Chapter 9 : Organellar tRNAs: Biosynthesis and Function

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Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own systems for the biosynthesis of proteins coded by the organelle genome. It had generally been thought that tRNAs participating in organelle protein synthesis were coded by the organelle genome. This genetic diversity of tRNAs makes the subject of organelle tRNA biosynthesis more complex than it would be if all tRNAs were made in the organelle. tRNA genes in organelle DNAs are scattered around the genome and intermixed with mRNA and rRNA genes. tRNAs are transcribed with rRNAs and mRNAs. In mammalian mitochondria, the entire genome is transcribed and, subsequently, the tRNAs are processed out of the large primary transcript. This review focuses on the organelle tRNAs that are coded by mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA and on the structure of precursor tRNAs and the enzymes necessary for their processing. In addition, it considers organelle aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases as well as mutant organelle tRNAs.

Citation: Martin N. 1995. Organellar tRNAs: Biosynthesis and Function, p 127-140. In tRNA. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818333.ch9
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