Chapter 20 : Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States

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During the last 2 decades, evidence has accumulated from Australia and the United States that shows that both of these countries have environmental reservoirs for toxigenic O1. Australia recorded cholera for the first time in 1832, just 15 years after the first pandemic began in India. The association of cholera cases with river water led to extensive studies of rivers in Queensland. New methods that have become more and more capable of reproducibly subtyping O1 strains have been developed. Cholera was first recognized in the United States in June 1832, when it appeared in New York, having crossed the Atlantic soon after its extension from Asia into Europe in 1829. Several factors may contribute to the relative unimportance of oysters in causing cholera in the United States. The new subtyping methods used on the Australian strains have also been applied to strains from the United States. Endemic cholera in Australia and the United States is characterized in both countries by reservoirs in water, hemolytic strains that are unique to each country, occurrence during the summer and fall, and very few detected cases. Although Australia and the United States have the strongest evidence for environmental reservoirs of toxigenic O1, similar reservoirs may exist in many countries.

Citation: Blake P. 1994. Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States, p 309-319. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch20
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Figure 1

Rivers in eastern Australia associated with cholera cases in nine persons, 1977 to 1987.

Citation: Blake P. 1994. Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States, p 309-319. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch20
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Indigenous cases of infection with the Gulf Coast strain of toxigenic O1, United States, 1970 to 1992.

Citation: Blake P. 1994. Endemic Cholera in Australia and the United States, p 309-319. In Wachsmuth I, Blake P, Olsvik Ø (ed), and Cholera. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818364.ch20
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