Chapter 11 : Tuberculosis in Wild and Domestic Mammals

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Different animal species vary in their susceptibilities to infection by the different types of virulent tubercle bacilli: , , , and . Liquefication promotes extracellular multiplication of tubercle bacilli to tremendous numbers, and cavity formation allows these bacilli to spread through the air passages to other parts of the lung and to other people. When pasteurization was adopted, there was usually a concomitant decrease in tuberculosis in children. Tubercle bacilli that are inhaled usually lodge in alveolar spaces, where they are ingested by alveolar macrophages. When the organism multiplies within the phagocyte, the host cell may die, resulting in the development of a microscopic tubercle. Wild mammals found to have tuberculous lesions at necropsy after natural death are usually without prior suspicion of tuberculosis. Tuberculous lesions from camelines, cervines, and wild bovines closely resemble those of domestic bovines. In nonhuman primates, , , and can produce extensive disease involving the parenchyma of the lung as well as extrapulmonary tissues. Recently, there has been increased interest in the isolation of complex serovars 1, 4, and 8 from patients with AIDS and from nonimmunocompromised patients. Some of the same serovars have been isolated from domestic and wild animals. Although has been isolated from environmental specimens (i.e., soil and water), no definitive information on a common source(s) of these bacteria for animals and humans is available.

Citation: Thoen C. 1994. Tuberculosis in Wild and Domestic Mammals, p 157-162. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch11
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1. Cook, J. L. 1992. M. avium, the modern epidemic. Med. Sci. Update 19( 6): l 7.
2. Dankner, W. M.,, N. J. Waecker,, M. A. Essey,, K. Moser,, M. Thompson,, and C. E. Davis. 1993. Mycobacterium bovis infections in San Diego: a clinicoepidemiologic study of 73 patients and a historical review of a forgotten pathogen. Medicine 72: 11 37.
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5. Grange, J. M.,. Human aspects of bovine tuberculosis. In J. M. Steele, and C. O. Thoen (ed.), Bovine Tuberculosis in Animals and Man. Iowa State University Press, Ames, in press.
6. Karlson, A. G. 1960. Tuberculosis caused by human, bovine and avian tubercle bacilli in various animals. Proc. U.S. Livestock Sanitary Assoc. 64: 194 201.
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8. Thoen, C. O., 1993. Tuberculosis and other mycobacterial diseases in captive wild animals, p. 45 49. In M. E. Fowler (ed.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
9. Thoen, C. O. Mycobacterium avium infections in animals. Res. Microbiol., in press.
10. Thoen, C. O.,, and R. Chiodini,. 1993. Mycobacterium, p. 44 56. In C. L. Gyles, and C. O. Thoen (ed.), Pathogenesis of Bacterial Infections in Animals. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
11. Thoen, C. O.,, and E. M. Himes,. 1981. Tuberculosis, p. 263 274. In J. W. Davis,, L. H. Karstad,, and D. O. Trainer (ed.), Infectious Diseases of Captive Wild Mammals, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
12. Thoen, C. O.,, W. J. Quinn,, L. K. Miller,, L. L. Stackhouse,, B. F. Newcomb,, and J. M. Ferrell. 1992. Mycobacterium bovis infection in North American elk (Cervus elephus). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 4: 423 427.
13. Thoen, C. O.,, K. J. Throlson,, L. D. Miller,, E. M. Himes,, and R. L. Morgan. 1988. Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in American bison. Am. J. Vet. Res. 49: 1861 1865.


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Table 1.

Main features of tuberculosis in a variety of species

Citation: Thoen C. 1994. Tuberculosis in Wild and Domestic Mammals, p 157-162. In Bloom B (ed), Tuberculosis. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818357.ch11

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