Chapter 6 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap06-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818388/9781555810535_Chap06-2.gif


This chapter on focuses on the need to draw attention to the progress in developing systems for genetic manipulation in actinomycetes. A significant fraction of this progress has depended on approaches first used in species. Interestingly, the largest open reading frame in IS117 is related to that of members of the IS110 family. There is some evidence that the efficiency of translation initiation may be affected by the nature of the first few codons; changes at these positions from rare codons to synonymous codons common in genes significantly increased expression of the genes in . Surface-grown colonies may be considered as multicellular organisms with several distinct cell types. Nevertheless, most of one's understanding of morphological differentiation comes from genetical work on and . In the course of this chapter, the author has mentioned the occurrence of multiple copies of genes encoding principal; σ-factor homologs and of two quite different genes for glutamine synthase. Major problems in the analysis of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways by traditional biochemical and chemical procedures have been caused by the low concentrations of the pathway enzymes.

Citation: Chater K, Hopwood D. 1993. , p 83-99. In Sonenshein A, Hoch J, Losick R (ed), and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818388.ch6
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Adams, C. W.,, J. A. Fornwald,, F. J. Schmidt,, M. Rosenberg,, and M. E. Brawner. 1988. Gene organization and structure of the Streptomyces lividans gal operan. J. Bacteriol 170: 203 212.
la.. Angeli, S.,, E. Schwarz,, and M. J. Bibb. 1992. The glucose kinase gene of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): its nucleotide sequence, transcriptional analysis and role in glucose repression. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 2833 2844.
2. Baltz, R. H.,, D. R. Hahn,, M. A. McHenney,, and P. J. Solenberg. 1992. Transposition of Tn 5096 and related transposons in Streptomyces species. Gene 115: 61 65.
3. Bar-Nir, D.,, A. Cohen,, and M. E. Goedeke. 1992. tDNA ser sequences are involved in the excision of Streptomyces griseus plasmid pSGl. Gene 122: 71 76.
4. Bascarom, V.,, L. Sanchez,, C. Hardisson,, and A. F. Braña. 1991. Stringent response and initiation of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces clavuligerus. J. Gen. Microbiol. 137: 1625 1634.
5. Behrmann, I.,, D. Hillemann,, A. Pühler,, E. Strauch,, and W. Wohlleben. 1990. Overexpression of Streptomyces viridochromogenes gene (glnII) encoding a glutamine synthetase similar to those of eucaryotes confers resistance against the antibiotic phosphinothricyl-alanyl-alanine. J. Bacteriol. 172: 5326 5334.
6. Beppu, T. 1992. Secondary metabolites as chemical signals for differentiation. Gene 115: 159 165.
7. Bibb, M. J.,, S. Biro,, H. Motamedi,, J. F. Collins,, and C. R. Hutchinson. 1989. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the Streptomyces glaucescens tcmI genes provides key information about the enzymology of polyketide antibiotic biosynthesis. EMBO J. 8: 2727 2736.
8. Bibb, M. J.,, and S. N. Cohen. 1982. Gene expression in Streptomyces: construction and application of promoter-probe plasmid vectors in Streptomyces lividans. Mol. Gen. Genet. 187: 265 277.
9. Bibb, M. J.,, P. R. Findlay,, and M. W. Johnson. 1984. The relationship between base composition and codon usage in bacterial genes and its use for the simple and reliable identification of protein-coding sequences. Gene 30: 157 166.
10. Bibb, M. J.,, and G. R. Janssen,. 1987. Unusual features of transcription and translation of antibiotic resistance genes in two antibiotic-producing Streptomyces species, p. 309 318. In M. Alačević,, D. Hranueli,, and Z. Toman (ed.), Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms, part B. Pliva, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.
11. Bibb, M. J.,, J. M. Ward,, and S. N. Cohen. 1985. Nucleotide sequences encoding and promoting expression of three antibiotic resistance genes indigenous to Streptomyces. Mol. Gen. Genet. 199: 26 36.
12. Birch, A. W.,, and J. Cullum. 1985. Temperature-sensitive mutants of the Streptomyces plasmid pi J702 .J. Gen. Microbiol. 131: 1299 1303.
13.Bolotin, A., and S. Biro. 1989. Nucleotide sequence of the putative regulatory gene and major promoter region of the Streptomyces griseus glycerol operon. Gene 87: 151152.
14. Braña, A. F.,, M. B. Manzanal,, and C. Hardisson. 1980. Occurrence of polysaccharide granules in sporulating hyphae of Streptomyces viridochromogenes. J. Bacteriol. 144: 1139 1142.
15. Brawner, M.,, G. Poste,, M. Rosenberg,, and J. West-pheling. 1991. Streptomyces: a host for heterologous gene expression. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2: 674 681.
16. Brian, P. Personal communication.
17. Brown, D. P.,, K. B. Idler,, and L. Katz. 1990. Characterization of the genetic elements required for site-specific integration of plasmid pSE211 in Saccha-ropolyspora erythraea. J. Bacteriol. 172: 1877 1888.
18. Brown, G. L. Personal communication.
19. Brown, K. L.,, S. Wood,, and M. J. Buttner. 1992. Isolation and characterization of the major vegetative RNA polymerase of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): rena-turation of a sigma subunit using GroEL. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 1133 1139.
20. Bruton, C. J.,, E. P. Guthrie,, and K. F. Chater. 1991. Phage vectors that allow monitoring of secondary metabolism genes in Streptomyces. Bio/Technology 9: 652 656.
21. Burnett, W. W.,, M. Brawner,, D. P. Taylor,, L. R. Fare,, J. Henner,, and T. Eckhardt,. 1985. Cloning and analysis of an exported β-galactosidase and other proteins from Streptomyces lividans, p. 441 444. In L. Lieve (ed.), Microbiology 1985. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
22. Buttner, M. J. 1989. RNA polymerase heterogeneity in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Mol. Microbiol. 3: 1653 1659.
23. Buttner, M. J.,, K. F. Chater,, and M. J. Bibb. 1990. Cloning, disruption and transcriptional analysis of three RNA polymerase sigma factor genes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J. Bacteriol. 172: 3367 3378.
24. Buttner, M. J.,, I. M. Fearnley,, and M. J. Bibb. 1987. The agarase gene (dagA) of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis. Mol. Gen. Genet. 209: 101 109.
25. Buttner, M. J.,, and C. G. Lewis. 1992. Construction and characterisation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) mutants that are multiply deficient in the non-essential hrd-encoded RNA polymerase sigma factors. J. Bacteriol. 174: 5165 5167.
26. Buttner, M. J.,, A. M. Smith,, and M. J. Bibb. 1988. At least three RNA polymerase holoenzymes direct transcription of the agarase gene (dagA) of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Cell 52: 599 607.
27. Caballero, J. L.,, F. Malpartlda,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1991. Transcriptional organization and regulation of an antibiotic export complex in the producing Streptomyces culture. Mol. Gen. Genet. 228: 372 380.
28. Caballero, J. L.,, E. Martinez,, F. Malpartlda,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1991. Organisation and functions of the aciVA region of the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor. Mol. Gen. Genet. 230: 401 412.
29. Calcutt, M. J.,, and F. J. Schmidt. 1992. Conserved gene arrangement in the origin region of the Streptomyces coelicolor chromosome. J. Bacteriol. 174: 3220 3226.
30. Champness, W.,, P. Riggle,, T. Adamidis,, and P. Vander-vere. 1992. Identification of Streptomyces coelicolor genes involved in regulation of antibiotic synthesis. Gene 115: 55 60.
31. Chater, K. F., 1986. Streptomyces phages and their application to Streptomyces genetics, p. 119 158. In S. W. Queener, and L. E. Day (ed.), The Bacteria. A Treatise on Structure and Function, vol. 9. Antibiotic-Producing Streptomyces. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Fla..
32.Chater, K. F. 1989. Multilevel regulation of Streptomyces differentiation. Trends Genet. 5: 372376.
33. Chater, K. F., 1989. Sporulation in Streptomyces, p. 277 299. In I. Smith,, R. A. Slepecky,, and P. Setlow (ed.), Regulation of Procaryotic Development. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
34. Chater, K. F. 1990. The improving prospects for yield increase by genetic engineering in antibiotic-producing streptomycetes. Bio/Technology 8: 115 121.
35. Chater, K. F. 1992. Genetic regulation of secondary metabolic pathways in Streptomyces. CIBA Found. Symp. 171: 144 162.
36. Chater, K. F. 1992. Streptomyces genetics in the 1990s. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 8( Suppl. 1): 18 21.
37. Chater, K. F.,, and C. J. Bruton. 1985. Resistance, regulatory and production genes for the antibiotic rae-thylenomycin are clustered. EMBOJ. 4: 1893 1897.
38. Chater, K. F.,, C. J. Bruton,, K. A. Plaskitt,, M. J. Buttner,, C. Méndez,, and J. Helmann. 1989. The developmental fate of Streptomyces coelicolor hyphae depends crucially on a gene product homologous with the motility sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis. Cell 59: 133 143.
39. Chater, K. F.,, D. J. Henderson,, M. J. Bibb,, and D. A. Hopwood,. 1988. Genome flux in Streptomyces coelicolor and other streptomycetes and its possible relevance to the evolution of mobile antibiotic resistance determinants, p. 7 42. In A. J. Kingsman,, K. F. Chater,, and S. M. Kingsman (ed.). Transposition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
40. Chater, K. F.,, and D. A. Hopwood,. 1984. Streptomyces genetics, p. 229 286. In M. Goodfellow,, M. Mordarski,, and S. T. Williams (ed.). Biology of the Actinomycetes. Academic Press, London.
41. Chater, K. F.,, and D. A. Hopwood,. 1989. Antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces, p. 129 150. In D. A. Hop-wood, and K. F. Chater (ed.), Genetics of Bacterial Diversity. Academic Press, London.
42. Chater, K. F.,, and M. J. Merrick,. 1979. Streptomycetes, p. 93 114. In J. H. Parish (ed.), Developmental Biology of Prokaryotes. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
43. Chinenova, T. A.,, N. M. Mkrtumlan,, and N. D. Lo-movskaya. 1982. Genetic study of a novel phage resistance character in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Genetika 18: 1945 1952.
44. Chung, S. T. 1987. Tn4556, a 6.8 kb transposable element of Streptomyces fradiae. J. Bacteriol. 169: 4436 4441.
45. Chung, S. T. 1989. Transposition of Tn 4556 in Streptomyces. Dev. Ind. Microbiol. 29: 81 88.
46. Coque, J. J. R.,, J. F. Martin,, J. G. Calzada,, and P. Liras. 1991. The cephamycin biosynthetic genes pcbAB, encoding a large multidomain peptide synthetase, and pcbC of Nocardia lactamdurans are clustered together in an organization different from the same genes in Acremonium chrysogenum and Pénicillium chrysogenum. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 1125 1133.
47. Cortes, J.,, S. F. Haydock,, G. A. Roberts,, D. J. Bevitt,, and P. F. Leadlay. 1990. An unusually large multifunctional polypeptide in the erythromycin-producing poly-ketide synthase of Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Nature (London) 348: 176 178.
48. Davis, N. K.,, and K. F. Chater. 1990. Spore colour in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) involves the developmen-tally regulated synthesis of a compound biosyntheti-cally related to polyketide antibiotics. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 1679 1691.
49. Davis, N. K.,, and K. F. Chater. 1992. The Streptomyces coelicolor whiB gene encodes a small transcription factor-like protein dispensable for growth but essential for sporulation. Mol. Gen. Genet. 232: 351 358.
50. Delić, I.,, P. Robblns,, and J. Westpheling 1992. Direct repeat sequences are implicated in the regulation of two Streptomyces chitinase promoters that are subject to carbon catabolite control. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 1885 1889.
51. Deng, Z.,, T. Kieser,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1987. Activity of a Streptomyces transcriptional terminator in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 15: 2665 2675.
52. Deng, Z.,, T. Kieser,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1988. "Strong incompatibility" between derivatives of the Streptomyces multi-copy plasmid pIJlOl. Mol. Gen. Genet. 214: 286 294.
53. Dijkhuizen, L. Personal communication.
54. Distier, J.,, C. Braun,, A. Ebert,, and W. Piepersberg. 1987. Gene cluster for streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus: analysis of a central region including the major resistance gene. Mol. Gen. Genet. 208: 204 210.
55. Distler, J.,, K. Mansouri,, G. Mayer,, M. Stockmann,, and W. Piepersberg. 1992. Streptomycin biosynthesis and its regulation in streptomycetes. Gene 115: 105 111.
56. Donadlo, S.,, M. J. Staver,, J. B. McAlpine,, S. J. Swanson,, and L. Katz. 1991. Modular organization of genes required for complex polyketide biosynthesis. Science 252: 675 679.
57. Dyson, P.,, and H. Schrempf. 1987. Genetic instability and DNA amplification in Streptomyces lividans 66. J. Bacteriol. 169: 4796 4803.
58. Farkašovský, M.,, J. Kormanec,, and M. Kollárová. 1991. RNA polymerase heterogeneity in Streptomyces aureofaciens; characterization by antibody-linked polymerase assay. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 90: 57 62.
59. Fernández-Moreno, M. A.,, J. L. Caballero,, D. A. Hopwood,, and F. Malpartida. 1991. The act cluster contains regulatory and antibiotic export genes, direct targets for translational control by the bldA tRNA gene of Streptomyces. Cell 66: 769 780.
60.F ernández-Moreno, M. A.,, E. Martínez,, L. Boto,, D. A. Hopwood,, and F. Malpartida. 1992. Nucleotide sequence and deduced functions of a set of co-transcribed genes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) including the polyketide synthase for the antibiotic actinorhodin. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 19278 19290.
61. Fernández-Moreno, M. A.,, A. J. Martin-Trlana,, E. Martínez,, J. Niemi,, H. M. Kieser,, D. A. Hopwood,, and F. Malpartida. 1992. abaA, a new pleiotropic regulatory locus for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor. J. Bacteriol. 174: 2958 2967.
62. Fisher, S. H. 1992. Glutamine synthesis in Streptomyces—a review. Gene 115: 13 17.
63. Fishman, S. E.,, K. Cox,, J. L. Larson,, P. A. Reynolds,, E. T. Seno,, W.-K. Yeh,, R. van Frank,, and C. L. Hersh-berger. 1987. Cloning genes for the biosynthesis of a macrolide antibiotic. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 8248 8252.
64. Flett, F.,, and J. Cullum. 1987. DNA deletions in spontaneous chloramphenicol-sensitive mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces lividans 66. Mol. Gen. Genet. 207: 499 502.
65. Foor, F.,, and N. Morin. 1990. Construction of a shuttle vector consisting of the Escherichia coli plasmid pACYC177 inserted into the Streptomyces cattleya phage TGI. Gene 94: 109 113.
66. Foreman, M.,, B. Haggstrom,, L. Lindgren,, and B. Jaurin. 1990. Molecular analysis of β-lactamases from four species of Streptomyces: comparison of amino acid sequences with those of other β-lactamases. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136: 589 598.
67. Gold, L.,, and G. Stormo,. 1987. Translational initiation, p. 1302 1307. In F. C. Neidhardt,, J. L. Ingraham,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Cellular and Molecular Biology, vol. 2. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
68. Goodfellow, M.,, and T. Cross,. 1984. Classification, p. 7 164. In M. Goodfellow,, M. Mordarski, and S. T. Williams (ed.), The Biology of the Actinomycetes. Academic Press, London.
69. Gormley, E. P.,, and J. Davies. 1991. Transfer of plasmid RSF1010 by conjugation from Escherichia coli to Streptomyces lividans and Mycobacterium smegmatis. J. Bacteriol 173: 6705 6708.
70. Gramajo, H.,, E. Takano,, and M. J. Bibb. Stationary phase production of the antibiotic actinorhodin is transcriptionally regulated. Mol. Microbiol, in press.
71. Gramajo, H. C.,, J. White,, C. R. Hutchinson,, and M. J. Bibb. 1991. Overproduction and localization of components of the polyketide synthase of Streptomyces glaucescens involved in the production of the antibiotic tetracenomycin C. J. Bacteriol. 173: 6475 6483.
72. Green, E. P.,, M. L. V. Tizard,, M. T. Moss,, J. Thompson,, D. J. Winterbourne,, J. J. McFadden,, and J. Hermon-Taylor. 1989. Sequence and characteristics of IS900, an insertion element identified in a human Crohn?s disease isolate of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 9063 9073.
73. Guglielmi, G.,, P. Mazodier,, C. J. Thompson,, and J. Davies. 1991. A survey of the heat shock response in four Streptomyces species reveals two graEL-like genes and three GroEL-like proteins in Streptomyces albus. J. Bacteriol. 173: 7374 7381.
74. Guijarro, J.,, R. Santamaría,, A. Schauer,, and R. Losick. 1988. Promoter determining the timing and spatial localization of transcription of a cloned Streptomyces coelicolor gene encoding a spore-associated polypeptide. J. Bacteriol 170: 1895 1901.
75. Guilfoile, P. G.,, and C. R. Hutchinson. 1992. Sequence and transcriptional analysis of the Streptomyces glaucescens tcmAR tetracenomycin C resistance and repressor gene loci. J. Bacteriol. 174: 3651 3658.
76. Hahn, D. R.,, M. A. McHenney,, and R. H. Baltz. 1991. Properties of the streptomycete temperate bacteriophage FP43. J. Bacteriol. 173: 3770 3775.
77. Hallam, S. E.,, F. Malpartida,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1988. DNA sequence, transcription and deduced function of a gene involved in polyketide antibiotic synthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor. Gene 74: 305 320.
78. Hara, O.,, S. Horinouchi,, T. Uozumi,, and T. Beppu. 1983. Genetic analysis of A-factor synthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces griseus. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129: 2939 2944.
79. Harasym, M.,, L.-H. Zhang,, K. Chater,, and J. Piret. 1990. The Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) bldB region contains at least two genes involved in morphological development. J. Gen. Microbiol 136: 1543 1550.
80. Hasegawa, M. 1992. A novel, highly efficient gene-cloning system in Micromonospora applied to the genetic analysis of fortimicin biosynthesis. Gene 115: 85 91.
81. Háusler, A.,, A. Birch,, W. Krek,, J. Piret,, and R. Hütter. 1989. Heterogeneous genomic amplification in Streptomyces glaucescens: structure, location and junction sequence analysis. Mol Gen. Genet. 217: 437 446.
82. Haydock, S. F.,, J. A. Dowson,, N. Dhillon,, G. A. Roberts,, J. Cortes,, and P. F. Leadlay. 1991. Cloning and sequence analysis of genes involved in erythromycin biosynthesis in Saccharopolyspora erythraea: sequence similarities between EryG and a family of S-adenosyl-methionine-dependent methyltransferases. Mol. Gen. Genet. 230: 120 128.
83. Helmann, J. D. 1991. Alternative sigma factors and the control of flagellar gene expression. Mol Microbiol. 5: 2875 2882.
84. Henderson, D. J.,, D.-F. Brolle,, T. Kieser,, R. E. Melton,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1990. Transposition of IS117 (the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) mini-circle) to and from a cloned target site and into secondary chromosomal sites. Mol. Gen. Genet. 224: 65 71.
85. Henderson, D. J.,, D. J. Lydiate,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1989. Structural and functional analysis of the mini-circle, a transposable element of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Mol. Microbiol. 10: 1307 1318.
86. Henderson, G.,, P. Krygsman,, C. J. Lu, C. C. Davey, and L. T. Malek. 1987. Characterization and structure of genes for proteases A and B from Streptomyces griseus. J. Bacteriol. 169: 3778 3784.
86a.. Hershberger, C. L.,, B. Arnold,, J. Larson,, P. Skatrud,, P. Reynolds,, P. Szoke,, P. R. Rosteck, Jr, Jr.,, J. Swartling,, and G. McGilvray,. 1989. Role of giant linear plasmids in the biosynthesis of macrolide and polyketide antibiotics, p. 147 155. In C. L. Hershberger,, S. W. Queener,, and G. Hegeman (ed.), Genetics and Molecular Biology of Industrial Microorganisms. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
87. Hirochika, H.,, K. Nakamura,, and K. Sakaguchi. 1984. A linear DNA plasmid from Streptomyces rochet with an inverted terminal repetition of 614 base pairs. EMBO J. 3: 761 766.
88. Hodgson, D. A. 1980. Carbohydrate utilization in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Ph.D. thesis. University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
89. Hodgson, D. A., 1992. Differentiation in actinomycetes, p. 407 440. In S. Mohan,, C. Dow,, and J. A. Cole (ed.), Prokaryotic Structure and Function: a New Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
90. Hodgson, D. A. Personal communication.
91. Holt, T. G.,, C. Chang,, C. Laurent-Winter,, T. Murakami,, J. I. Garrells,, J. E. Davies,, and C. J. Thompson. 1992. Global changes in gene expression related to antibiotic biosynthesis in Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 969 980.
92. Hood, D. W.,, R. Heidstra,, U. K. Swoboda,, and D. A. Hodgson. 1992. Molecular genetic analysis of proline and tryptophan biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): interaction between primary and secondary metabolism—a review. Gene 115: 5 12.
93. Hopwood, D. A. 1967. Genetic analysis and genome structure in Streptomyces coelicolor. Bacteriol. Rev. 31: 373 403.
94. Hopwood, D. A. 1981. Genetic studies with bacterial protoplasts. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 35: 237 272.
95. Hopwood, D.A. 1988. Towards an understanding of gene switching in Streptomyces, the basis of sporulation and antibiotic production. The Leeuwenhoek Lecture, 1987. Proc. R. Soc. B 235: 121 138.
96. Hopwood, D. A.,, M. J. Bibb,, K. F. Chater,, T. Kieser,, C. J. Bruton,, H. M. Kieser,, D. J. Lydiate,, C. P. Smith,, J. M. Ward,, and H. Schrempf. 1985. Genetic Manipulation of Streptomyces. A Laboratory Manual. John Innes Foundation, Norwich, United Kingdom.
97. Hopwood, D. A.,, M. J. Bibb,, T. Kieser,, and K. F. Chater. 1987. Plasmid and phage vectors for gene cloning and analysis in Streptomyces. Methods Enzymol. 153: 116 166.
98. Hopwood, D. A.,, and C. Khosla. 1992. Genes for polyketide secondary metabolic pathways in microorganisms and plants. CIBA Found. Symp. 171: 88 112.
99. Hopwood, D. A.,, and T. Kieser,. 1990. The Streptomyces genome, p. 147 162. In K. Drlica, and M. Riley (ed.), The Bacterial Chromosome. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
100. Hopwood, D. A.,, and T. Kieser,. Conjugative plasmids of Streptomyces. In D. B. Clewell (ed.), Bacterial Conjugation, in press. Plenum Press, New York.
101. Hopwood, D. A.,, T. Kieser,, D. J. Lydiate,, and M. J. Bibb,. 1986. Streptomyces plasmids: their biology and use as cloning vectors, p. 159 229. In S. W. Queener, and L. E. Day (ed.), The Bacteria. A Treatise on Structure and Function. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Fla..
102. Hopwood, D. A.,, T. Kieser,, H. M. Wright,, and M. J. Bibb. 1983. Plasmids, recombination and chromosome mapping in Streptomyces lividans 66. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129: 2257 2269.
103. Hopwood, D. A.,, D. J. Lydiate,, F. Malpartida,, and H. M. Wright,. 1984. Conjugative plasmids in Streptomyces, p. 615 634. In D. Helinski,, S. N. Cohen,, D. B. Clewell,, D. A. Jackson,, and A. Hollaender (éd.), Plasmids in Bacteria. Plenum Press, New York.
104. Hopwood, D. A.,, and D. H. Sherman. 1990. Molecular genetics of polyketides and its comparison to fatty acid biosynthesis. Annu. Rev. Genet. 24: 37 66.
105. Hopwood, D. A.,, and H. M. Wright. 1978. Bacterial protoplast fusion: recombination in fused protoplasts of Streptomyces coelicolor. Mol. Gen. Genet. 162: 307 317.
106. Horinouchi, S.,, and T. Beppu,. 1987. A-factor and regulatory network that links secondary metabolism with cell differentiation in Streptomyces, p. 41 48. In M. Alacevié,, D. Hranueli,, and Z. Toman (ed.), Proceedings of Fifth International Symposium on the Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms. Pliva, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.
107. Horinouchi, S.,, and T. Beppu. 1992. Regulation of secondary metabolism and cell differentiation in Streptomyces: A-factor as a microbial hormone and the AfsR protein as a component of a two-component regulatory system. Gene 115: 167 172.
108. Horinouchi, S., O. Hara, and T. Beppu. 1983. Cloning of a pleiotropic gene that positively controls biosynthesis of A-factor, actinorhodin and prodigiosin in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces lividans. J. Bacteriol. 155: 1238 1248.
109. Horinouchi, S.,, M. Kito,, M. Nishiyama,, K. Furuya,, S.-K. Hong,, K. Miyake,, and T. Beppu. 1990. Primary structure of AsfR, a global regulatory protein for secondary metabolite formation in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Gene 95: 49 56.
110. Horinouchi, S.,, H. Suzuki,, M. Nishiyama,, and T. Beppu. 1989. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of the Streptomyces griseus gene (afsA) responsible for A-factor biosynthesis. J. Bacteriol. 171: 1206 1210.
111. Hranueli, D.,, J. Pigac,, T. Smokvina,, and M. Alacevié. 1983. Genetic interactions in Streptomyces rimosus mediated by conjugation and by protoplast fusion. J. Gen. Microbiol. 129: 1415 1422.
112. Hunter, I. S. Personal communication.
113. Hunter, I. S.,, and E. J. Friend. 1984. ‘Restriction-deficient’ mutants of industrial Streptomyces. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 12: 643 644.
114. Hutchinson, C. R. Personal communication.
115. Hütter, R.,, and T. Eckhardt,. 1988. Genetic manipulation, p. 89 184. In M. Goodfellow,, S. T. Williams,, and M. Mordarski (ed.), Actinomycetes in Biotechnology. Academic Press, London.
116. Ingram, C.,, M. Brawner,, P. Youngman,, and J. Westpheling. 1989. xylE functions as an efficient reporter gene in Streptomyces spp: use for the study of galPl, a catabolite-controlled promoter. J. Bacteriol. 171: 6617 6624.
117. Ishizuka, H.,, S. Horinouchi,, H. M. Kieser,, D. A. Hopwood,, and T. Beppu. 1992. A putative two-component regulatory system involved in secondary metabolism in Streptomyces spp. J. Bacteriol. 174: 7585 7594.
118. Jaurin, B.,, and S. N. Cohen. 1984. Streptomyces lividans RNA polymerase recognizes and uses Escherichia coli transcription signals. Gene 28: 83 91.
119. Jones, G. H. 1979. Purification of RNA polymerase from actinomycin producing and nonproducing cells of Streptomyces antibioticus. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 198: 195 204.
120. Jones, R. L.,, J. C. Jaskula,, and G. R. Janssen. 1992. In vivo translational start site selection on leaderless mRNA transcribed from the Streptomyces fradiae aph gene. J. Bacteriol. 174: 4753 4760.
121. Kataoka, M.,, T. Seki,, and T. Yoshida. 1991. Five genes involved in self-transmission of pSN22, a Streptomyces plasmid. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4220 4228.
122. Kataoka, M.,, T. Seki,, and T. Yoshida. 1991. Regulation and function of the Streptomyces plasmid pSN22 genes involved in pock formation and inviability. J. Bacteriol. 173: 7975 7981.
123. Kendall, K. J.,, and S. N. Cohen. 1988. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJlOl and correlation of the sequence with genetic properties. J. Bacteriol. 170: 4634 4651.
124. Khokhlov, A. S.,, L. N. Anisova,, I. I. Tovarova,, I. Y. Kleiner,, I. V. Kovalenko,, O. I. Krasilnikova,, E. Y. Kornitskaya,, and S. A. Pliner. 1973. Effect of A-factor on the growth of asporogenous mutants of Streptomyces griseus, not producing this factor. Z. Allg. Mikrobiol. 13: 647 655.
125. Khosla, C.,, S. Ebert-Khosla,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1992. Targeted gene replacements in a Streptomyces polyketide synthase gene cluster: role for the acyl carrier protein. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 3237 3249.
126. Kieser, H. M.,, T. Kieser,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1992. A combined genetic and physical map of the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) chromosome. J. Bacteriol. 174: 5496 5507.
127. Kieser, T.,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1991. Genetic manipulation of Streptomyces: integrating vectors and gene replacement. Methods Enzymol. 204: 430 458.
128. Kinashi, H.,, and M. Shimaji. 1987. Detection of giant linear plasmids in antibiotic producing strains of Streptomyces by the OFAGE technique. J. Antibiot. 40: 913 916.
129. Kinashi, H.,, and M. Shimaji-Murayama. 1991. Physical characterization of SCP1, a giant linear plasmid from Streptomyces coelicolor. J. Bacteriol. 173: 1523 1529.
130. Kinashi, H.,, M. Shimaji-Murayama,, and T. Hanafusa. 1992. Integration of SCP1, a giant linear plasmid, into the Streptomyces coelicolor chromosome. Gene 115: 35 41.
131. King, A. A.,, and K. F. Chater. 1986. The expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene in Streptomyces. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132: 1739 1752.
132. Kobler, L.,, G. Schwertfirm,, H. Schmleger,, A. Bolotin,, and I. Sladkova. 1991. Construction and transduction of a shuttle vector bearing the cos site of Streptomyces phage 0C31 and determination of its cohesive ends. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 78: 347 354.
133. Keller, K.-P.,, and G. Reiss. 1989. Heterologous expression of the α-amylase inhibitor gene cloned from an amplified genomic sequence of Streptomyces tendae. J. Bacteriol. 171: 4953 4957.
134. Kormanec, J.,, M. Farkasovsky,, and L. Potúeková. 1992. Four genes in Streptomyces aureofaciens containing a domain characteristic of principal sigma factors. Gene 122: 63 70.
135. Kretschmer, S. 1987. Nucleotide segregation pattern during branching in Streptomyces granaticolor mycelia. J. Basic Microbiol. 27: 203 206.
136. Kretschmer, S.,, and C. Kummer. 1987. Increase of nucleoid size with increasing age of hyphal region in vegetative mycelia of Streptomyces granaticolor. J. Basic Microbiol. 27: 23 27.
137. Kroening, T. A.,, and K. E. Kendrick. 1987. In vivo regulation of histidine ammonia-lyase activity from Streptomyces griseus. J. Bacteriol. 169: 823 829.
138. Kuhstoss, S.,, and R. N. Rao. 1991. Analysis of the integration function of the streptomycete bacteriophage øC31. J. Mol. Biol. 222: 897 908.
139. Kuhstoss, S.,, M. A. Richardson,, and R. N. Rao. 1991. Plasmid vectors that integrate site-specifically in Streptomyces spp. Gene 97: 143 146.
140. Kumada, Y.,, E. Takano,, K. Nagaoka,, and C. J. Thompson. 1990. Streptomyces hygroscopicus has two glutamine synthetase genes. J. Bacteriol. 172: 5343 5351.
141. Kunze, Z. M.,, S. Wall,, R. Appelberg,, M. T. Silva,, F. Portaels,, and J. J. McFadden. 1991. IS 901, a new member of a widespread class of atypical insertion sequences, is associated with pathogenicity in Mycobacterium avium. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 2265 2272.
142. Lawlor, E. J.,, H. A. Baylls,, and K. F. Chater. 1987. Pleiotropic morphological and antibiotic deficiencies result from mutations in a gene encoding a tRNA-like product in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Genes Dev. 1: 1305 1310.
143. Leblond, P.,, P. Demuyter,, J. M. Simonet,, and B. Decaris. 1990. Genetic instability and hypervariability in Streptomyces ambofaciens: towards an understanding of a mechanism of genome plasticity. Mol. Microbiol. 4: 707 714.
144. Leblond, P.,, P. Demuyter,, J.-M. Simonet,, and B. Decaris. 1991. Genetic instability and associated genome plasticity in Streptomyces ambofaciens: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis evidence for large DNA alterations in a limited genomic region. J. Bacteriol. 173: 4229 4233.
145. Leblond, P.,, F. X. Francou,, J.-M. Simonet,, and B. Decaris. 1990. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the genome of Streptomyces ambofaciens strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 72: 79 88.
146. Leskiw, B. K. Personal communication.
147. Leskiw, B. K.,, M. J. Bibb,, and K. F. Chater. 1991. The use of a rare codon specifically during development? Mol. Microbiol. 5: 2861 2867.
148. Leskiw, B. K.,, E. J. Lawlor,, J. M. Fernandez-Abalos,, and K. F. Chater. 1991. TTA codons in some genes prevent their expression in a class of developmental, antibiotic-negative Streptomyces mutants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 2461 2465.
149. Leskiw, B. K.,, M. Mevarech,, L. S. Barritt,, S. E. Jensen,, D. J. Henderson,, D. A. Hopwood,, C. J. Bruton,, and K. F. Chater. 1990. Discovery of an insertion sequence, IS 116, from Streptomyces clavuligerus and its related-ness to other transposable elements from actinomycetes. J. Gen. Microbiol. 136: 1251 1258.
150. Lomovskaya, N. D. Personal communication.
151. Lydiate, D. J.,, H. Ikeda,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1986. A2.6 kb DNA sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) which functions as a transposable element. Mol. Gen. Genet. 203: 79 88.
152. MacNeil, D. J. 1988. Characterization of a unique methyl-specific restriction system in Streptomyces avermitilis. J. Bacteriol. 170: 5607 5612.
153. MacNeil, D. J.,, J. L. Occi,, K. M. Gewain,, T. MacNeil,, P. H. Gibbons,, C. L. Ruby,, and S. J. Danis. 1992. Complex organization of the Streptomyces avermitilis genes encoding the avermectin polyketide synthase. Gene 115: 119 125.
154. Madon, J.,, and R. Hütter. 1991. Transformation system for Amycolatopsis (Nocardia) mediterranei: direct transformation of mycelium with plasmid DNA. J. Bacteriol. 173: 6325 6331.
155. Malpartlda, F. Personal communication.
156. Malpartlda, F.,, J. Niemi,, R. Navarrete,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1990. Cloning and expression in a heterologous host of the complete set of genes for biosynthesis of the Streptomyces coelicolor antibiotic undecylprodigi-osin. Gene 93: 91 99.
157. Martin, J. F.,, and A. L. Demain. 1980. Control of antibiotic synthesis. Microbiol. Rev. 44: 230 251.
158. Martin, J. F.,, and P. Liras. 1989. Organization and expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 43: 173 206.
159. Martinez, E.,, M. A. Fernández-Moreno,, J. L. Caballero,, D. A. Hopwood,, and F. Malpartlda. Unpublished data.
160. Matsushima, P.,, K. L. Cox,, and R. H. Baltz. 1987. Highly transformable mutants of Streptomyces fradiae defective in several restriction systems. Mol. Gen. Genet. 206: 393 400.
161. Mazodier, P.,, G. Guglielmi,, J. Davles,, and C. J. Thompson. 1992. Characterization of the gro£Z.-like genes in Streptomyces albus. J. Bacteriol. 173: 7382 7386.
162. Mazodier, P.,, R. Petter,, and C. Thompson. 1989. Inter-generic conjugation between Escherichia coli and Streptomyces species. J. Bacteriol. 171: 3583 3585.
163. Mazodier, P.,, C. Thompson,, and F. Boccard. 1990. The chromosomal integration site of the Streptomyces element pSAM2 overlaps a putative tRNA gene conserved among actinomycetes. Mol. Gen. Genet. 222: 431 434.
164. McCarthy, A. J.,, and S. T. Williams. 1992. Actinomycetes as agents of biodégradation in the environment—a review. Gene 115: 189 192.
165. McCormick, J. Personal communication.
166. McCue, L. A.,, J. Kwak,, M. J. Babcock,, and K. E. Kendrick. 1992. Molecular analysis of sporulation in Streptomyces griseus. Gene 115: 173 179.
167. McDowall, K. J.,, D. Doyle,, M. J. Butler,, C. Blnnie,, M. Warren,, and I. S. Hunter,. 1991. Molecular genetics of oxytetracycline production by Streptomyces rimosus, p. 105 116. In D. Noack,, H. Kriigel,, and S. Baumberg (ed.), Genetics and Product Formation in Streptomyces. Plenum Press, New York.
168. McHenney, M. A.,, and R. H. Baltz. 1988. Transduction of plasmid DNA in Streptomyces spp. and related genera by bacteriophage FP43. J. Bacteriol. 170: 2276 2282.
169. McLaughlin, J. R.,, C. L. Murray,, and J. C. Rabinowitz. 1981. Unique features of the ribosome binding site of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus β-lactamase gene. J. Biol. Chem. 256: 11283 11291.
170. McVittie, A. M. 1974. Ultrastructural studies on sporulation in wild-type and white colony mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor. J. Gen. Microbiol. 81: 291 302.
171. Miyake, K.,, T. Kuzuyama,, S. Horinouchi,, and T. Beppu. 1990. The A-factor-binding protein of Streptomyces griseus negatively controls streptomycin production and sporulation. J. Bacteriol. 172: 3003 3008.
172. Morino, T.,, K. Takagi,, T. Nakamura,, T. Takita,, H. Saito,, and H. Takahashi. 1986. Studies of cosmid transduction in Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces parvulus. Agrie. Biol. Chem. 50: 2493 2497.
173. Muth, G.,, B. Nussbaumer,, W. Wohlleben,, and A. Püh-ler. 1989. A vector system with temperature-sensitive replication for gene disruption and mutational cloning in streptomycetes. Mol. Gen. Genet. 219: 341 348.
174. Nagaso, H.,, S. Saito,, H. Saito,, and H. Takashashi. 1988. Nucleotide sequence and expression of a Streptomyces griseosporus proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitor (Haimll) gene. J. Bacteriol. 170: 4451 4457.
175. Neal, R. J.,, and K. F. Chater. 1991. Bidirectional promoter and terminator regions bracket mmr, a resistance gene embedded in the Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) gene cluster encoding methylenomycin production. Gene 100: 75 83.
176. Novotna, J.,, and Z. Hostálék. 1985. Phosphorylation of hexoses in Streptomyces aureofaciens: evidence that the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system is not operative. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 28: 347 350.
177. Ochi, K. 1987. Metabolic initiation of differentiation and secondary metabolism by Streptomyces griseus: significance of the stringent response (ppGpp) and GTP content in relation to A-factor. J. Bacteriol. 169: 3608 3616.
178. Ogata, S.,, H. Suenaga,, Y. Koyama-Miyoshi,, and S. Hayashida. 1984. Cloning of the his gene of Streptomyces azureus in temperate phage SAtl. J. Gen. Appi. Microbiol 30: 405 409.
179. O'Hagan, D. 1991. The Polyketide Metabolites . Ellis Hor-wood, Chichester, United Kingdom.
180. Okamoto, S.,, T. Nlhlra,, H. Kataoka,, A. Suzuki,, and Y. Yamada. 1992. Purification and molecular cloning of a butyrolactone autoregulator receptor from Streptomyces Virginias. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 1093 1098.
181. Plaskitt, K. A. Personal communication".
182. Plohl, M.,, and V. Gamulin. 1990. Five transfer RNA genes lacking CCA termini are clustered in the chromosome of Streptomyces rimosus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 222: 129 134.
183. Puglia, A. M. Personal communication.
184. Rao, R. N.,, M. A. Richardson,, and S. Kuhstoss. 1987. Cosmid shuttle vectors for cloning and analysis of Streptomyces DNA. Methods Enzymol. 153: 166 198.
185. Reiter, W. D.,, P. Palm,, and S. Yeats. 1989. Transfer RNA genes frequently serve as integration sites for prokaryotic genetic elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 17: 1907 1914.
186. Robinson, J. 1991. Polyketide synthase complexes: their structure and function in antibiotic biosynthesis. Proc. R. Soc. B 332: 107 114.
187. Rodicio, M. R.,, M. A. Alvarez,, and K. F. Chater. 1991. Isolation and genetic analysis of IS 112, an insertion sequence responsible for the inactivation of the Sail restriction-modification system of Streptomyces albus G. Mol. Gen. Genet. 225: 142 147.
188. Saier, M. H. 1985. Mechanism and Regulation of Carbohydrate Transport in Bacteria. Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, Fla..
189. Schauer, A. T.,, A. D. Nelson,, and J. B. Daniel. 1991. Tn4563 transposition in Streptomyces coelicolor and its application to isolation of new morphological mutants. J. Bacteriol. 173: 5060 5067.
190. Sedlmeier, R.,, and H. Schmieger,. 1991. tRNA genes in Streptomyces lividans: structure, organisation and construction of suppressor tRNA, p. 65 73. In S. Baum-berg,, H. Krügel,, and D. Noack (ed.), Genetics and Product Formation in Streptomyces. Plenum Press, New York.
191. Seno, E. T.,, and R. H. Baltz,. 1989. Structural organization and regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis and resistance genes in actinomycetes, p. 1 48. In S. Shapiro (ed.). Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Actinomycetes. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Fla..
192. Seno, E. T.,, and K. F. Chater. 1983. Glycerol catabolism enzymes and their regulation in wild-type and mutant strains of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J. Gen. Microbiol. 129: 1403 1413.
193. Sherman, D. H.,, F. Malpartida,, M. J. Bibb,, H. M. Kieser,, M. J. Bibb,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1989. Structure and deduced function of the granaticin-producing polyketide synthase gene cluster of Streptomyces violaceoruber Tü22. EMBOJ. 8: 2717 2725.
194. Shiina, T.,, K. Tanaka,, and H. Takahashi. 1991. Sequence of hrdB, an essential gene encoding sigma-like transcription factor of Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2): homology to principal sigma factors. Gene 107: 145 148.
195. Siemieniak, D. R.,, J. L. Slightom,, and S. T. Chung. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of Streptomyces fradiae transposon TN 4556: a class II transposon related to Tn3. Gene 86: 1 9.
196. Simonet, J.-M.,, D. Schneider,, J.-N. Volff,, A. Darym,, and B. Decaris. 1992. Genetic instability in Streptomyces ambofaciens: Inducibility and associated genome plasticity. Gene 115: 49 54.
197. Smith, C. P.,, and K. F. Chater. 1988. Structure and regulation of controlling sequences for the Streptomyces coelicolor glycerol operon. J. Mol. Biol. 204: 569 580.
198. Smith, C. P.,, and K. F. Chater. 1988. Cloning and transcription analysis of the entire glycerol utilization (gylABX) operon of Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) and identification of a closely associated transcription unit. Mol. Gen. Genet. 211: 129 137.
199. Smith, D. J.,, M. K. R. Burnham,, J. H. Bull,, J. E. Hodgson,, J. M. Ward,, P. Browne,, J. Brown,, B. Barton,, A. J. Earl,, and G. W. Turner. 1992. β-Lactam antibiotic biosynthetic genes have been conserved in clusters in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. EMBO J. 9: 741 747.
200. Smith, M. C. M.,, C. J. Ingham,, C. E. Owen,, and N. T. Wood. 1992. Gene expression in the temperate Streptomyces phage (C31. Gene 115: 43 48.
201. Sohaskey, C. D.,, H. Im,, A. D. Nelson,, and A. T. Schauer. 1992. Tn .4556 and luciferase: synergistic tools for visualizing transcription in Streptomyces. Gene 115: 67 71.
202. Solenberg, P. J.,, and R. H. Baltz. 1991. Transposition of Tn 5096 and other IS 493 derivatives in Streptomyces griseofuscus. J. Bacteriol. 173: 1096 1104.
203. Soliveri, J.,, K. L. Brown,, M. J. Buttner,, and K. F. Chater. 1992. Two promoters for the whiB sporulation gene of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and their activities in relation to development. J. Bacteriol. 174: 6215 6220.
204. Sosio, M.,, J. Madon,, and R. Hütter. 1989. Excision of pIJ408 from the chromosome of Streptomyces glaucescens and its transfer to Streptomyces lividans. Mol. Gen. Genet. 218: 169 176.
205. Stein, D.,, and S. N. Cohen. 1989. A cloned regulatory gene of Streptomyces lividans can suppress the pigment deficiency phenotype of different developmental mutants. J. Bacteriol. 171: 2258 2261.
206. Stein, D. S.,, K. J. Kendall,, and S. N. Cohen. 1989. Identification and analysis of transcriptional regulatory signals for the kil and kor loci of Streptomyces plasmid pIJl0l. J. Bacteriol. 171: 5768 5775.
207. Stover, C. K.,, V. F. dela Cruz,, T. R. Fuerst,, J. E. Burlein,, L. A. Benson,, L. T. Bennett,, G. P. Bansal,, J. F. Young,, M. H. Lee,, G. F. Hatfull,, S. B. Snapper,, R. G. Garletta,, W. R. Jacobs, Jr.,, and B. R. Bloom. 1991. New use of BCG for recombinant vaccines. Nature 351(London): 456 460.
208. Strauch, E.,, E. Takano,, H. Baylis,, and M. J. Bibb. 1991. The stringent response in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Mol. Microbiol. 5: 289 298.
209. Strickler, J. E.,, T. M. Berka,, J. Gorniak,, J. Fornwald,, R. Keys,, J. J. Rowland,, M. Rosenberg,, and D. P. Taylor. 1992. Two novel Streptomyces protein protease inhibitors: purification, activity, cloning and expression. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 3236 3241.
210. Strohl, W. R. 1992. Compilation and analysis of DNA sequences associated with apparent streptomycete promoters. Nucleic Acids Res. 5: 961 974.
211. Stuttard, C., 1989. Generalized transduction in Streptomyces species, p. 157 162. In C. L. Hershberger,, S. W. Queener,, and G. Hegeman (ed.), Genetics and Molecular Biology of Industrial Microorganisms. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
212. Stuttard, C. Personal communication.
213. Summers, R. G.,, E. Wendt-Pienkowski,, H. Motamedi,, and C. R. Hutchinson. 1992. Nucleotide sequence of the tcmII-tcmIV region of the tetracenomycin ? biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces glaucescens and evidence that the tcmN gene encodes a multifunctional cyclase-dehydratase- O-methyl transferase. J. Bacteriol. 174: 1810 1820.
214. Taguchi, S. 1992. Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor: genetical characterization and its application. Actinomycetologica 6: 9 20.
215. Takahashi, H.,, T. Isogai,, T. Morino,, H. Kojima,, and H. Saito,. 1982. Development of phage vector systems in Streptomyces, p. 61 65. In Y. Ikeda, and T. Beppu (ed.), Proceedings of the IVth International Symposium on Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms, 1982. Kodansha, Tokyo.
216. Tan, H. 1991. Molecular genetics of developmentally regulated promoters in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Ph.D. thesis, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
217. Tanaka, K.,, T. Shilna,, and H. Takahashi. 1988. Multiple principal sigma factor homologs in eubacteria: identification of the "rpoD box." Science 242: 1040 1042.
218. Tanaka, K.,, T. Shiina,, and H. Takahashi. 1991. Nucleotide sequence of genes hrdA, hrdC and hrdD from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) having similarity to rpoD genes. Mol. Gen. Genet. 229: 234 240.
219. Urabe, H.,, and H. Ogawara. 1992. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional analysis of activator-regulator proteins for β-lactamase in Streptomyces cacaoi. J. Bacteriol. 174: 2834 2842.
220. Vats-Mehta, S.,, P. Bouvrette,, F. Shareck,, R. Morosoli,, and D. Kluepfel. 1990. Cloning of a second xylanase-encoding gene of Streptomyces lividans 66. Gene 86: 119 122.
221. Virolle, M. J.,, and M. J. Bibb. 1988. Cloning, characterization and regulation of an α-amylase gene from Streptomyces limosus. Mol. Microbiol. 2: 197 208.
222. Vujaklija, D.,, K. Ueda,, S.-K. Hong,, T. Beppu,, and S. Horinouchi. 1991. Identification of an A-factor-dependent promoter in the streptomycin biosynthetic cluster of Streptomyces griseus. Mol. Gen. Genet. 229: 119 128.
223. Wang, P.,, S. S. Harvey,, P. F. G. Sims,, and P. Broda. The construction of Streptomyces cyaneus genomic libraries in Escherichia coli is dependent upon the use of Mcr-deficient strains. Gene 119: 127 129.
224. Weber, J. M.,, J. O. Leung,, S. J. Swanson,, K. B. Idler,, and J. B. McAlpine. 1991. An erythromycin derivative produced by targeted gene disruption in Saccharopolys-pora erythraea. Science 252: 114 117.
225. Weber, J. M.,, and R. Losick. 1988. The use of a chromosome integration vector to map erythromycin resistance and production genes in Saccharopolyspora erythraea (Streptomyces erythreus). Gene 68: 173 180.
226. Westpheling, J.,, and M. Brawner. 1989. Two transcribing activities are involved in expression of the Streptomyces galactose operon. J. Bacteriol. 171: 1355 1361.
227. Westpheling, J.,, M. Ranes,, and R. Losick. 1985. RNA polymerase heterogeneity in Streptomyces coelicolor. Nature (London) 313: 22 27.
228. Wildermuth, H.,, and D. A. Hopwood. 1970. Septation during sporulation in Streptomyces coelicolor. J. Gen. Microbiol. 60: 51 59.
229. Willey, J. Personal communication.
230. Willey, J.,, R. Santamaria,, J. Guijarro,, M. Geistlich,, and R. Losick. 1991. Extracellular complementation of a developmental mutation implicates a small sporulation protein in aerial mycelium formation by Streptomyces coelicolor. Cell 65: 641 650.
231. Woudt, L. P.,, K. Rietveld,, M. Verdurmen,, J. van Haarlem,, G. P. van Wezel,, E. Vijgenboom,, and L. Bosch. Three fu/Hike) genes in Streptomyces ramocissimus. Submitted for publication.
232. Wright, F.,, and M. J. Bibb. 1992. Codon usage in the G+C-rich Streptomyces genome. Gene 113: 55 65.
233. Wu, X.,, and K. Roy. 1993. Complete nucleotide sequence of a linear plasmid from Streptomyces clavuligerus and characterization of its RNA transcripts. J. Bacteriol. 175: 37 52.
234. Yagi, Y. 1990. Transposition of Tn 4560 in Streptomyces avermitilis. J. Antibiot. 43: 1204 1206.
235. Yanofsky, C.,, and I. P. Crawford,. 1987. The tryptophan operon, p. 1453 1472. In F. C. Neidhardt,, J. L. In-graham,, K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik,, M. Schaechter,, and H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Cellular and Molecular Biology, vol. 2. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C..
236. Young, M.,, and J. Cullum. 1987. A plausible mechanism for large-scale chromosomal DNA amplification in streptomycetes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 212: 10 14.
237. Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J.,, and H. Schrempf. 1992. Characterization of an autonomously replicating region from the Streptomyces lividans chromosome. J. Bacteriol. 174: 2688 2693.
238. Zhang, L.,, G. Hintermann,,and J. Piret. 1991. Detection and expression of the bldB gene product during morphological differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor, abstr. no. P1-086. In Abstracts, International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes. Madison, Wis..

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error