, Y. Chang,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. Nucleotide sequence of the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV8). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 14862 14867.
182. Safai, B.,, V. Mike,, G. Giraldo,, E. Beth,, and R. A. Good. 1980. Association of Kaposi's sarcoma with second primary malignancies. Cancer 45: 1472 1479.
183. Said, J. W.,, K. Chien,, S. Takeuchi,, T. Tasaka,, H. Asou,, S. K. Cho,, S. de Vos,, E. Cesarman,, D. M. Knowles,, and H. P. Koeffler. 1996. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) in primary effusion lymphoma: ultrastructural demonstration of herpesvirus in lymphoma cells. Blood 87: 4937 4943.
184. Sanceau, J.,, J. Wijdenes,, M. Revel,, and J. Wietzerbin. 1991. IL-6 and IL-6 receptor modulation by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human monocytic cell line (THP-1). Priming effect of IFN-gamma. J. Immunol. 147: 2630 2637.
185. Sander, C. A.,, M. Simon,, U. Puchta,, M. Raffeld,, and P. Kind. 1996. HHV-8 in lymphoproliferative lesions in skin. Lancet 348: 475 476. (Letter.)
186. Sangfelt, O.,, S. Erickson,, S. Einhorn,, and D. Grander. 1997. Induction of Cip/Kip and Ink4 cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors by interferon-alpha in hematopoietic cell lines. Oncogene 14: 415 423.
187. Sarid, R.,, O. Flore,, R. A. Bohenzky,, Y. Chang,, and P. S. Moore. 1998. Transcriptional mapping of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) genome in a body cavity-based lymphoma cell line (BC-1). J. Virol. 72: 1005 1012.
188. Sarid, R.,, T. Sato,, R. A. Bohenzky,, J. J. Russo,, and Y. Chang. 1997. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus encodes a functional Bcl-2 homologue. Nat. Med. 3: 293 298.
189. Sarid, R.,, J. S. Wiezorek,, P. S. Moore,, and Y. Chang. Manuscript in preparation.
190. Scala, G.,, I. Quinto,, M. R. Ruocco,, A. Arcucci,, M. Mallardo,, P. Caretto,, G. Forni,, and S. Ventura. 1990. Expression of exogenous interleukin 6 gene in human Epstein-Barr virus B cells confers growth advantage and in vivo tumorigenicity. J. Exp. Med. 172: 61 68.
191. Schalling, M.,, M. Ekman,, E. E. Kaaya,, A. Linde,, and P. Biberfeld. 1995. A role for a new herpesvirus (KSHV) in different forms of Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat. Med. 1: 707 708.
192. Schwarze, M. M.,, and R. G. Hawley. 1995. Prevention of myeloma cell apoptosis by ectopic bcl-2 expression or interleukin 6-mediated up-regulation of bcl-xL. Cancer Res 55: 2262 2265.
193. Senkevich, T. G.,, J. J. Bugert,, J. R. Sisler,, E. V. Koonin,, G. Darai,, and B. Moss. 1996. Genome sequence of a human tumorigenic poxvirus: prediction of specific host response-evasion genes. Science 273: 813 816.
194. Shan, B.,, and W. H. Lee. 1994. Deregulated expression of E2F-1 induces S-phase entry and leads to apoptosis. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14: 8166 8173.
195. Shchelkunov, S. N.,, R. F. Massung,, and J. J. Esposito. 1995. Comparison of the genome DNA sequences of Bangladesh-1975 and India-1967 variola viruses. Virus Res. 36: 107 118.
196. Shen, Y.,, and T. E. Shenk. 1995. Viruses and apoptosis. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 5: 105 111.
197. Sherr, C. J. 1995. D-type cyclins. Trends Biochem. Sci. 20: 187 190.
198. Sherr, C. J. 1996. Cancer cell cycles. Science 274: 1672 1677.
199. Simpson, G. R.,, T. F. Schulz,, D. Whitby,, P. M. Cook,, C. Boshoff,, L. Rainbow,, M. R. Howard,, S.-J. Gao,, R. A. Bohensky,, P. Simmonds,, C. Lee,, A. de Ruiter,, A. Hatziakis,, R. S. Tedder,, I. V. D. Weller,, R. A. Weiss,, and P. S. Moore. 1996. Prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus infection measured by antibodies to recombinant capsid protein and latent immunofluorescence antigen. Lancet 348: 1133 1138.
200. Sinclair, A. J.,, I. Palmero,, A. Holder,, G. Peters,, and P. J. Farrell. 1995. Expression of cyclin D2 in Epstein-Barr virus-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines is related to methylation status of the gene. J. Virol. 69: 1292 1295.
201. Sinclair, A. J.,, I. Palmero,, G. Peters,, and P. J. Farrell. 1994. EBNA-2 and EBNA-LP cooperate to cause GO to Gl transition during immortalization of resting human B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus. EMBO J. 13: 3321 3328.
202. Sirianni, M. C.,, S. Uccini,, A. Angeloni,, A. Faggioni,, F. Cottoni,, and B. Ensoli. 1997. Circulating spindle cells: correlation with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection and Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet 349: 255. (Letter.)