Chapter 26 : Links between tRNA Modification and Metabolism and Modified Nucleosides as Tumor Markers

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Links between tRNA Modification and Metabolism and Modified Nucleosides as Tumor Markers, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818296/9781555811334_Chap26-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818296/9781555811334_Chap26-2.gif


tRNA is a key component in translation. The various tRNA species decode at different speeds and fidelity that depend on the availability of the tRNA species, of the codon choice, and of the codon context. Some tRNA may act as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. The first precursor to porphyrins in many bacteria and organelles is glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA), which is formed after the ligation of Glu to tRNA. In bacteria, an unexpected link between tRNA modification and intermediary metabolism is the requirement of chorismic acid or its derivative in a previously unknown metabolic pathway to synthesize uridine-5-oxyacetic acid (cmoU34) and its methyl ester (mcmoU34). Thus, whereas links between tRNA modification and metabolism are well documented in bacteria, such links also exist in eukaryotes. In a study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive intravenous heroin addicts, researchers found that serum ψ was an independent predictor of progression to AIDS in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage A2 HIV-infected patients. Interestingly, queuine in higher organisms may have such a role, since it influences the physiology of the cell in a tRNA independent way. In multicellular organisms, there is turnover of stable RNA, and modified nucleosides are found intact in rather large amounts in serum and in the urine. Therefore, urinary excretion of modified nucleosides reflects the turnover of RNA. Most of the RNA, which contains modified nucleosides in the multicellular eukaryotes, is stable and participates in translation (rRNA and tRNA) or in splicing (the various U RNAs).

Citation: Björk G, Rasmuson T. 1998. Links between tRNA Modification and Metabolism and Modified Nucleosides as Tumor Markers, p 471-491. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch26
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Hypomodification of tRNA alters central and intermediary metabolism in bacteria. Mutants () defective in the hydroxylation of msiA37 to msioA37 in are unable (denoted −) and the mutant defective in the synthesis of mG37 has a reduced ability [denoted (−)] to grow on the indicated CAC cycle intermediates. An mutant of , which lacks msiA37 in its tRNA, grows better than the wild type (denoted ++; wild type is assumed to be +) on succinate or proline as a carbon source. Moreover, the Gnd enzyme is derepressed about twofold (denoted ↗) in the same mutant. Mutation in the gene, which results in lack of mG37 in the tRNA, apparently derepresses the synthesis of thiamine (denoted ↗). See text for references.

Citation: Björk G, Rasmuson T. 1998. Links between tRNA Modification and Metabolism and Modified Nucleosides as Tumor Markers, p 471-491. In Grosjean H, Benne R (ed), Modification and Editing of RNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818296.ch26
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Adams, W. S.,, F. Davis,, and M. Nakatani. 1960. Purine and pyrimidine excretion and leukemic subjects. Am. J. Med. 212: 726 734.
2. Adler, M.,, and A. B. Gutman. 1959. Uridine isomer (5-ribosyluracil) in human urine. Science 130: 862 863.
3. Agris, P. F.,, H. Koh,, and D. Soli. 1973. The effect of growth temperatures on the in vivo ribose methylation of Bacillus stearothermophilus transfer RNA. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 154: 277 282.
4. Amuro, Y.,, H. Nakaoka,, S. Shimomura,, M. Fujikura,, T. Yamamoto,, S. Tamura,, T. Hada,, and K. Higashino. 1988. Serum pseudouridine as a biochemical marker in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin. Chim. Acta 178: 151 158.
5. Arps, P. J.,, and M. E. Winkler. 1987. An unusual genetic link between vitamin B 6 biosynthesis and tRNA pseudouridine modification in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 169: 1071 1079.
6. Asatoor, A. M. 1968. Retention of pseudouridine and 4-amino-5-imidazole carboxamide in uraemia. Clin. Chim. Acta 20: 407 411.
7. Bartz, J.,, D. Söll,, W. J. Burrows,, and F. Skoog. 1970. Identification of the cytokinin-active ribonucleosides in pure Escherichia coli tRNA species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 67: 1448 1453.
8. Beier, H.,, U. Zech,, E. Zubrod,, and H. Kersten. 1987. Queuine in plants and plant tRNAs: difference between embryonic tissue and mature leaves. Plant Mol. Biol. 8: 345 353.
9. Bernert, J. T., Jr.,, C. J. Bell,, J. Guntupalli,, and W. H. Hannon. 1988. Pseudouridine is unsuitable as an endogenous renal clearance marker. Clin. Chem. 34: 1011 1017.
10. Björk, G. R. 1980. A novel link between the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids and transfer RNA modification in Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 140: 391 410.
11. Björk, G. R. 1985. E. coli ribosomal protein operons: the case of the misplaced genes. Cell 42: 7 8.
12. Björk, G. R., 1992. The role of modified nucleosides in tRNA interactions, p. 23 85. In D. L. Hatfield,, B. J. Lee,, and R. M. Pirtle (ed.), Transfer RNA in Protein Synthesis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla..
13. Björk, G. R. 1995a. Genetic dissection of synthesis and function of modified nucleosides in bacterial transfer RNA. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 50: 263 338.
14. Björk, G. R., 1995b. Biosynthesis and function of modified nucleosides in tRNA, p. 165 205. In D. Söll, and U. L. RajBhandary (ed.), tRNA: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Function. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
15. Björk, G. R., 1996. Stable RNA modification, p. 861 886. In F. C. Neidhardt,, R. Curtiss III,, J. L. Ingraham,, E. C. C. Lin,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, W. S. Reznikoff,, M. Riley,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
16. Björk, G. R. 1997. Unpublished results.
17. Björk, G. R.,, P. M. Wikström,, and A. S. Byström. 1989. Prevention of translational frameshifting by the modified nucleoside 1-methylguanosine. Science 244: 986 989.
18. Boelens, W. C.,, I. Palacios,, and I. W. Mattaj. 1995. Nuclear retention of RNA as a mechanism for localization. RNA 1: 273 283.
19. Bonekamp, F.,, K. Clemmesen,, O. Karlström,, and K. F. Jensen. 1984. Mechanism of UTP-modulated attenuation at the pyrE gene of Escherichia coli: an example of operon polarity control through the coupling of translation to transcription. EMBO J. 3: 2857 2861.
20. Borek, E. 1971. Introduction. Cancer Res. 31: 596 597.
21. Borek, E.,, B. S. Baliga,, C. W. Gehrke,, C. W. Kuo,, S. Belman,, W. Troll,, and T. P. Waalkes. 1977. High turnover rate of transfer RNA in tumor tissue. Cancer Res. 37: 3362 3366.
22. Borek, E.,, O. K. Sharma,, F. L. Buschman,, D. L. Cohn,, K. A. Penley,, F. N. Judson,, B. S. Dobozin,, C. R. Horsburgh, Jr., and C. H. Kirkpatrick. 1986. Altered excretion of modified nucleosides and ?-aminoisobutyric acid in subjects with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cancer Res. 46: 2557 2561.
23. Bouadloun, F.,, T. Srichaiyo,, L. A. Isaksson,, and G. R. Björk. 1986. Influence of modification next to the anticodon in tRNA on codon context sensitivity of translational suppression and accuracy. J. Bacteriol. 166: 1022 1027.
24. Brierley, L.,, M. R. Meredith,, A. J. Bloys,, and T. G. Hagervall. 1997. Expression of a coronavirus ribosomal frameshifting signal in Escherchia coli: influence of tRNA anticodon modification on frameshifting. J. Mol. Biol. 270: 360 373.
25. Buck, M.,, and B. N. Ames. 1984. A modified nucleotide in tRNA as a possible regulator of aerobiosis: synthesis of cis-2-methyl-thioribosylzeatin in the tRNA of Salmonella. Cell 36: 523 531.
26. Buck, M.,, and E. Griffiths. 1981. Regulation of aromatic amino acid transport by tRNA: role of 2-methylthio-N 6-(delta 2-isopentenyl)-adenosine. Nucleic Acids Res. 9: 401 414.
27. Buhl, L.,, C. Dragsholt,, P. Svendsen,, E. Hage,, and M. R. Buhl. 1985. Urinary hypoxanthine and pseudouridine as indicators of tumor development in mesothelioma-transplanted nude mice. CancerRes. 45: 1159 1162.
28. Burdett, V. 1991. Purification and characterization of Tet(M), a protein that renders ribosomes resistant to tetracycline. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 2872 2877.
29. Burdett, V. 1993. tRNA modification activity is necessary for Tet(M)-mediated tetracycline resistance. J. Bacteriol. 175: 7209 7215.
30. Burdett, V. 1996. Tet(M)-promoted release of tetracycline from ribosomes is GTP dependent. J. Bacteriol. 178: 3246 3251.
31. Burdett, V.,, J. Inamine,, and S. Rajagopalan,. 1982. Multiple tetracycline resistance determinants in Streptococcus, p. 155 158. In D. Schlessinger (ed.), Microbiology—1982. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
32. Bylund, G. O.,, L. C. Wipemo,, L. A. C. Lundberg,, and P. M. Wikström. 1998. RimM and RbfA are essential for efficient processing of 16S rRNA in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 180: 73 82.
33. Byström, A. S.,, K. J. Hjalmarsson,, P. M. Wikström,, and G. R. Björk. 1983. The nucleotide sequence of an Escherichia coli operon containing genes for the tRNA(m 1G)methyltransferase, the ribosomal proteins S16 and L19 and a 21-K polypeptide. EMBO J. 2: 899 905.
34. Byström, A. S.,, A. von Gabain,, and G. R. Björk. 1989. Differentially expressed trmD ribosomal protein operon of Escherichia coli is transcribed as a single polycistronic mRNA species. J. Mol. Biol. 208: 575 586.
35. Caldeira de Araujo, A.,, and A. Favre. 1986. Near ultraviolet DNA damage induces the SOS responses in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 5: 175 179.
36. Castaldo, G.,, M. Intrieri,, G. Calcagno,, L. Cimino,, G. Budillon,, L. Sacchetti,, and F. Salvatore. 1996. Ascitic pseudouridine discriminates between hepatocarcinoma-derived ascites and cirrhotic ascites. Clin. Chem. 42: 1843 1846.
37. Chackalaparampil, I.,, and J. D. Cherayil. 1981. Changes in 2-thiouridine derivatives of transfer ribonucleic acid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biochem. Int. 2: 121 128.
38. Ching, W. M.,, L. Tsai,, and A. J. Wittwer. 1985. Selenium-containing transfer RNAs. Curr. Top. Cell Regul. 27: 497 507.
39. Condon, C.,, C. Squires,, and C. L. Squires. 1995. Control of rRNA transcription in Escherichia coli. Microbiol. Rev. 59: 623 645.
40. Connolly, D. M.,, and M. E. Winkler. 1989. Genetic and physiological relationships among the miaA gene, 2-methylthio-N 6-(A 2-isopentenyl)-adenosine tRNA modification, and spontaneous mutagenesis in Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacteriol. 171: 3233 3246.
41. Connolly, D. M., and M. E. Winkler. 1991. Structure oí Escherichia coli K-12 miaA and characterization of the mutator phenotype caused by miaA insertion mutations. J. Bacteriol. 173: 1711 1721.
42. Cooper, I. A.,, G. R. Wray,, and T. L. Murphy. 1977. Urinary excretory patterns of tRNA degradation products: a marker of Hodgkin's cell metabolism? Eur. J. Cancer 13: 1309 1312.
43. Craddock, V. M. 1970. Transfer RNA methylases and cancer. Nature 228: 1264 1268.
44. Curnow, A. W.,, M. Ibba,, and D. Söll. 1996. tRNA-dependent asparagine formation. Nature 382: 589 590.
45. Delk, A. S.,, and J. C. Rabinowitz. 1975. Biosynthesis of ribosyl-thymine in the transfer RNA of Streptococcus faecalis: a folate-dependent methylation not involving S-adenosylmethionine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Set. USA 72: 528 530.
46. Diamond, A. M.,, I. S. Choi,, P. F. Crain,, T. Hashizume,, S. C. Pomerantz,, R. Cruz,, C. J. Steer,, K. E. Hill,, R. F. Burk,, J. A. McCloskey,, and D. L. Hatfield. 1993. Dietary selenium affects methylation of the wobble nucleoside in the anticodon of selenocysteine tRNA(:Ser:Sec). J. Biol. Chem. 268: 14215 14223.
47. Dirheimer, G.,, W. Baranowski,, and G. Keith. 1995. Variations in trna modifications, particularly of their queuine content in higher eukaryotes—its relation to malignancy grading. Biochimie 77: 99 103.
48. Dlugajczyk, A.,, and J. J. Eiler. 1966. Lack of catabolism of 5-ribosyluracil in man. Nature 212: 611 612.
49. Durand, J. M.,, N. Okada,, T. Tobe,, M. Watarai,, I. Fukuda,, T. Suzuki,, N. Nakata,, K. Komatsu,, M. Yoshikawa,, and C. Sasakawa. 1994. vacC, a virulence-associated chromosomal locus of Shigella flexneri, is homologous to tgt, a gene encoding tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (Tgt) of Escherichia coli K-12. J. Bacterial. 176: 4627 4634.
50. Durand, J. M. B.,, G. R. Björk,, A. Kuwae,, M. Yoshikawa,, and C. Sasakawa. 1997. The modified nucleoside 2-methylthio-N 6-isopentenyladenosine in tRNA of Shigella flexneri is required for expression of virulence genes. J. Bacteriol. 179: 5777 5782.
51. Elliott, M. S.,, and D. L. Crane. 1990a. Protein kinase C modulation of queuine uptake in cultured human fibroblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 171: 393 400.
52. Elliott, M. S.,, and D. L. Crane. 1990b. Interferon induced inhibition of queuine uptake in cultured human fibroblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 171: 384 392.
53. Emilsson, V.,, and C. G. Kurland. 1990. Growth rate dependence of transfer RNA abundance in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 9: 4359 4366.
54. Emilsson, V.,, A. K. Nâslund,, and C. G. Kurland. 1992. Thiolation of transfer RNA in Escherichia coli varies with growth rate. Nucleic Acids Res. 20: 4499 4505.
55. Ericson, J. U.,, and G. R. Björk. 1991. tRNA anticodons with the modified nucleoside 2-methylthio-N 6-(4-hydroxyisopentenyl)-adenosine distinguish between bases 3' of the codon. J. Mol. Biol. 218: 509 516.
56. Esposito, F.,, T. Russo,, R. Ammendola,, A. Duilio,, F. Salvatore,, and F. Cimino. 1985. Pseudouridine excretion and transfer RNA primers for reverse transcriptase in tumors of retroviral origin. Cancer Res. 45: 6260 6263.
57. Fantl, W. J.,, D. E. Johnson,, and L. T. Williams. 1993. Signalling by receptor tyrosine kinases. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 62: 453 481.
58. Farabaugh, P. J. 1996. Programmed translational frameshifting. Microbiol. Rev. 60: 103 134.
59. Favre, A.,, E. Hajnsdorf,, K. Thiam,, and A. Caldeira de Araujo. 1985. Mutagenesis and growth delay induced in Escherichia coli by near-ultraviolet radiations. Biochimie 67: 335 342.
60. Favre, A.,, M. Yaniv,, and A. M. Michelson. 1969. The photochemistry of 4-thiouridine in Escherichia coli t-RNA 1 val. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 37: 266 271.
61. Fischbein, A.,, J. G. Bekesi,, S. Solomon,, E. Borek,, and O. K. Sharma. 1987. Modified nucleosides in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and individuals at high risk of AIDS: correlation with lymphadenomegaly and immunological parameters. Cancer Detect. Prev. Suppl. 1: 589 596.
62. Fraser, C. M.,, J. D. Gocayne,, O. White,, M. D. Adams,, R. A. Clayton,, R. D. Fleischmann,, C. J. Bult,, A. R. Kerlavage,, G. Sutton,, J. M. Kelley,, J. L. Fritchman,, J. F. Weidman,, K. V. Small,, M. Sandusky,, J. Fuhrmann,, D. Nguyen,, T. R. Utterback,, D. B. Saudek,, and C. A. Phillips. 1995. The minimal gene complement of Mycoplasma genitalium. Science 270: 397 403.
63. Frey, B.,, J. McCloskey,, W. Kersten,, and H. Kersten. 1988. New function of vitamin B 12: cobamide-dependent reduction of epoxyqueuosine to queuosine in tRNAs of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 170: 2078 2082.
64. Gabriel, K.,, J. Schneider,, and W. H. McClain. 1996. Functional evidence for indirect recognition of G.U in tRNA(Ala) by alanyl-tRNA synthetase. Science 271: 195 197.
65. Gourse, R. L.,, T. Gaal,, M. S. Bartlett,, J. A. Appleman,, and W. Ross. 1996. rRNA transcription and growth rate-dependent regulation of ribosome synthesis in Escherichia coli. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 50: 645 677.
66. Gray, J.,, J. Wang,, and S. B. Gelvin. 1992. Mutation of the miaA gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens results in reduced vir gene expression. J. Bacteriol. 174: 1086 1098.
67. Griffiths, E.,, and J. Humphreys. 1978. Alterations in tRNAs containing 2-methylthio-N 6-(delta 2-isopentenyl)-adenosine during growth of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in the presence of iron-binding proteins. Eur. J. Biochem. 82: 503 513.
68. Gustafsson, C.,, and G. R. Björk. 1993. The tRNA-(m 5U54)-methyltransferase of Escherichia coli is present in two forms in vivo, one of which is present as bound to tRNA and to a 3'-end fragment of 16 S rRNA. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 1326 1331.
69. Hagervall, T. G.,, Y. H. Jönsson,, C. G. Edmonds,, J. A. McCloskey,, and G. R. Björk. 1990. Chorismic acid, a key metabolite in modification of tRNA. J. Bacteriol. 172: 252 259.
70. Hagervall, T. G.,, T. M. Tuohy,, J. F. Atkins,, and G. R. Björk. 1993. Deficiency of 1-methylguanosine in tRNA from Salmonella typhimurium induces frameshifting by quadruplet translocation. J. Mol. Biol. 232: 756 765.
71. Hanski, C.,, and G. Stehlik. 1980. Increased concentration of 7-methylguanine and 1-methylhypoxanthine in urine of rats bearing Yoshida tumour. Cancer Lett. 9: 339 343.
72. Hatfield, D.,, Y. X. Feng,, B. J. Lee,, A. Rein,, J. G. Levin,, and S. Oroszlan. 1989. Chromatographic analysis of the aminoacyl-tRNAs which are required for translation of codons at and around the ribosomal frameshift sites of HIV, HTLV-1, and BLV. Virology 173: 736 742.
73. Heldman, D. A.,, M. R. Grever,, J. S. Miser,, and R. W. Trewyn. 1983a. Relationship of urinary excretion of modified nucleosides to disease status in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. JNCI 71: 269 273.
74. Heldman, D. A.,, M. R. Grever,, C. E. Speicher,, and R. W. Trewyn. 1983b. Urinary excretion of modified nucleosides in chronic myelogenous leukemia. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 101: 783 792.
75. Heldman, D. A.,, M. R. Grever,, and R. W. Trewyn. 1983c. Differential excretion of modified nucleosides in adult acute leukemia. Blood 61: 291 296.
76. Higley, B.,, J. De Mello, Jr.,, D. J. Oakes,, and G. R. Giles. 1982. Urinary pseudouridine/creatinine ratio as an indicator of gastrointestinal cancer. Br. J. Surg. 69: 699 701.
77. Hogan, A.,, A. Creuss-Callaghan,, and J. J. Fennelly. 1970. Studies of pseudouridine changes in chronic lymphatic leukemia during therapy. Ir. J. Med. Set. 3: 505 511.
78. Holstege, A.,, M. Pauw,, R. Haring,, R. Kirchner,, J. Pausch,, and W. Gerok. 1986. Die Wertigkeit einer erhohten Urinausscheidung modifizierter Nukleoside als Tumormarker beim Kolonkarzi-nom. Verb. Dtsch. Ges. Inn. Med. 92: 114 120.
79. Ibba, M.,, A. W. Curnow,, and D. Soil. 1997. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis: divergent routes to a common goal. Trends Biochem. Sci. 22: 39 42.
80. Intrieri, M.,, G. Calcagno,, G. Oriani,, F. Pane,, F. Zarrilli,, P. T. Cataldo,, M. Foggia,, M. Piazza,, F. Salvatore,, and L. Sacchetti. 1996. Pseudouridine and l-ribosylpyridin-4-one-3-carboxamide (PCNR) serum concentrations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients are independent predictors for AIDS progression. J. Infect. Dis. 174: 199 203.
81. Isel, C.,, R. Marquet,, G. Keith,, C. Ehresmann,, and B. Ehresmann. 1993. Modified nucleotides of transfer RNA 3 Lys modulate primer template loop-loop interaction in the initiation complex of hiv-1 reverse transcription. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 25269 25272.
82. Ito, M.,, Y. Takami,, F. Tanabe,, S. Shigeta, K. Tsukui, and Y. Kawade. 1988. Modulation of protein kinase C activity during inhibition of tumor cell growth by IFN-beta and -gamma. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 150: 126 132.
83. Itoh, K.,, S. Aida,, S. Ishiwata,, S. Sasaki,, N. Ishida,, and M. Mizugaki. 1993. Urinary excretion of modified nucleosides, pseudouridine and dl-methyladenosine, in healthy individuals. Clin. Chim. Acta 217: 221 223.
84. Itoh, K.,, T. Konno,, T. Sasaki,, S. Ishiwata,, N. Ishida,, and M. Misugaki. 1992. Relationship of urinary pseudouridine and 1-methyladenosine to activity of leukemia and lymphoma. Clin. Chim. Acta 206: 181 189.
85. Jeter, R. M.,, B. M. Olivera,, and J. R. Roth. 1984. Salmonella typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B 12) de novo under anaerobic growth conditions. J. Bacteriol. 159: 206 213.
86. Johnston, H. M.,, W. M. Barnes,, F. G. Chumley,, L. Bossi,, and J. R. Roth. 1980. Model for regulation of the histidine operon of Salmonella. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 508 512.
87. Jones, W. R.,, G. J. Barcak,, and R. E. Wolf, Jr. 1990. Altered growth-rate-dependent regulation of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase level in hisT mutants of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 172: 1197 1205.
88. Katze, J. R.,, and W. T. Beck. 1980. Administration of queuine to mice relieves modified nucleoside queuosine deficiency in Ehrlich ascites tumor tRNA. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 96: 313 319.
89. Katze, J. R.,, W. T. Beck,, C. S. Cheng,, and J. A. McCloskey. 1983. Why is tumor tRNA hypomodified with respect to Q nucleoside? Recent Results Cancer Res. 84: 146 159.
90. Kawai, G.,, Y. Yamamoto,, T. Kamimura,, T. Masegi,, M. Sekine,, T. Hata,, T. Iimori,, T. Watanabe,, T. Miyazawa,, and S. Yokoyama. 1992. Conformational rigidity of specific pyrimidine residues in tRNA arises from posttranscriptional modifications that enhance steric interaction between the base and the 2'-hydroxyl group. Biochemistry 31: 1040 1046.
91. Kersten, H.,, and W. Kersten,. 1990. Biosynthesis and function of queuine and queosine tRNAs, p. B69 B108. In C. W. Gehrke, and K. C. T. Kuo (ed.), Chromatography and Modification of Nucleosides, part B. Biological Roles and Function of Modification. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
92. Kersten, H.,, L. Sandig,, and H. H. Arnold. 1975. Tetrahydrofolate-dependent 5-methyluracil-tRNA transferase activity in B. subtilis. FEBS Lett. 55: 57 60.
93. Kjellin-Strâby, K.,, and J. H. Phillips. 1968. Studies on microbial ribonucleic acid. VI. Appearance of methyl-deficient transfer ribonucleic acid during logarithmic growth of Saccharomyces cer-evisiae. J. Bacteriol. 96: 760 767'.
94. Koshida, K.,, J. Harmenberg,, U. Stendahl,, B. Wahren,, E. Borgstrom,, L. Helstrom,, and L. Andersson. 1985. Urinary modified nucleosides as tumor markers in cancer of the urinary organs or female genital tract. Urol. Res. 13: 213 218.
95. Kramer, G. F.,, J. C. Baker,, and B. N. Ames. 1988. Near-UV stress in Salmonella typhimurium: 4-thiouridine in tRNA, ppGpp, and ApppGpp as components of an adaptive response. J. Bacteriol. 170: 2344 2351.
96. Kumagai, I.,, K. Watanabe,, and T. Oshima. 1980. Thermally induced biosynthesis of 2'-0-methylguanosine in tRNA from an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus HB27. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 1922 1926.
97. Kvist, E.,, K. E. Sjölin,, and J. Iversen. 1990. Excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. 24: 287 292.
98. Langgut, W. 1995. Regulation of signalling by receptor tyrosine kinases in HeLa cells involves the q-base. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 207: 306 311.
99. Langgut, W.,, T. Reisser,, and H. Kersten. 1990. Queuine modulates growth of HeLa cells depending on oxygen availability. Biofactors 2: 245 249.
100. Langgut, W.,, T. Reisser,, H. Kersten,, and S. Nishimura. 1993a. Modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor activity and related responses by the 7-deazaguanine derivative, queuine. Oncogene 8: 3141 3147.
101. Langgut, W.,, T. Reisser,, S. Nishimura,, and H. Kersten. 1993b. Modulation of mammalian cell proliferation by a modified tRNA base of bacterial origin. FEBS Lett. 336: 137 142.
102. Lewis, J. A.,, and B. N. Ames. 1972. Histidine regulation in Salmonella typhimurium. XI. The percentage of transfer RNA His charged in vivo and its relation to the repression of the histidine operon. J. Mol. Biol. 66: 131 142.
103. Li, J. N.,, and G. R. Björk. 1995. 1-Methylguanosine deficiency of tRNA influences cognate codon interaction and metabolism in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 177: 6593 6600.
104. Li, J.-N.,, and G. R. Björk. 1997. Unpublished results.
105. Li, J.-N.,, B. Esberg,, J. F. Curran,, and G. R. Björk. 1997. Three modified nucleosides present in the anticodon region influence the in vivo aa-tRNA selection differently and in a tRNA dependent manner. J. Mol. Biol. 271: 209 221.
106. Lin, W.,, J. W. Mackenzie,, and I. Clark. 1984. Excretion of RNA catabolites by rats with hepatoma transplants. Cancer Lett. 22: 187 192.
107. Lin, W.,, J. W. Mackenzie,, and I. Clark. 1987. Effect of transplanted osteogenic sarcoma on urinary RNA catabolites. Cancer Lett. 35: 47 57.
108. Lin, V. K.,, W. R. Farkas,, and P. F. Agris. 1980. Specific changes in Q-ribonucleoside containing transfer RNA species during Friend leukemia cell erythroid differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 8: 3481 3489.
109. Low, S. C.,, and M. J. Berry. 1996. Knowing when not to stop: selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes. Trends Biochem. Sci. 21: 203 208.
110. Lu, J. Y.,, R. S. Lai,, L. L. Liang,, H. C. Wang,, and T. I. Lin. 1994. Evaluation of urinary pseudouridine as a tumor marker in lung cancer. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 93: 25 29.
111. Mandei, L. R.,, P. R. Srinivasan,, and E. Borek. 1966. Origin of urinary methylated purines. Nature 209: 586 588.
112. Masuda, M.,, T. Nishihira,, K. Itoh,, M. Mizugaki,, N. Ishida,, and S. Mori. 1993. An immunohistochemical analysis for cancer of the esophagus using monoclonal antibodies specific for modified nucleosides. Cancer 72: 3571 3578.
113. McEntire, J. E.,, K. C. Kuo,, M. E. Smith,, D. L. Stalling,, J. W. Richens,, R. W. Zumwalt,, C. W. Gehrke,, and B. W. Papermaster. 1989. Classification of lung cancer patients and controls by chromatography of modified nucleosides in serum. Cancer Res. 49: 1057 1062.
114. Mills, G. C.,, F. C. Schmalstieg,, R. J. Koolkin,, and R. M. Goldblum. 1982. Urinary excretion of purines, purine nucleosides, and pseudouridine in immunodeficient children. Biochem. Med. 27: 37 45.
115. Morris, R. C.,, B. J. Brooks,, P. Eriotou,, D. F. Kelly,, S. Sagar,, K. L. Hart,, and M. S. Elliott. 1995. Activation of transfer rnaguanine ribosyltransferase by protein kinase c. Nucleic Acids Res. 23: 2492 2498.
116. Miiller-Wickop, J.,, H. Lorenz,, K. Winkler,, and N. Erb. 1986. The age dependency of the creatinine-related concentration of ribonucleosides in human urine. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 24: 993 999.
117. Murphy, T. L.,, I. A. Cooper,, G. W. Wray,, P. N. Ironside,, and J. Matthews. 1976. Transfer RNA and transfer RNA methylase activity in spleens of patients with Hodgkin's disease and histiocytic lymphoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 56: 215 219.
118. Nesbitt, J. A. I.,, and W. J. Lennarz. 1968. Participation of aminoacyl transfer ribonucleic acid in aminoacyl phosphatidylglycerol synthetase. I. Specificity of lysyl phosphatidylglycerol synthetase. J. Biol. Chem. 243: 3088 3095.
119. Newell, P. C.,, and R. G. Tucker. 1968. Precursors of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine. A new route of pyrimidine biosynthesis involving purine intermediates. Biochem. J. 106: 279 287.
120. Nielsen, H. R.,, and S.-A. Killman. 1983. Urinary excretion of ?-aminoisobutyrate and pseudouridine in acute and chronic myeloid leukemia. JNCI 71: 887 891.
121. Nilsson, K.,, and G. R. Björk. 1997. Unpublished results.
122. Nishimura, S. 1983. Structure, biosynthesis, and function of queu-osine in transfer RNA. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 28: 49 73.
123. Noguchi, S.,, Y. Nishimura,, Y. Hirota,, and S. Nishimura. 1982. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant lacking tRNA-guanine transglycosylase. Function and biosynthesis of queuosine in tRNA. J. Biol. Chem. 257: 6544 6550.
124. Ny, T.,, J. Thomale,, K. Hjalmarsson,, G. Nass,, and G. R. Björk. 1980. Non-coordinate regulation of enzymes involved in transfer RNA metabolism in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 607: 277 284.
125. Okada, N.,, N. Shindo-Okada,, and S. Nishimura. 1977. Isolation of mammalian tRNAAsp and tRNATyr by lectin-Sepharose affinity column chromatography. Nucleic Acids Res. 4: 415 423.
126. Okada, N.,, N. Shindo-Okada,, S. Sato,, Y. H. Itoh,, K. Oda,, and S. Nishimura. 1978. Detection of unique tRNA species in tumor tissues by Escherichia coli guanine insertion enzyme. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 4247 4251.
127. Ott, G.,, and H. Kersten. 1985. Differential turnover of tRNAs of the queuosine family in Dictyostelium discoideum and its possible role in regulation. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler 366: 69 76.
128. Pane, F.,, M. Savoia,, G. Fortunato,, A. Camera,, B. Rotoli,, F. Salvatore,, and L. Sacchetti. 1993. Serum pseudouridine in the diagnosis of acute leukaemias and as a novel prognostic indicator in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Clin. Biochem. 26: 513 520.
129. Park, R. W.,, J. F. Holland,, and A. Jenkins. 1962. Urinary purines in leukemia. Cancer Res. 22: 469 477.
130. Persson, B. C.,, and G. R. Björk. 1993. Isolation of the gene (miaE) encoding the hydroxylase involved in the synthesis of 2-methylthio- cis-ribozeatin in tRNA of Salmonella typhimurium and characterization of mutants. J. Bacteriol. 175: 7776 7785.
131. Persson, B. C.,, C. Gustafsson,, D. E. Berg,, and G. R. Björk. 1992. The gene for a tRNA modifying enzyme, m 5U54-methyl-transferase, is essential for viability in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 3995 3998.
132. Persson, B. C.,, O. Olafsson,, H. Lundgren,, L. Hederstedt,, and G. R. Björk. 1997. Unpublished results.
133. Pinkard, K. J.,, I. A. Cooper,, R. Motteram,, and C. N. Turner. 1972. Purine and pyrimidine excretion in Hodgkin's disease. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 49: 27 38.
134. Pongs, O.,, and N. Ulbrich. 1976. Specific binding of formylated initiator-tRNA to Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 3064 3067.
135. Pope, W. T.,, A. Brown,, and R. H. Reeves. 1978. The identification of the tRNA substrates for the supK tRNA methylase. Nucleic Acids Res. 5: 1041 1057.
136. Qian, Q.,, and G. R. Björk. 1997. Unpublished results.
137. Quay, S. C.,, R. P. Lawther,, G. W. Hatfield,, and D. L. Oxender. 1978. Branched-chain amino acid transport regulation in mutants blocked in tRNA maturation and transcriptional termination. J. Bacteriol. 134: 683 686.
138. Racker, E.,, R. J. Resnick,, and R. Feldman. 1985. Glycolysis and methylaminoisobutyrate uptake in rat-1 cells transfected with ras or myc oncogenes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 3535 3538.
139. Rasmuson, T.,, G. R. Björk,, L. Damber,, L. Jacobsson,, A. Jeppsson,, T. Stigbrand,, and G. Westman. 1987. Tumor markers in mammary carcinoma. An evaluation of carcinoembryonic antigen, placental alkaline phosphatase, pseudouridine and CA-50. Acta Oncol. 26: 261 267.
140. Rasmuson, T.,, and G. R. Björk. 1995. Urinary excretion of pseudouridine and prognosis of patients with malignant lymphoma. Acta Oncol. 34: 61 67.
141. Rasmuson, T.,, G. R. Björk,, L. Damber,, S. E. Holm,, L. Jacobsson,, A. Jeppsson,, B. Littbrand,, T. Stigbrand,, and G. Westman. 1983a. Evaluation of carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, placental alkaline phosphatase, and modified nucleosides as biological markers in malignant lymphomas. Recent Results Cancer Res. 84: 331 343.
142. Rasmuson, T.,, G. R. Björk,, L. Damber,, S. E. Holm,, L. Jacobsson,, A. Jeppsson,, T. Stigbrand,, and G. Westman. 1983. Tumor markers in bronchogenic carcinoma. An evaluation of carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, placental alkaline phosphatase and pseudouridine. Acta Radiol. 22: 209 214.
143. Rasmuson, T.,, G. R. Björk,, L. Damber,, S. E. Holm,, L. Jacobsson,, A. Jeppsson,, T. Stigbrand,, and G. Westman. 1984. Tumor markers in colorectal carcinoma. An evaluation of carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, placental alkaline phosphatase and pseudouridine. Acta Radiol. 23: 27 32.
144. Rasmuson, T.,, G. R. Björk,, S. O. Hietala,, R. Stenling,, and B. Ljungberg. 1991. Excretion of pseudouridine as an independent prognostic factor in renal cell carcinoma. Acta Oncol. 30: 11 15.
145. Reisser, T.,, W. Langgut,, and H. Kersten. 1994. The nutrient factor queuine protects HeLa cells from hypoxic stress and improves metabolic adaptation to oxygen availability. Eur. J. Biochem. 221: 979 986.
146. Rogg, H.,, P. Muller,, G. Keith,, and M. Staehelin. 1977. Chemical basis for brain-specific serine transfer RNAs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 4243 4247.
147. Rose, A. M.,, H. G. Belford,, W. C. Shen,, C. L. Greer,, A. K. Hopper,, and N. C. Martin. 1995. Location of n-2,n-2-dimethylguanosine-specific trna methyltransferase. Biochimie 77: 45 53.
148. Rosenberg, A. H.,, and M. L. Gefter. 1969. An iron-dependent modification of several transfer RNA species in Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 46: 581 584.
149. Russo, T.,, A. Colonna,, F. Salvatore,, F. Cimino,, S. Bridges,, and C. Gurgo. 1984. Serum pseudouridine as a biochemical marker in the development of AKR mouse lymphoma. Cancer Res. 44: 2567 2570.
150. Salyers, A. A.,, and D. D. Whitt. 1994. Bacterial Pathogenesis: a Molecular Approach. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
151. Schachner, E.,, H. J. Aschhoff,, and H. Kersten. 1984. Specific changes in lactate levels, lactate dehydrogenase patterns and cytochrome b559 in Dictyostelium discoideum caused by queuine. Eur.J. Biochem. 139: 481 487.
152. Schachner, E.,, and H. Kersten. 1984. Queuine deficiency and restoration in Dictyostelium discoideum and related early developmental changes. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130: 135 144.
153. Schöch, G.,, M. Garbrecht,, G. Heller Schöch,, H. Baisch,, and W. Leifer. 1979. Die Ausscheidung von normalen und modifizierten Nucleobasen im Urin bein chronischen myeloproliferativen Syndromen. Blut 38: 391 396.
154. Schöch, G.,, H. Lorenz,, G. Heller-Schöch,, H. Baisch,, and P. Clemens. 1981. Die Altersabhangigkeit der normalen und modifizier-ten Nucleobasen im Urin als Ausdruck der wachstumsgeschwin-digkeit. Monatsschr. Kinderheilkd. 129: 29 33.
155. Schön, A.,, C. G. Kannangara,, S. Gough,, and D. Soil. 1988. Protein biosynthesis in organelles requires misaminoacylation of tRNA. Nature 331: 187 190.
156. Schools, A. C.,, P. G. Gerlag,, A. W. Mulder,, J. A. Peelers,, and C. A. Cramers. 1988. Liquid-chromatographic profiling of solutes in serum of uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis and chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD); high concentrations of pseudouridine in CAPD patients. Clin. Chem. 34: 91 97.
157. Schwartz, R.,, and J. F. Curran. 1997. Analyses of frameshifting at UUU-pyrimidine sites. Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 2005 2011.
158. Simos, G.,, H. Tekotte,, H. Grosjean,, A. Segref,, K. Sharma,, D. Tollervey,, and E. C. Hurt. 1996. Nuclear pore proteins are involved in the biogenesis of functional tRNA. EMBO J. 15: 2270 2284.
159. Singh, R.,, and M. R. Green. 1993. Sequence-specific binding of transfer RNA by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Science 15: 365 368.
160. Singhal, R. P.,, R. A. Kopper,, S. Nishimura,, and N. Shindo-Okada. 1981. Modification of guanine to queuine in transfer RNAs during development and aging. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 99: 120 126.
161. Söll, D., 1993. Transfer RNA: an RNA for all seasons, p. 157 184. In R. F. Gesteland, and J. F. Atkins (ed.), The RNA World. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y..
162. Sörensen, S. H.,, D. A. Brown,, E. H. Cooper,, K. A. Kelly,, and I. C. MacLennan. 1985. Urinary pseudouridine excretion in myelomatosis. Br. J. Cancer 52: 863 866.
163. Speer, J.,, C. W. Gehrke,, K. C. Kuo,, T. P. Waalkes,, and E. Borek. 1979. tRNA breakdown products as markers for cancer. Cancer 44: 2120 2123.
164. Stewart, T. S.,, R. J. Roberts,, and J. L. Strominger. 1971. Novel species of tRNA. Nature 230: 36 38.
165. Stråby, K. B.,, M. Eriksson,, A. Housseini,, A. Spångberg,, and M. Sterner. 1997. A possible link between tRNA modification and stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 13: S1 S274.
166. Struijk, D. G.,, A. C. Schoots,, L. H. Koole,, H. J. van der Reijden,, G. C. Koomen,, R. T. Krediet,, and L. Arisz. 1991. Transport kinetics of pseudouridine during hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 118: 74 80.
167. Tamura, S.,, Y. Amuro,, T. Nakano,, J. Fujii,, Y. Moriwaki,, T. Yamamoto,, T. Hada,, and K. Higashino. 1986a. Urinary excretion of pseudouridine in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 57: 1571 1575.
168. Tamura, S.,, J. Fujii,, T. Nakano,, T. Hada, and ?. Higashino. 1986b. Urinary pseudouridine as a tumor marker in patients with small cell lung cancer. Clin. Chim. Acta 154: 125 132.
169. Tamura, S.,, H. Fujioka,, T. Nakano,, Y. Amuro,, T. Hada,, N. Na-kao, and K. Higashino. 1988. Urinary pseudouridine as a biochemical marker in the diagnosis and monitoring of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 83: 841 845.
170. Tamura, S.,, H. Fujioka,, T. Nakano,, T. Hada, and K. Higashino. 1987. Serum pseudouridine as a biochemical marker in small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res. 47: 6138 6141.
171. Taya, Y.,, and S. Nishimura,. 1977. Purification and properties of the tRNA methylase specific for synthesis of 5-methylamino-methyl-2-thiouridine, p. 251 257. In F. Salvatore,, E. Borek,, V. Zappia,, H. G. Williams-Ashman,, and F. Schlenk (ed.), Biochemistry of Adenosylmethionine. Columbia University Press, New York, N.Y..
172. Thomale, J.,, A. Luz,, and G. Nass. 1984. Excretion of modified nucleosides during development of malignant lymphomas in mice after whole body irradiation. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 108: 302 307.
173. Thomale, J.,, and G. Nass. 1978. Alteration of the intracellular concentration of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and isoaccepting tRNAs during amino-acid limited growth in Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 85: 407 418.
174. Thomale, J.,, and G. Nass. 1982. Elevated urinary excretion of RNA catabolites as an early signal of tumor development in mice. Cancer Lett. 15: 149 159.
175. Thomas, G.,, and A. Favre. 1975. 4-Thiouridine as the target for near-ultraviolet light induced growth delay in Escherichia coli. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 66: 1454 1461.
176. Thomas, G.,, and A. Favre. 1980. 4-Thiouridine triggers both growth delay induced by near-ultraviolet light and photoprotection. Eur.]. Biochem. 113: 67 74.
177. Tormey, D. C.,, T. P. Waalkes,, and C. W. Gehrke. 1980. Biological markers in breast carcinoma—clinical correlations with pseudouridine, N 2,N 2-dimethylguanosine, and 1-methylinosine. J. Surg. Oncol. 14: 267 273.
178. Trewyn, R. W.,, and M. R. Grever. 1986. Urinary nucleosides in leukemia: laboratory and clinical applications. Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Set. 24: 71 93.
179. Tröbner, W.,, and R. Piechocki. 1984. Competition between isogenic mutS and mut+ populations of Escherichia coli K12 in continuously growing cultures. Mol. Gen. Genet. 198: 175 176.
180. Tsui, H.-C. T.,, G. Feng,, and M. E. Winkler. 1996. Transcription of the mutL repair, miaA tRNA modification, hfq pleiotropic regulator, and hflA region protease genes of Escherichia coli K-12 from clustered Eσ 32-specific promoters during heat shock. J. Bacteriol. 178: 5719 5731.
181. Tsui, H. C. T.,, H. C. E. Leung, and M. E. Winkler. 1994. Characterization of broadly pleiotropic phenotypes caused by an hfq insertion mutation in Escherichia coli K-12. Mol. Microbiol. 13: 35 49.
182. Van Acker, K. J.,, F. J. Eyskens,, R. M. Verkerk,, and S. S. Scharpe. 1993. Urinary excretion of purine and pyrimidine metabolites in the neonate. Pediatr. Res. 34: 762 766.
183. Verkamp, E. S.,, A. M. Kumar,, A. Lloyd,, O. Martins,, N. Stange-Thomann,, and D. Soil,. 1995. Glutamyl-tRNA as an intermediate in glutamate conversions, p. 545 550. In D. Soli, and U. L. RajBhandary (ed.), tRNA: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Function. ASM Press, Washington, D.C..
184. Viale, G. L. 1971. Transfer RNA and transfer RNA methylase in human brain tumors. Cancer Res. 31: 605 608.
185. von Pawel-Rammingen, U. 1997. Biosynthesis and function of initiator tRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ph.D. thesis. Umel Universitet, Umel, Sweden.
186. Vreken, P.,, and P. Tavenier. 1987. Urinary excretion of six modified nucleosides by patients with breast carcinoma. Ann. Clin. Biochem. 24: 598 603.
187. Waalkes, T. P.,, M. D. Abeloff,, D. S. Ettinger,, K. B. Woo,, C. W. Gehrke, K. C. Kuo, and E. Borek. 1982. Modified ribonucleosides as biological markers for patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Eur. J. Cancer Clin. Oncol. 18: 1267 1274.
188. Warburg, O. 1956. On the origin of cancer cells. Science 123: 309 314.
189. Watanabe, K.,, M. Shinma,, T. Oshima,, and S. Nishimura. 1976. Heat-induced stability of tRNA from an extreme thermophile, Thermus thermophilus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 72: 1137 1144.
190. Wettstein, F. O.,, and G. S. Stent. 1968. Physiologically induced changes in the property of phenylalanine tRNA in Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 38: 25 40.
191. Wikström, P. M.,, and G. R. Björk. 1988. Noncoordinate translation-level regulation of ribosomal and nonribosomal protein genes in the Escherichia coli trmD operon. J. Bacteriol. 170: 3025 3031.
192. Wilcox, M.,, and M. Nirenberg. 1968. Transfer RNA as a cofactor coupling amino acid synthesis with that of protein. Proc, Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 61: 229 236.
193. Williamson, R. M.,, and D. L. Oxender. 1992. Premature termination of in vivo transcription of a gene encoding a branched-chain amino acid transport protein in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 174: 1777 1782.
194. Witfwer, A. J.,, and W. M. Ching. 1989. Selenium-containing tRNA Glu and tRNA Lys from Escherichia coli: purification, codon specificity and translational activity. Biofactors 2: 27 34.
195. Yokoyama, S.,, T. Watanabe,, K. Murao,, H. Ishikura,, Z. Yamaizumi,, S. Nishimura,, and T. Miyazawa. 1985. Molecular mechanism of codon recognition by tRNA species with modified uridine in the first position of the anticodon. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 4905 4909.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error