Chapter 13 : Species

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This chapter reviews the basic biology, ecology, phylogenetic characterization, virulence factors, pathogenicity, and epidemiology of the emerging opportunistic foodborne pathogen, Species. The Species is categorized in the family and like most species in this family is considered an opportunistic pathogen. Nevertheless, advances have been made in the molecular characterization of species using amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), ribotyping, and plasmid typing. The chapter explains susceptibility to physical and chemical treatments that include temperature, water activity, biological inactivation, chemical inactivation and competitive exclusion/probiotics. has been recovered from clinical specimens such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood, sputum, throat, nose, stool, gut, skin, wounds, bone marrow, eye, ear, stomach aspirates, anal swabs, and the breast abscess of infected patients. has been mainly associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), septicemia, and meningitis. Neurological sequelae are commonly reported and include brain abscess and infarction, ventricle compartmentalization due to necrosis of brain tissue and liquefaction of white cerebral matter, and cranial cystic changes, as well as hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic intercerebral infarctions leading to cystic encephalomalacia. Nazarowec-White and Farber tested the antibiotic resistance of seventeen strains of and found four antibiotic susceptibility patterns (antibiograms). species has become a growing concern for government regulatory agencies, health care providers (especially those in neonatal intensive care units), and powdered infant formula (PIF) manufacturers.

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
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A current model of pathogenicity. GI, gastrointestinal. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch13f1

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
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Generic image for table
Table 13.1

Biochemical characterization of species

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
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Table 13.2

Biochemical differentiation of species belonging to seven different biogroups

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.3

Guidelines for reconstituted PIF and BMF preparation and handling

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.4

Microbiological criteria to be applied to PIF

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.5

Foods from which spp. have been isolated

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.6

Summary of isolation and enumeration methods for spp.

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 13.7

Summary of species cases and outbreaks in infants reported in the literature

Citation: Pagotto F, Abdesselam K. 2013. Species, p 311-337. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch13

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