Chapter 4 : Enterotoxigenic , 1971 to 1979

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This chapter provides a review of the work on enterotoxigenic that was undertaken in Stanley’s lab in the 1970s. Stanley's interest in the extrachromosomal nature of enterotoxin genes was undoubtedly a result of the interplay between his clinical microbiology background and his episome work in a lab studying bacterial gastroenteritis (at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research). Working on enterotoxin plasmids was therefore a natural extension of these interests. The classic approach was to isolate plasmid mutations and then correlate a particular protein with an LT phenotype (the expression or absence of LT in cells harboring a mutated plasmid). The approach was analogous in a way to the one Maggie had used to identify Ent plasmids in mating experiments when a number of plasmids were present. Nature actually did the first cloning experiment by placing the toxin genes on plasmids, and the authors used the knowledge of plasmids gained by previous students to study these virulence determinants; eventually, they did their own recombinant DNA experiments and cloned the genes to smaller plasmids. The transposon work with Tni led to the development of a plasmid to clone the ST gene, and later, the ST gene was shown to be part of a transposon.

Citation: So M, Dallas W. 1994. Enterotoxigenic , 1971 to 1979, p 55-62. In Miller V, Kaper J, Portnoy D, Isberg R (ed), Molecular Genetics of Bacterial Pathogenesis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818340.ch4
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1. Anderson, E. S. 1965. A rapid screening test for transfer factors in drug sensitive Enterobacteriaceae. Nature (London) 208: 1016 1017.
2. Bazaral, M.,, and D. R. Helinski. 1972. Characterization of multiple circular DNA forms of colicinogenic factor E 1 from Proteus mirabilis. Biochemistry 7: 3513 3520.
3. Clements, J. D.,, R. J. Yancey,, and R. A. Finkelstein. 1980. Properties of homogeneous heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 29: 91 97.
4. Cohen, S. N.,, A. C. Y. Chang,, H. W. Boyer,, and R. B. Helling. 1973. Construction of biologically functional bacterial plasmids in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 3240 3244.
5. Dallas, W. S.,, and S. Falkow. 1979. The molecular nature of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli. Nature (London) 277: 406 407.
6. Dallas, W. S.,, D. M. Gill,, and S. Falkow. 1979. Cistrons encoding Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin. J. Bacteriol. 139: 850 858.
7. Dallas, W. S.,, Y.-H. Tseng,, and W. J. Dobrogosz. 1976. Regulation of membrane functions and fatty acid composition in Escherichia coli by cyclic AMP receptor protein. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 175: 295 302.
8. Dougan, G.,, and D. Sheratt. 1977. The transposon Tn1 as a probe for studying Co1E1 structure and function. Mol. Gen. Genet. 151: 151 160.
9. Gyles, C.,, M. So,, and S. Falkow. 1974. The enterotoxin plasmids of Escherichia coli. J. Infect. Dis. 130: 40 49.
10. Gyles, C. L. 1971. Heat-labile and heat-stable forms of the enterotoxin from E. coli strains enteropathogenic for pigs. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 176: 314 322.
11. Heffron, F.,, P. Bedinger,, J. J. Champoux,, and S. Falkow. 1977. Deletions affecting the transposition of an antibiotic resistance gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 702 706.
12. Hershfield, V.,, H. W. Boyer,, C. Yanofsky,, M. A. Lovett,, and D. R. Helinski. 1974. Plasmid Co1E1 as a molecular vehicle for cloning and amplification of DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 3455 3459.
13. Skerman, F. J.,, S. B. Formal,, and S. Falkow. 1972. Plasmid-associated enterotoxin production in a strain of Escherichia coli isolated from humans. Infect. Immun. 5: 622 624.
14. Smith, H. W. 1968. The transmissible nature of the genetic factor in Escherichia coli that controls enterotoxin production. J. Gen. Microbiol. 52: 319 334.
15. Smith, H. W.,, and C. L. Gyles. 1970. The relationship between two apparently different enterotoxins produced by enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli of porcine origin. J. Med. Microbiol. 3: 387 401.
16. Smith, H. W.,, and M. A. Linggood. 1971. Observations on the pathogenic properties of the K88 Hly and Ent plasmids of Escherichia coli with particular reference to porcine diarrhoea. J. Med. Microbiol. 4: 467 485.
17. So, M.,, M. Betlach,, H. Boyer,, and S. Falkow. 1976. The molecular cloning of an Escherichia coli plasmid determinant which encodes the production of heat stable (ST) enterotoxin. J. Bacteriol. 128: 463 472.
18. So, M.,, J. H. Crosa,, and S. Falkow. 1975. Polynucleotide sequence relationships among Ent plasmids and the relationship between Ent and other plasmids. J. Bacteriol. 121: 234 238.
19. So, M.,, W. S. Dallas,, and S. Falkow. 1978. The molecular cloning of an Escherichia coli plasmid determinant which encodes the production of heat labile (LT) toxin. Infect. Immun. 21: 405 411.
20. So, M.,, R. Gill,, and S. Falkow. 1975. Generation of a ColEl-Ap r cloning vehicle which allows detection of inserted DNA. Mol. Gen. Genet. 142: 239 249.

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