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Chapter 17 : Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections

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Abstract:

In the United States alone, the enteroviruses (EVs) are estimated to cause 5 to 10 million symptomatic infections annually. Laboratory diagnosis of the EVs has exploited many of the distinctive characteristics. The predictable and well-studied growth properties of the EVs in in vitro culture systems or animals have made viral culture the mainstay of diagnosis for the past four decades. Recent insights into the surface features of these agents have revitalized efforts to design immunoassays and serologic tests for both initial detection and subsequent serotyping. Recognition of genetic homology among all of the EVs spawned the development of sensitive and specific nucleic acid detections systems, particularly the PCR, promises to revolutionize EV diagnosis. Other EV detection techniques include electron microscopy, immunoassays, and nucleic acid hybridization. The chapter ends with a discussion on serotype identification, diagnosis, and evaluation and interpretation of results.

Citation: Rotbart H, Romero J. 1995. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections, p 401-418. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch17

Key Concept Ranking

Coxsackievirus B
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Coxsackievirus A
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Echovirus 11
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Sequences and locations of representative primers and probes for EVs superimposed on the genome of poliovirus type 1 Mahoney (PV1M) (underlined) (sequence obtained from reference ). Homology of the primers and probes to a variety of sequenced enteroviruses is shown in Table 4 . Primers are marked → for sense and ← for antisense relative to the viral genome. Probes are marked ↓ Investigators (first author) reporting the primers and probes are indicated; references follow the same investigators' names in Table 4 . The names for each oligomeric sequence, as designated by the investigators, are shown in parentheses.

Citation: Rotbart H, Romero J. 1995. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections, p 401-418. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch17
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Colorimetric microwell plate assay format for detecting enteroviruses by RT-PCR. Colored wells (dark in this black and white photo, yellow in the actual assay) indicate a positive reaction; colorless wells are negative (see text for details).

Citation: Rotbart H, Romero J. 1995. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections, p 401-418. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch17
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

EV serotypes

Citation: Rotbart H, Romero J. 1995. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections, p 401-418. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Susceptibilities of commonly used cell lines to EVs

Citation: Rotbart H, Romero J. 1995. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections, p 401-418. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Nucleic acid hybridization studies demonstrating sequence relationships among the EVs

Citation: Rotbart H, Romero J. 1995. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections, p 401-418. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Comparison of universal EV primers and probes with published EV genomic sequences

Citation: Rotbart H, Romero J. 1995. Laboratory Diagnosis of Enteroviral Infections, p 401-418. In Rotbart H (ed), Human Enterovirus Infections. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818326.ch17

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