Chapter 14 :

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555818463/9781555816261_Chap14-2.gif


is transmitted to its host via flea bites or respiratory aerosols, whereas and are foodborne pathogens. These three species share a number of essential virulence determinants that enable them to overcome the innate defenses of their hosts. Given that is incapable of infecting the intestinal tract directly and not pathogenic when ingested and that the role of most other species in disease is uncertain, this chapter focuses on and . is a relatively homogenous species, which is subdivided into serotypes according to its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigens. is far more heterogenous than , being divisible into a large number of subgroups according to biochemical activity and LPS O antigens. Infection with the enteropathogenic yersiniae typically manifests as nonspecific, self-limiting diarrhea but may produce a variety of suppurative and autoimmune complications, the risk of which is determined partly by host factors, in particular age and underlying immune status. Indeed, is one of the most important causes of fatal bacteremia following transfusion with packed red blood cells or platelets. Explanations for the link between yersiniosis and autoimmunity include antigen persistence, molecular mimicry, impaired immune responsiveness, and infection-induced presentation of normally cryptic cellular antigens.

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 14.1
Figure 14.1

Transmission electron micrograph showing the initial interaction (black arrowhead) and transport (white arrow) of through an intestinal M cell, 60 min after inoculation into mouse ileum. (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f1

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.2
Figure 14.2

Light micrograph of a section through the colon of a gnotobiotic piglet 3 days after inoculation with a virulent strain of O:3. Note the microabscess, comprising mostly bacteria, the surrounding inflammatory cells (arrows), and the disrupted epithelium with vacuolated and necrotic cells. Epoxy section, methylene blue stain. (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f2

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.3
Figure 14.3

Amino acid sequences of the mature heat-stable enterotoxins produced by ( ), enterotoxigenic of human (STh) and porcine (STp) subtypes ( ), ( ), non-O1 ( ), and the intestinal hormone guanylin ( ). Amino acid residues that are shaded are common to all seven peptides. The first 23 amino acids at the N terminus of the Yst-c mature toxin (denoted by superscript “a”) are not included in the sequence alignments. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f3

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.4
Figure 14.4

A representation of the HPI of O:8 strain WA-C. Arrows indicate the positions of the open reading frames and the direction of transcription. The region that is conserved in and is indicated by a double-headed arrow. (Adapted from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f4

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.5
Figure 14.5

Map of the virulence plasmid pYVe of serogroup O:9 showing the location and direction of transcription (arrows) of the genes encoding (i) YadA; (ii) YlpA; (iii) Yops B, D, E, H, M, N, O, P, Q, T, and LcrV; (iv) specific Yop chaperones Syc D, E, H, and T; (v) secretion elements VirA, -B, -C, -G; and the regulatory element VirF (adapted from reference ). doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f5

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.6
Figure 14.6

Schematic representation of Yop secretion and translocation by . The major structural proteins of the secretory apparatus are shown in relation to their known or deduced location in the cell wall. The effector Yop chaperone (Syc) and translocation pore comprising YopB and YopD are also depicted. Not to scale. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f6

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 14.7
Figure 14.7

Antibody response of sheep infected with or to Yops. Yops were prepared from serogroup O:3, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane, and subjected to reaction with preimmune (lanes 1 and 3) or immune (lanes 2 and 4) sera from lambs with naturally acquired infection with pYV-bearing (lanes 1 and 2) or (lanes 3 and 4). (Reprinted with permission from reference .) doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch14f7

Citation: Robins-Browne R. 2013. , p 339-376. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abe, J.,, M. Onimaru,, S. Matsumoto,, S. Noma,, K. Baba,, Y. Ito,, T. Kohsaka,, and T. Takeda. 1997. Clinical role for a superantigen in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection. J. Clin. Investig. 99: 1823 1830.
2. Achtman, M.,, K. Zurth,, G. Morelli,, G. Torrea,, A. Guiyoule,, and E. Carniel. 1999. Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 14043 14048.
3. Ackers, M. L.,, S. Schoenfeld,, J. Markman,, M. G. Smith,, M. A. Nicholson,, W. DeWitt,, D. N. Cameron,, P. M. Griffin,, and L. Slutsker. 2000. An outbreak of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 infections associated with pasteurized milk. J. Infect. Dis. 181: 1834 1837.
4. Adams, M. R.,, C. L. Little,, and M. C. Easter. 1991. Modelling the effect of pH, acidulant and temperature on the growth rate of Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 71: 65 71.
5. Aepfelbacher, M.,, R. Zumbihl,, K. Ruckdeschel,, C. A. Jacobi,, C. Barz,, and J. Heesemann. 1999. The tranquilizing injection of Yersinia proteins: a pathogen’s strategy to resist host defense. Biol. Chem. 380: 795 802.
6. Ahvonen, P.,, K. Sievers,, and K. Aho. 1969. Arthritis associated with Yersinia enterocolitica. Acta Rheumatol. Scand. 15: 232 255.
7. Aili, M.,, E. L. Isaksson,, S. E. Carlsson,, H. Wolf-Watz,, R. Rosqvist,, and M. S. Francis. 2008. Regulation of Yersinia Yop-effector delivery by translocated YopE. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 298: 183 192.
8. Aimoto, S.,, T. Takao,, Y. Shimonishi,, S. Hara,, T. Takeda,, Y. Takeda,, and T. Miwatani. 1982. Amino-acid sequence of a heat-stable enterotoxin produced by human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Eur. J. Biochem. 129: 257 263.
9. Aleksic, S.,, G. Suchan,, J. Bockemuhl,, and V. Aleksic. 1991. An extended antigenic scheme for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 12: 235 238.
10. Andersen, J. K.,, R. Sorensen,, and M. Glensbjerg. 1991. Aspects of the epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica: a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 13: 231 237.
11. Annamalai, T.,, and K. Venkitanarayanan. 2005. Expression of major cold shock proteins and genes by Yersinia enterocolitica in synthetic medium and foods. J. Food Prot. 68: 2454 2458.
12.Anonymous. 1983. Yersiniosis, p. 131. World Health Organization, Copenhagen, Denmark.
13. Arduino, M. J.,, L. A. Bland,, M. A. Tipple,, S. M. Aguero,, M. S. Favero,, and W. R. Jarvis. 1989. Growth and endotoxin production of Yersinia enterocolitica and Enterobacter agglomerans in packed erythrocytes. J.?Clin. Microbiol. 27: 1483 1485.
14. Autenrieth, I. B.,, R. Reissbrodt,, E. Saken,, R. Berner,, U. Vogel,, W. Rabsch,, and J. Heesemann. 1994. Desferrioxamine-promoted virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica in mice depends on both desferrioxamine type and mouse strain. J. Infect. Dis. 169: 562 567.
15. Badger, J. L.,, and V. L. Miller. 1995. Role of RpoS in survival of Yersinia enterocolitica to a variety of environmental stresses. J. Bacteriol. 177: 5370 5373.
16. Badger, J. L.,, and V. L. Miller. 1998. Expression of invasin and motility are coordinately regulated in Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 180: 793 800.
17. Baumler, A.,, R. Koebnik,, I. Stojiljkovic,, J. Heesemann,, V. Braun,, and K. Hantke. 1993. Survey on newly characterized iron uptake systems of Yersinia enterocolitica. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. Virol. Parasitol. Infect. Dis. 278: 416 424.
18. Baumler, A. J.,, and K. Hantke. 1992. Ferrioxamine uptake in Yersinia enterocolitica: characterization of the receptor protein FoxA. Mol. Microbiol. 6: 1309 1321.
19. Bengoechea, J. A.,, H. Najdenski,, and M. Skurnik. 2004. Lipopolysaccharide O antigen status of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 is essential for virulence and absence of O antigen affects the expression of other Yersinia virulence factors. Mol. Microbiol. 52: 451 469.
20. Bercovier, H.,, and H. H. Mollaret,. 1984. Genus XIV. Yersinia Van Loghem 1944, 15 AL, p. 498 506. In N. R. Krieg, and J. G. Holt (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.
21. Bhaduri, S.,, B. Cottrell,, and A. R. Pickard. 1997. Use of a single procedure for selective enrichment, isolation, and identification of plasmid-bearing virulent Yersinia enterocolitica of various serotypes from pork samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63: 1657 1660.
22. Bhaduri, S.,, and J. G. Phillips. 2011. Growth model of a plasmid-bearing virulent strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in raw ground beef. Zoonoses Public Health 58: 77 84. doi:10.1111/j.1863-2378.20009.0127.x.
23. Bhagat, N.,, and J. S. Virdi. 2009. Molecular and biochemical characterization of urease and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A in acidic pH in vitro. BMC Microbiol. 9: 262.
24. Biedzka-Sarek, M.,, S. Salmenlinna,, M. Gruber,, A. N. Lupas,, S. Meri,, and M. Skurnik. 2008. Functional mapping of YadA- and Ail-mediated binding of human factor H to Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. Infect. Immun. 76: 5016 5027.
25. Biedzka-Sarek, M.,, R. Venho,, and M. Skurnik. 2005. Role of YadA, Ail, and lipopolysaccharide in serum resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3. Infect. Immun. 73: 2232 2244.
26. Black, R. E.,, R. J. Jackson,, T. Tsai,, M. Medvesky,, M. Shayegani,, J. C. Feeley,, K. I. E. MacLeod,, and A. M. Wakelee. 1978. Epidemic Yersinia enterocolitica infection due to contaminated chocolate milk. N. Engl. J. Med. 298: 76 79.
27. Bleves, S.,, M. N. Marenne,, G. Detry,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2002. Up-regulation of the Yersinia enterocolitica yop regulon by deletion of the flagellum master operon flhDC. J. Bacteriol. 184: 3214 3223.
28. Borg, A. A.,, J. Gray,, and P. T. Dawes. 1992. Yersinia-related arthritis in the United Kingdom. A report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Q. J. Med. 84: 575 582.
29. Bos, J. L.,, H. Rehmann,, and A. Wittinghofer. 2007. GEFs and GAPs: critical elements in the control of small G proteins. Cell 129: 865 877.
30. Bottone, E. J. 1977. Yersinia enterocolitica: a panoramic view of a charismatic microorganism. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 5: 211 241.
31. Bottone, E. J. 1997. Yersinia enterocolitica: the charisma continues. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10: 257 276.
32. Bowe, F.,, P. O’Gaora,, D. Maskell,, M. Cafferkey,, and G. Dougan. 1989. Virulence, persistence, and immunogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 aroA mutants. Infect. Immun. 57: 3234 3236.
33. Branger, C. G.,, A. Torres-Escobar,, W. Sun,, R. Perry,, J. Fetherston,, K. L. Roland,, and R. Curtiss III. 2009. Oral vaccination with LcrV from Yersinia pestis KIM delivered by live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium elicits a protective immune response against challenge with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Vaccine 27: 5363 5370.
34. Brecher, M. E.,, and S. N. Hay. 2005. Bacterial contamination of blood components. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18: 195 204.
35. Brem, D.,, C. Pelludat,, A. Rakin,, C. A. Jacobi,, and J. Heesemann. 2001. Functional analysis of yersiniabactin transport genes of Yersinia enterocolitica. Microbiology 147: 1115 1127.
36. Bresolin, G.,, K. Neuhaus,, S. Scherer,, and T. M. Fuchs. 2006. Transcriptional analysis of long-term adaptation of Yersinia enterocolitica to low-temperature growth. J. Bacteriol. 188: 2945 2958.
37. Brett, S. J.,, A. V. Mazurov,, I. G. Charles,, and J. P. Tite. 1993. The invasin protein of Yersinia spp. provides co-stimulatory activity to human T cells through interaction with beta 1 integrins. Eur. J. Immunol. 23: 1608 1614.
38. Brix, T. H.,, P. S. Hansen,, L. Hegedus,, and B. E. Wenzel. 2008. Too early to dismiss Yersinia enterocolitica infection in the aetiology of Graves’ disease: evidence from a twin case-control study. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxford) 69: 491 496.
39. Brodsky, I. E.,, N. W. Palm,, S. Sadanand,, M. B. Ryndak,, F. S. Sutterwala,, R. A. Flavell,, J. B. Bliska,, and R. Medzhitov. 2010. A Yersinia effector protein promotes virulence by preventing inflammasome recognition of the type III secretion system. Cell Host Microbe 7: 376 387.
40. Brubaker, R. R. 1991. Factors promoting acute and chronic diseases caused by yersiniae. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4: 309 324.
41. Bruce-Staskal, P. J.,, C. L. Weidow,, J. J. Gibson,, and A. ?H. Bouton. 2002. Cas, Fak and Pyk2 function in diverse signaling cascades to promote Yersinia uptake. J.?Cell Sci. 115: 2689 2700.
42. Butler, R. C.,, V. Lund,, and D. A. Carlson. 1987. Susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni and Yersinia enterocolitica to UV radiation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 375 378.
43. Carniel, E. 2001. The Yersinia high-pathogenicity island: an iron-uptake island. Microbes Infect. 3: 561 569.
44. Carniel, E.,, I. Autenrieth,, G. Cornelis,, H. Fukushima,, F. Guinet,, R. Isberg,, J. Pham,, M. Prentice,, M. Simonet,, M. Skurnik,, and G. Wauters,. 2006. Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, p. 270 398. In M. Dworkin,, S. Falkow,, E. Rosenberg,, K.-H. Schleifer,, and E. Stackebrandt (ed.), The Prokaryotes, vol. 6, 3rd ed. Springer, New York, NY.
45. Carnoy, C.,, H. Müeller-Alouf,, S. Haentjens,, and M. Simonet. 1998. Polymorphism of ypm, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis superantigen encoding gene. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. 29( Suppl.): 397 398.
46. Casutt-Meyer, S.,, F. Renzi,, M. Schmaler,, N. J. Jann,, M. Amstutz,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2010. Oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin YadA is a double-edged sword. PLoS ONE 5: e15159.
47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis among infants exposed to chitterlings—Chicago, Illinois, 2002. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52: 956958.
48. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Preliminary FoodNet data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food—10 states, 2007. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 57: 336370.
49. Chao, W. L.,, R. J. Ding,, and R. S. Chen. 1988. Survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in the environment. Can. J. Microbiol. 34: 753 756.
50. China, B.,, B. T. N’Guyen,, M. de Bruyere,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1994. Role of YadA in resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Infect. Immun. 62: 1275 1281.
51. China, B.,, M. P. Sory,, B. T. N’Guyen,, M. de Bruyere,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1993. Role of the YadA protein in prevention of opsonization of Yersinia enterocolitica by C3b molecules. Infect. Immun. 61: 3129 3136.
52. Clark, M. A.,, B. H. Hirst,, and M. A. Jepson. 1998. M-cell surface beta1 integrin expression and invasin-mediated targeting of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to mouse Peyer’s patch M cells. Infect. Immun. 66: 1237 1243.
53. Colmegna, I.,, and L. R. Espinoza. 2005. Recent advances in reactive arthritis. Curr. Rheumatol. Rep. 7: 201 207.
54. Cornelis, G.,, Y. Laroche,, G. Balligand,, M. P. Sory,, and G. Wauters. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica, a primary model for bacterial invasiveness. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9: 64 87.
55. Cornelis, G.,, C. Sluiters,, C. L. de Rouvroit,, and T. Michiels. 1989. Homology between virF, the transcriptional activator of the Yersinia virulence regulon, and AraC, the Escherichia coli arabinose operon regulator. J. Bacteriol. 171: 254 262.
56. Cornelis, G.,, C. Sluiters,, I. Delor,, D. Geib,, K. Kaninga,, C. Lambert de Rouvroit,, M.-P. Sory,, J.-C. Vanooteghem,, and T. Michiels. 1991. ymoA, a Yersinia enterocolitica chromosomal gene modulating the expression of virulence functions. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 1023 1034.
57. Cornelis, G. R. 2002. The Yersinia Ysc-Yop ‘type III’ weaponry. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3: 742 752.
58. Cornelis, G. R. 2002. Yersinia type III secretion: send in the effectors. J. Cell Biol. 158: 401 408.
59. Cornelis, G. R.,, T. Biot,, C. Lambert de Rouvroit,, T. Michiels,, B. Mulder,, C. Sluiters,, M. P. Sory,, M. Van Bouchaute,, and J. C. Vanooteghem. 1989. The Yersinia yop regulon. Mol. Microbiol. 3: 1455 1459.
60. Cornelis, G. R.,, A. Boland,, A. P. Boyd,, C. Geuijen,, M. Iriarte,, C. Neyt,, M.-P. Sory,, and I. Stainier. 1998. The virulence plasmid of Yersinia, an antihost genome. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 62: 1315 1352.
61.Reference deleted.
62. Cornelis, G. R.,, C. Sluiters,, I. Delor,, D. Geib,, K. Kaniga,, C. Lambert de Rouvroit,, M. P. Sory,, J. C. Vanooteghem,, and T. Michiels. 1991. ymoA, a Yersinia enterocolitica chromosomal gene modulating the expression of virulence functions. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 1023 1034.
63. Cornelius, C.,, L. Quenee,, D. Anderson,, and O. Schneewind. 2007. Protective immunity against plague. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 603: 415 424.
64. Cotter, S. E.,, N. K. Surana,, and J. W. St Geme III. 2005. Trimeric autotransporters: a distinct subfamily of autotransporter proteins. Trends Microbiol. 13: 199 205.
65. Cover, T. L.,, and R. C. Aber. 1989. Yersinia enterocolitica. N. Engl. J. Med. 321: 16 24.
66. Cowan, C.,, A. V. Philipovskiy,, C. R. Wulff-Strobel,, Z. Ye,, and S. C. Straley. 2005. Anti-LcrV antibody inhibits delivery of Yops by Yersinia pestis KIM5 by directly promoting phagocytosis. Infect. Immun. 73: 6127 6137.
67.Reference deleted.
68. Currie, M. G.,, K. F. Fok,, J. Kato,, R. J. Moore,, F. K. Hamra,, K. L. Duffin,, and C. E. Smith. 1992. Guanylin: an endogenous activator of intestinal guanylate cyclase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 947 951.
69. Daniel, C.,, F. Sebbane,, S. Poiret,, D. Goudercourt,, J. Dewulf,, C. Mullet,, M. Simonet,, and B. Pot. 2009. Protection against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection conferred by a Lactococcus lactis mucosal delivery vector secreting LcrV. Vaccine 27: 1141 1144.
70. D’Aoust, J. Y.,, C. E. Park,, R. A. Szabo,, E. C. Todd,, D. B. Emmons,, and R. C. McKellar. 1988. Thermal inactivation of Campylobacter species, Yersinia enterocolitica, and hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fluid milk. J. Dairy Sci. 71: 3230 3236.
71. Darby, C. 2008. Uniquely insidious: Yersinia pestis biofilms. Trends Microbiol. 16: 158 164.
72. de Giusti, M.,, and E. de Vito. 1992. Inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica by nitrite and nitrate in food. Food Addit. Contam. 9: 405 408.
73. de Koning, J.,, J. Heesemann,, J. A. Hoogkamp-Korstanje,, J. J. Festen,, P. M. Houtman,, and P. L. van Oijen. 1989. Yersinia in intestinal biopsy specimens from patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathy: correlation with specific serum IgA antibodies. J. Infect. Dis. 159: 109 112.
74. de Koning-Ward, T. F.,, T. Grant,, F. Oppedisano,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Effect of bacterial invasion of macrophages on the outcome of assays to assess bacterium-macrophage interactions. J. Immunol. Methods 215: 39 44.
75. de Koning-Ward, T. F.,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1995. Contribution of urease to acid tolerance in Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 63: 3790 3795.
76. Delor, I.,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1992. Role of Yersinia enterocolitica Yst toxin in experimental infection of young rabbits. Infect. Immun. 60: 4269 4277.
77. Delor, I.,, A. Kaeckenbeeck,, G. Wauters,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1990. Nucleotide sequence of yst, the Yersinia enterocolitica gene encoding the heat-stable enterotoxin, and prevalence of the gene among pathogenic and nonpathogenic yersiniae. Infect. Immun. 58: 2983 2988.
78. Dewoody, R.,, P. M. Merritt,, A. S. Houppert,, and M. M. Marketon. 2011. YopK regulates the Yersinia pestis type III secretion system from within host cells. Mol. Microbiol. 79: 1445 1461. doi:10.1111/j.13652958.2011.07534.x.
79. Diepold, A.,, M. Amstutz,, S. Abel,, I. Sorg,, U. Jenal,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2010. Deciphering the assembly of the Yersinia type III secretion injectisome. EMBO J. 29: 1928 1940.
80. Dion, P.,, R. Charbonneau,, and C. Thibault. 1994. Effect of ionizing dose rate on the radioresistance of some food pathogenic bacteria. Can. J. Microbiol. 40: 369 374.
81. Donadini, R.,, and B. A. Fields. 2007. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis superantigens. Chem. Immunol. Allergy 93: 77 91.
82. Doyle, M. P. 1990. Pathogenic Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Lancet 336: 1111 1115.
83. Eberth, C. J. 1885. Zwei Mykosen des Meerschweinchens. Archiv. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 100: 15 27.
84. Eitel, J.,, and P. Dersch. 2002. The YadA protein of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis mediates high-efficiency uptake into human cells under environmental conditions in which invasin is repressed. Infect. Immun. 70: 4880 4891.
85. Escudero, M. E.,, L. Velazquez,, M. S. Di Genaro,, and A. M. de Guzman. 1999. Effectiveness of various disinfectants in the elimination of Yersinia enterocolitica on fresh lettuce. J. Food Prot. 62: 665 669.
86. Falgarone, G.,, H. S. Blanchard,, B. Riot,, M. Simonet,, and M. Breban. 1999. Cytotoxic T-cell-mediated response against Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in HLA-B27 transgenic rat. Infect. Immun. 67: 3773 3779.
87. Farmer, J. J., III,, G. P. Carter,, V. L. Miller,, S. Falkow,, and I. K. Wachsmuth. 1992. Pyrazinamidase, CR-MOX agar, salicin fermentation-esculin hydrolysis, and D-xylose fermentation for identifying pathogenic serotypes of Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 2589 2594.
88. Feng, P.,, and S. D. Weagant,. 1993. Yersinia, p. 427 460. In Y. H. Hui,, J. R. Gorham,, K. D. Murrell,, and D. O. Cliver (ed.), Foodborne Disease Handbook, vol. 1. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY.
89. Ferracci, F.,, F. D. Schubot,, D. S. Waugh,, and G. V. Plano. 2005. Selection and characterization of Yersinia pestis YopN mutants that constitutively block Yop secretion. Mol. Microbiol. 57: 970 987.
90. Foberg, U.,, A. Fryden,, E. Kihlstrom,, K. Persson,, and O. Weiland. 1986. Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia: clinical and microbiological aspects. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 18: 269 279.
91. Forsberg, A.,, R. Rosqvist,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1994. Regulation and polarized transfer of the Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) involved in antiphagocytosis. Trends Microbiol. 2: 14 19.
92. Forsberg, A.,, A. M. Viitanen,, M. Skurnik,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1991. The surface-located YopN protein is involved in calcium signal transduction in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 977 986.
93. Franchi, L.,, J. H. Park,, M. H. Shaw,, N. Marina-Garcia,, G. Chen,, Y. G. Kim,, and G. Núñez. 2008. Intracellular NOD-like receptors in innate immunity, infection and disease. Cell. Microbiol. 10: 1 8.
94. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, M. Bucher,, C. Hank,, A. Stolle,, and H. Korkeala. 2001. High prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica 4:O3 on pig offal in southern Germany: a slaughtering technique problem. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 24: 457 463.
95. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, and H. Korkeala. 2003. Low occurrence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in clinical, food, and environmental samples: a methodological problem. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 16: 220 229.
96. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.,, A. Stolle,, and H. Korkeala. 2006. Molecular epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica infections. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 47: 315 329.
97. Fukushima, H.,, M. Gomyoda,, S. Ishikura,, T. Nishio,, S. Moriki,, J. Endo,, S. Kaneko,, and M. Tsubokura. 1989. Cat-contaminated environmental substances lead to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2706 2709.
98. Fukushima, H.,, M. Gomyoda,, and S. Kaneko. 1990. Mice and moles inhabiting mountainous areas of Shimane Peninsula as sources of infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28: 2448 2455.
99. Gaastra, W.,, and A. M. Svennerholm. 1996. Colonization factors of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Trends Microbiol. 4: 444 452.
100. Galyov, E. E.,, S. Hakansson,, A. Forsberg,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1993. A secreted protein kinase of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an indispensable virulence determinant. Nature 361: 730 732.
101. Gaston, J. S.,, C. Cox,, and K. Granfors. 1999. Clinical and experimental evidence for persistent Yersinia infection in reactive arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 42: 2239 2242.
102. Ghosh, P. 2004. Process of protein transport by the type III secretion system. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68: 771 795.
103. Goverde, R. L.,, J. H. J. Huis in’t Veld,, J.G. Kusters,, and F. R. Mooi. 1998. The psychrotrophic bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica requires expression of pnp, the gene for polynucleotide phosphorylase, for growth at low temperature (5°C). Mol. Microbiol. 28: 555 569.
104. Granfors, K.,, S. Jalkanen,, R. von Essen,, R. Lahesmaa-Rantala,, O. Isomaki,, K. Pekkola-Heino,, R. Merilahti-Palo,, R. Saario,, H. Isomaki,, and A. Toivanen. 1989. Yersinia antigens in synovial-fluid cells from patients with reactive arthritis. N. Engl. J. Med. 320: 216 221.
105. Grant, T.,, V. Bennett-Wood,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Identification of virulence-associated characteristics in clinical isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica lacking classical virulence markers. Infect. Immun. 66: 1113 1120.
106. Grant, T.,, V. Bennett-Wood,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1999. Characterization of the interaction between Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A and phagocytes and epithelial cells in vitro. Infect. Immun. 67: 4367 4375.
107. Graumann, P. L.,, and M. A. Marahiel. 1998. A superfamily of proteins that contain the cold-shock domain. Trends Biochem. Sci. 23: 286 290.
108. Gripenberg-Lerche, C.,, M. Skurnik,, L. Zhang,, K.-O. Söderström,, and P. Toivanen. 1994. Role of YadA in arthritogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:8: experimental studies with rats. Infect. Immun. 62: 5568 5575.
109. Gripenberg-Lerche, C.,, L. Zhang,, P. Ahtonen,, P. Toivanen,, and M. Skurnik. 2000. Construction of urease-negative mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica serotypes O:3 and O:8: role of urease in virulence and arthritogenicity. Infect. Immun. 68: 942 947.
110. Grosdent, N.,, I. Maridonneau-Parini,, M. P. Sory,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2002. Role of Yops and adhesins in resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica to phagocytosis. Infect. Immun. 70: 4165 4176.
111. Grützkau, A.,, C. Hanski,, H. Hahn,, and E. O. Riecken. 1990. Involvement of M cells in the bacterial invasion of Peyer’s patches: a common mechanism shared by Yersinia enterocolitica and other enteroinvasive bacteria. Gut 31: 1011 1015.
112. Guarino, A.,, R. Giannella,, and M. R. Thompson. 1989. Citrobacter freundii produces an 18-amino-acid heat-stable enterotoxin identical to the 18-amino-acid Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STIa). Infect. Immun. 57: 649 652.
113. Gurtler, M.,, T. Alter,, S. Kasimir,, M. Linnebur,, and K. Fehlhaber. 2005. Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in fattening pigs. J. Food Prot. 68: 850 854.
114. Håkansson, S.,, T. Bergman,, J. C. Vanooteghem,, G. Cornelis,, and H. Wolf-Watz. 1993. YopB and YopD constitute a novel class of Yersinia Yop proteins. Infect. Immun. 61: 71 80.
115. Hamburger, Z. A.,, M. S. Brown,, R. R. Isberg,, and P. J. Bjorkman. 1999. Crystal structure of invasin: a bacterial integrin-binding protein. Science 286: 291 295.
116. Han, Y. W.,, and V. L. Miller. 1997. Reevaluation of the virulence phenotype of the inv yadA double mutants of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infect. Immun. 65: 327 330.
117. Hanna, M. O.,, J. C. Stewart,, D. L. Zink,, Z. L. Carpenter,, and C. Vanderzant. 1977. Development of Yersinia enterocolitica on raw and cooked beef and pork at different temperatures. J. Food Sci. 42: 1180 1184.
118. Hansen, P. S.,, B. E. Wenzel,, T. H. Brix,, and L. Hegedus. 2006. Yersinia enterocolitica infection does not confer an increased risk of thyroid antibodies: evidence from a Danish twin study. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 146: 32 38.
119. Hanski, C.,, U. Kutschka,, H. P. Schmoranzer,, M. Naumann,, A. Stallmach,, H. Hahn,, H. Menge,, and E. O. Riecken. 1989. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study of interaction of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O8 with intestinal mucosa during experimental enteritis. Infect. Immun. 57: 673 678.
120. Harakeh, M. S.,, J. D. Berg,, J. C. Hoff,, and A. Matin. 1985. Susceptibility of chemostat-grown Yersinia enterocolitica and Klebsiella pneumoniae to chlorine dioxide. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 69 72.
121. Hartland, E. L.,, and R. M. Robins-Browne. 1998. Infections with enteropathogenic Yersinia species: paradigms of bacterial pathogenesis. Rev. Med. Microbiol. 9: 191 205.
122. Hayashidani, H.,, Y. Hara-Kudo,, S. Kinoshita,, K. Saeki,, A. T. Okatani,, Y. Nomura,, and S. Kumagai. 2005. Differences in heat resistance among pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica depended on growth temperature and serotype. J. Food Prot. 68: 1081 1082.
123. Hayashidani, H.,, Y. Ohtomo,, Y. Toyokawa,, M. Saito,, K. Kaneko,, J. Kosuge,, M. Kato,, M. Ogawa,, and G. Kapperud. 1995. Potential sources of sporadic human infection with Yersinia enterocolitica serovar O:8 in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33: 1253 1257.
124. Heesemann, J.,, K. Gaede,, and I. B. Autenrieth. 1993. Experimental Yersinia enterocolitica infection in rodents: a model for human yersiniosis. APMIS 101: 417 429.
125. Heesemann, J.,, K. Hantke,, T. Vocke,, E. Saken,, A. Rakin,, I. Stojiljkovic,, and R. Berner. 1993. Virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica is closely associated with siderophore production, expression of an iron-repressible outer membrane polypeptide of 65,000 Da and pesticin sensitivity. Mol. Microbiol. 8: 397 408.
126. Heise, T.,, and P. Dersch. 2006. Identification of a domain in Yersinia virulence factor YadA that is crucial for extracellular matrix-specific cell adhesion and uptake. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 3375 3380.
127. Henderson, I. R.,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, M. Desvaux,, R. C. Fernandez,, and D. Ala’Aldeen. 2004. Type V protein secretion pathway: the autotransporter story. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68: 692 744.
128. Hermann, E. 1993. T cells in reactive arthritis. APMIS 101: 177 186.
129. Hermann, E.,, D. T. Yu,, K. H. Meyer zum Buschenfelde,, and B. Fleischer. 1993. HLA-B27-restricted CD8 T cells derived from synovial fluids of patients with reactive arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Lancet 342: 646 650.
130. Herrlinger, J. D.,, and J. U. Asmussen. 1992. Long term prognosis in yersinia arthritis: clinical and serological findings. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 51: 1332 1334.
131. Heusipp, G.,, M. A. Schmidt,, and V. L. Miller. 2003. Identification of rpoE and nadB as host responsive elements of Yersinia enterocolitica. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 226: 291 298.
132. Hinnebusch, B. J.,, and D. L. Erickson. 2008. Yersinia pestis biofilm in the flea vector and its role in the transmission of plague. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 322: 229 248.
133. Hoiczyk, E.,, and G. Blobel. 2001. Polymerization of a single protein of the pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica into needles punctures eukaryotic cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 4669 4674.
134. Hölmstrom, A.,, J. Petterson,, R. Rosqvist,, S. Hakansson,, F. Tafazoli,, M. Fallman,, K. E. Magnusson,, H. Wolf-Watz,, and A. Forsberg. 1997. YopK of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis controls translocation of Yop effectors across the eukaryotic cell membrane. Mol. Microbiol 24: 73 91.
135. Hölmstrom, A.,, R. Rosqvist,, H. Wolf-Watz,, and A. Forsberg. 1995. Virulence plasmid-encoded YopK is essential for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to cause systemic infection in mice. Infect. Immun. 63: 2269 2276.
136. Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J. A. A.,, and V. M. M. Stolk-Engelaar. 1995. Yersinia enterocolitica infection in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14: 771 775.
137. Howard, S. L.,, M. W. Gaunt,, J. Hinds,, A. A. Witney,, R. Stabler,, and B. W. Wren. 2006. Application of comparative phylogenomics to study the evolution of Yersinia enterocolitica and to identify genetic differences relating to pathogenicity. J. Bacteriol. 188: 3645 3653.
138. Huang, X.,, K. Yoshino,, H. Nakao,, and T. Takeda. 1997. Nucleotide sequence of a gene encoding the novel Yersinia enterocolitica heat-stable enterotoxin that includes a pro-region-like sequence in its mature toxin molecule. Microb. Pathog. 22: 89 97.
139. Iriarte, M.,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1999. Identification of SycN, YscX, and YscY, three new elements of the Yersinia yop virulon. J. Bacteriol. 181: 675 680.
140. Iriarte, M.,, I. Stainier,, A. V. Mikulskis,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1995. The fliA gene encoding s 28 in Yersinia enterocolitica. J. Bacteriol. 177: 2299 2304.
141. Iriarte, M.,, J. C. Vanooteghem,, I. Delor,, R. Diaz,, S. Knutton,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1993. The Myf fibrillae of Yersinia enterocolitica. Mol. Microbiol. 9: 507 520.
142. Isberg, R. R. 1990. Pathways for the penetration of enteroinvasive Yersinia into mammalian cells. Mol. Biol. Med. 7: 73 82.
143. Isberg, R. R.,, and P. Barnes. 2001. Subversion of integrins by enteropathogenic Yersinia. J. Cell Sci. 114: 21 28.
144. Isberg, R. R.,, and S. Falkow. 1985. A single genetic locus encoded by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis permits invasion of cultured animal cells by Escherichia coli K-12. Nature 317: 262 264.
145. Isberg, R. R.,, and G. T. Van Nhieu. 1994. Two mammalian cell internalization strategies used by pathogenic bacteria. Annu. Rev. Genet. 28: 395 422.
146. Israël, A. 2010. The IKK complex, a central regulator of NF-kB activation. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 2: a000158.
147. Iteman, I.,, A. Guiyoule,, and E. Carniel. 1996. Comparison of three molecular methods for typing and subtyping pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains. J. Med. Microbiol. 45: 48 56.
148. Iwobi, A.,, J. Heesemann,, E. Garcia,, E. Igwe,, C. Noelting,, and A. Rakin. 2003. Novel virulence-associated type II secretion system unique to high-pathogenicity Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 71: 1872 1879.
149. Jackson, M. W.,, and G. V. Plano. 2000. Interactions between type III secretion apparatus components from Yersinia pestis detected using the yeast two-hybrid system. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 186: 85 90.
150. Jacobi, C. A.,, A. Roggenkamp,, A. Rakin,, R. Zumbihl,, L. Leitritz,, and J. Heesemann. 1998. In vitro and in vivo expression studies of yopE from Yersinia enterocolitica using the gfp reporter gene. Mol. Microbiol. 30: 865 882.
151. Jalava, K.,, M. Hakkinen,, M. Valkonen,, U. M. Nakari,, T. Palo,, S. Hallanvuo,, J. Ollgren,, A. Siitonen,, and J. P. Nuorti. 2006. An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness and erythema nodosum from grated carrots contaminated with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 1209 1216.
152. Jepson, M. A.,, and M. A. Clark. 1998. Studying M cells and their role in infection. Trends Microbiol. 9: 359 365.
153. Jones, T. F. 2003. From pig to pacifier: chitterling-associated yersiniosis outbreak among black infants. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9: 1007 1009.
154. Kapperud, G. 1982. Enterotoxin production at 4 o, 22 o, and 37 o among Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. enterocolitica-like bacteria. APMIS 90B: 185 189.
155. Kapperud, G. 1991. Yersinia enterocolitica in food hygiene. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 12: 53 65.
156. Kasatiya, S. S. 1976. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis outbreak—Montreal. Can. Dis. Wkly. Rep. 2: 73 74.
157. Keet, E. E. 1974. Yersinia enterocolitica septicemia: source of infection and incubation period identified. N. Y. State J. Med. 74: 2226 2229.
158. Kerschen, E. J.,, D. A. Cohen,, A. M. Kaplan,, and S. C. Straley. 2004. The plague virulence protein YopM targets the innate immune response by causing a global depletion of NK cells. Infect. Immun. 72: 4589 4602.
159. Kim, T. J.,, B. M. Young,, and G. M. Young. 2008. Effect of flagellar mutations on Yersinia enterocolitica biofilm formation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74: 5466 5474.
160. King, C. H.,, E. B. Shotts,, R. E. Wooley,, and K. G. Porter. 1988. Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 3023 3033.
161. Kirjavainen, V.,, H. Jarva,, M. Biedzka-Sarek,, A. M. Blom,, M. Skurnik,, and S. Meri. 2008. Yersinia enterocolitica serum resistance proteins YadA and Ail bind the complement regulator C4b-binding protein. PLoS Pathog. 4: e1000140.
162. Koster, M.,, W. Bitter,, H. de Cock,, A. Allaoui,, G. R. Cornelis,, and J. Tommassen. 1997. The outer membrane component, YscC, of the Yop secretion machinery of Yersinia enterocolitica forms a ring-shaped multimeric complex. Mol. Microbiol. 26: 789 797.
163. Kotetishvili, M.,, A. Kreger,, G. Wauters,, J. G. Morris, Jr., A. Sulakvelidze, and O. C. Stine. 2005. Multilocus sequence typing for studying genetic relationships among Yersinia species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 2674 2684.
164. Kraehenbuhl, J. P.,, and M. R. Neutra. 2000. Epithelial M cells: differentiation and function. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 16: 301 332.
165. Lahesmaa, R.,, M. Skurnik,, K. Granfors,, T. Mottonen,, R. Saario,, A. Toivanen,, and P. Toivanen. 1992. Molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthropathies. A critical appraisal of cross-reactivity between microbial antigens and HLA-B27. Br. J. Rheumatol. 31: 221 229.
166. Larsen, J. H. 1980. Yersinia enterocolitica infection and rheumatic diseases. Scand. J. Rheumatol. 9: 129 137.
167. Leclercq, A.,, L. Martin,, M. L. Vergnes,, N. Ounnoughene,, J. F. Laran,, P. Giraud,, and E. Carniel. 2005. Fatal Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 serovar O:3 sepsis after red blood cell transfusion. Transfusion 45: 814 818.
168. Lee, L. A.,, A. R. Gerber,, D. R. Lonsway,, J. D. Smith,, G. P. Carter,, N. D. Puhr,, C. M. Parrish,, R. K. Sikes,, R. J. Finton,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1990. Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 infections in infants and children, associated with the household preparation of chitterlings. N. Engl. J. Med. 322: 984 987.
169. Lee, V. T.,, D. M. Anderson,, and O. Schneewind. 1998. Targeting of Yersinia Yop proteins into the cytosol of HeLa cells: one-step translocation of YopE across bacterial and eukaryotic membranes is dependent on SycE chaperone. Mol. Microbiol. 28: 593 601.
170. Leirisalo-Repo, M. 1987. Yersinia arthritis. Acute clinical picture and long-term prognosis. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9: 145 154.
171. Lesic, B.,, and E. Carniel. 2005. Horizontal transfer of the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 187: 3352 3358.
172. Leung, K. Y.,, and S. C. Straley. 1989. The yopM gene of Yersinia pestis encodes a released protein having homology with the human platelet surface protein GPIb alpha. J. Bacteriol. 171: 4623 4632.
173. Lian, C. J.,, W. S. Hwang,, J. K. Kelly,, and C. H. Pai. 1987. Invasiveness of Yersinia enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid: an in-vivo study. J. Med. Microbiol. 24: 219 226.
174. Lian, C. J.,, W. S. Hwang,, J. K. Kelly,, and C. H. Pai. 1987. Penetration of the intestinal mucosa by Yersinia enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9: 239 242.
175. Lindler, L. E.,, and B. D. Tall. 1993. Yersinia pestis pH 6 antigen forms fimbriae and is induced by intracellular association with macrophages. Mol. Microbiol. 8: 311 324.
176. Lo, W. F.,, A. S. Woods,, A. DeCloux,, R. J. Cotter,, E. S. Metcalf,, and M. J. Soloski. 2000. Molecular mimicry mediated by MHC class Ib molecules after infection with gram-negative pathogens. Nat. Med. 6: 215 218.
177. Long, C.,, T. F. Jones,, D. J. Vugia,, J. Scheftel,, N. Strockbine,, P. Ryan,, B. Shiferaw,, R. V. Tauxe,, and L. H. Gould. 2010. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Y. enterocolitica infections, FoodNet, 1996-2007. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16: 566 567.
178. Malassez, L.,, and W. Vignal. 1883. Tuberculose zoogloeique (forme ou espèce de tuberculose sans bacille). Arch. Physiol. Normale Pathol. Ser. 3 2: 369 412.
179. Marjai, E.,, M. Kalman,, I. Kajary,, A. Belteky,, and M. Rodler. 1987. Isolation from food and characterization by virulence tests of Yersinia enterocolitica associated with an outbreak. Acta Microbiol. Hung. 34: 97 109.
180. Marks, M. I.,, C. H. Pai,, L. Lafleur,, L. Lackman,, and O. Hammerberg. 1980. Yersinia enterocolitica gastroenteritis: a prospective study of clinical, bacteriologic, and epidemiologic features. J. Pediatr. 96: 26 31.
181. Marra, A.,, and R. R. Isberg. 1997. Invasin-dependent and invasin-independent pathways for translocation of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis across the Peyer’s patch intestinal epithelium. Infect. Immun. 65: 3412 3421.
182. Maruyama, T. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica infection in humans and isolation of the microorganism from pigs in Japan. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9: 48 55.
183. Matsumoto, H.,, and G. M. Young. 2006. Proteomic and functional analysis of the suite of Ysp proteins exported by the Ysa type III secretion system of Yersinia enterocolitica Biovar 1B. Mol. Microbiol. 59: 689 706.
184. McDonald, C.,, P. O. Vacratsis,, J. B. Bliska,, and J. E. Dixon. 2003. The Yersinia virulence factor YopM forms a novel protein complex with two cellular kinases. J.?Biol. Chem. 278: 18514 18523.
185. McIver, M. A.,, and R. M. Pike. 1934. Chronic glanders-like infection of the face caused by an organism resembling Flavobacterium pseudomallei Whitmore, p. 16 21. In Clinical Miscellany, Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, vol. 1. Cooperstown, New York, NY.
186. Meysick, K. C.,, J. Seidman,, and J. R. Falconio. 2009. The Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YplA phospholipase differs in its activity, regulation and secretion from that of the Yersinia enterocolitica YplA. Microb. Pathog. 47: 24 32.
187. Michiels, T.,, P. Wattiau,, R. Brasseur,, J. M. Ruysschaert,, and G. Cornelis. 1990. Secretion of Yop proteins by yersiniae. Infect. Immun. 58: 2840 2849.
188. Mikulskis, A. V.,, I. Delor,, V. H. Thi,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1994. Regulation of the Yersinia enterocolitica enterotoxin Yst gene. Influence of growth phase, temperature, osmolarity, pH and bacterial host factors. Mol. Microbiol. 14: 905 915.
189. Miller, V. L. 1992. Yersinia invasion genes and their products. ASM News 58: 26 33.
190. Miller, V. L.,, K. B. Beer,, G. Heusipp,, B. M. Young,, and M. R. Wachtel. 2001. Identification of regions of Ail required for the invasion and serum resistance phenotypes. Mol. Microbiol. 41: 1053 1062.
191. Miller, V. L.,, and S. Falkow. 1988. Evidence for two genetic loci in Yersinia enterocolitica that can promote invasion of epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 56: 1242 1248.
192. Miller, V. L.,, B. B. Finlay,, and S. Falkow. 1988. Factors essential for the penetration of mammalian cells by Yersinia. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 138: 15 39.
193. Mittal, R.,, S. Y. Peak-Chew,, and H. T. McMahon. 2006. Acetylation of MEK 2 and IkB kinase (IKK) activation loop residues by YopJ inhibits signaling. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 18574 18579.
194. Miyoshi-Akiyama, T.,, W. Fujimaki,, X. J. Yan,, J. Yagi,, K. Imanishi,, H. Kato,, K. Tomonari,, and T. Uchiyama. 1997. Identification of murine T cells reactive with the bacterial superantigen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM) and factors involved in YPM-induced toxicity in mice. Microbiol. Immunol. 41: 345 352.
195. Mollaret, H. H.,, H. Bercovier,, and J. M. Alonso. 1979. Summary of the data received at the WHO Reference Centre for Yersinia enterocolitica. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 5: 174 184.
196. Morse, D. L.,, M. Shayegani,, and R. J. Gallo. 1984. Epidemiologic investigation of a Yersinia camp outbreak linked to a food handler. Am. J. Public Health 74: 589 592.
197. Mueller, C. A.,, P. Broz,, S. A. Muller,, P. Ringler,, F. Erne-Brand,, I. Sorg,, M. Kuhn,, A. Engel,, and G. R. Cornelis. 2005. The V-antigen of Yersinia forms a distinct structure at the tip of injectisome needles. Science 310: 674 676.
198. Mukherjee, S.,, G. Keitany,, Y. Li,, Y. Wang,, H. L. Ball,, E. J. Goldsmith,, and K. Orth. 2006. Yersinia YopJ acetylates and inhibits kinase activation by blocking phosphorylation. Science 312: 1211 1214.
199. Murros-Kontiainen, A. E.,, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa,, H. Korkeala,, P. Johansson,, R. Rahkila,, and J. Bjorkroth. 2011. Yersinia nurmii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61: 2368 2372.
200. Murros-Kontiainen, A. E.,, P. Johansson,, T. Niskanen,, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa,, H. Korkeala,, and J. Bjorkroth. 2010. Yersinia pekkanenii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 61: 2363 2367.
201. Navarro, L.,, A. Koller,, R. Nordfelth,, H. Wolf-Watz,, S. Taylor,, and J. E. Dixon. 2007. Identification of a molecular target for the Yersinia protein kinase A. Mol. Cell 26: 465 477.
202. Navarro Llorens, J. M.,, A. Tormo,, and E. Martinez-Garcia. 2010. Stationary phase in gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 34: 476 495.
203. Neilands, J. B. 1981. Microbial iron compounds. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50: 715 731.
204. Nesbakken, T.,, G. Kapperud,, K. Dommarsnes,, M. Skurnik,, and E. Hornes. 1991. Comparative study of a DNA hybridization method and two isolation procedures for detection of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 in naturally contaminated pork products. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57: 389 394.
205. Neubauer, H.,, S. Aleksic,, A. Hensel,, E. J. Finke,, and H. Meyer. 2000. Yersinia enterocolitica 16S rRNA gene types belong to the same genospecies but form three homology groups. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 290: 61 64.
206. Neuhaus, K.,, K. P. Francis,, S. Rapposch,, A. Gorg,, and S. Scherer. 1999. Pathogenic Yersinia species carry a novel, cold-inducible major cold shock protein tandem gene duplication producing both bicistronic and monocistronic mRNA. J. Bacteriol. 181: 6449 6455.
207. Neyt, C.,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1999. Insertion of a Yop translocation pore into the macrophage plasma membrane by Yersinia enterocolitica: requirement for translocators YopB and YopD, but not LcrG. Mol. Microbiol. 33: 971 981.
208. Neyt, C.,, M. Iriarte,, V. H. Thi,, and G. R. Cornelis. 1997. Virulence and arsenic resistance in yersiniae. J.?Bacteriol. 179: 612 619.
209. Nilehn, B. 1969. Studies on Yersinia enterocolitica with special reference to bacterial diagnosis and occurrence in human acute enteric disease. Acta Pathol. Microbiol. Scand. Suppl. 206: 1 48.
210. Nilles, M. L.,, A. W. Williams,, E. Skrzypek,, and S. C. Straley. 1997. Yersinia pestis LcrV forms a stable complex with LcrG and may have a secretion-related regulatory role in the low-Ca 2+ response. J. Bacteriol. 179: 1307 1316.
211. Nuorti, J. P.,, T. Niskanen,, S. Hallanvuo,, J. Mikkola,, E. Kela,, M. Hatakka,, M. Fredriksson-Ahomaa,, O. Lyytikainen,, A. Siitonen,, H. Korkeala,, and P. Ruutu. 2004. A widespread outbreak of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:3 infection from iceberg lettuce. J. Infect. Dis. 189: 766 774.
212. Oellerich, M. F.,, C. A. Jacobi,, S. Freund,, K. Niedung,, A. Bach,, J. Heesemann,, and K. Trulzsch. 2007. Yersinia enterocolitica infection of mice reveals clonal invasion and abscess formation. Infect. Immun. 75: 3802 3811.
213. Orth, K. 2002. Function of the Yersinia effector YopJ. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 5: 38 43.
214. Ostroff, S. 1995. Yersinia as an emerging infection: epidemiologic aspects of yersiniosis. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 13: 5 10.
215. Ostroff, S. M.,, G. Kapperud,, L. C. Hutwagner,, T. Nesbakken,, N. H. Bean,, J. Lassen,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1994. Sources of sporadic Yersinia enterocolitica infections in Norway: a prospective case-control study. Epidemiol. Infect. 112: 133 141.
216. Pai, C. H.,, and L. De Stephano. 1982. Serum resistance associated with virulence in Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 35: 605 611.
217. Pai, C. H.,, V. Mors,, and S. Toma. 1978. Prevalence of enterotoxigenicity in human and nonhuman isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 22: 334 338.
218. Palonen, E.,, M. Lindstrom,, and H. Korkeala. 2010. Adaptation of enteropathogenic Yersinia to low growth temperature. Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 36: 54 67.
219. Park, H.,, K. Teja,, J. J. O’Shea,, and R. M. Siegel. 2007. The Yersinia effector protein YpkA induces apoptosis independently of actin depolymerization. J. Immunol. 178: 6426 6434.
220. Peixotto, S. S.,, G. Finne,, M. O. Hanna,, and C. Vanderzant. 1979. Presence, growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica in oyster, shrimp and crab. J.?Food Prot. 42: 974 981.
221. Pepe, J. C.,, J. L. Badger,, and V. L. Miller. 1994. Growth phase and low pH affect the thermal regulation of the Yersinia enterocolitica inv gene. Mol. Microbiol. 11: 123 135.
222. Pepe, J. C.,, and V. L. Miller. 1993. Yersinia enterocolitica invasin: a primary role in the initiation of infection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 6473 6477.
223. Pepe, J. C.,, M. R. Wachtel,, E. Wagar,, and V. L. Miller. 1995. Pathogenesis of defined invasion mutants of Yersinia enterocolitica in a BALB/c mouse model of infection. Infect. Immun. 63: 4837 4848.
224. Perry, R. D. 1993. Acquisition and storage of inorganic iron and hemin by the yersiniae. Trends Microbiol. 1: 142 147.
225. Perry, R. D.,, and J. D. Fetherston. 1997. Yersinia pestis—etiologic agent of plague. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10: 35 66.
226. Persson, C.,, N. Carballeira,, H. Wolf-Watz,, and M. Fallman. 1997. The PTPase YopH inhibits uptake of Yersinia, tyrosine phosphorylation of p130Cas and FAK, and the associated accumulation of these proteins in peripheral focal adhesions. EMBO J. 16: 2307 2318.
227. Pfeiffer, A. 1889. Ueber die bacillare Pseudotuberculose bei Nagethieren. Verlag von Georg Thieme, Leipzig, Germany.001290
228. Prehna, G.,, M. I. Ivanov,, J. B. Bliska,, and C. E. Stebbins. 2006. Yersinia virulence depends on mimicry of host Rho-family nucleotide dissociation inhibitors. Cell 126: 869 880.
229. Pujol, C.,, and J. B. Bliska. 2005. Turning Yersinia pathogenesis outside in: subversion of macrophage function by intracellular yersiniae. Clin. Immunol. 114: 216 226.
230. Puylaert, J. B.,, R. J. Vermeijden,, S. D. van der Werf,, L. Doornbos,, and R. K. Koumans. 1989. Incidence and sonographic diagnosis of bacterial ileocaecitis masquerading as appendicitis. Lancet ii: 84 86.
231. Rakin, A.,, C. Noelting,, S. Schubert,, and J. Heesemann. 1999. Common and specific characteristics of the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 67: 5265 5274.
232. Rakin, A.,, C. Noelting,, S. Schubert,, and J. Heesemann. 1999. Common and specific characteristics of the high-pathogenicity island of Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 67: 5265 5274.
233. Ramamurthi, K. S.,, and O. Schneewind. 2003. Substrate recognition by the Yersinia type III protein secretion machinery. Mol. Microbiol. 50: 1095 1102.
234. Ramamurthy, T.,, K. Yoshino,, X. Huang,, G. B. Nair,, E. Carniel,, T. Maruyama,, H. Fukushima,, and T. Takeda. 1997. The novel heat-stable enterotoxin subtype gene (ystB) of Yersinia enterocolitica: nucleotide sequence and distribution of the yst genes. Microb. Pathog. 23: 189 200.
235. Reed, R. P.,, R. M. Robins-Browne,, and M. L. Williams. 1997. Yersinia enterocolitica peritonitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 1468 1469.
236. Reveille, J. D.,, and F. C. Arnett. 2005. Spondyloarthritis: update on pathogenesis and management. Am. J. Med. 118: 592 603.
237. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, A. M. Bordun,, and K. J. Slee. 1993. Serological response of sheep to plasmid-encoded proteins of Yersinia species following natural infection with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. J.?Med. Microbiol. 39: 268 272.
238. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, M. D. Miliotis,, S. Cianciosi,, V. L. Miller,, S. Falkow,, and J. G. Morris, Jr. 1989. Evaluation of DNA colony hybridization and other techniques for detection of virulence in Yersinia species. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 644 650.
239. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, and J. K. Prpic. 1985. Effects of iron and desferrioxamine on infections with Yersinia enterocolitica. Infect. Immun. 47: 774 779.
240. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, J. K. Prpic,, and S. J. Stuart. 1987. Yersiniae and iron. A study in host-parasite relationships. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 9: 254 258.
241. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, A. R. Rabson,, and H. J. Koornhof. 1979. Generalised infection with Yersinia enterocolitica and the role of iron. Contrib. Microbiol. Immunol. 5: 277 282.
242. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, C. S. Still,, M. D. Miliotis,, and H. J. Koornhof. 1979. Mechanism of action of Yersinia enterocolitica enterotoxin. Infect. Immun. 25: 680 684.
243. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, T. Takeda,, A. Fasano,, A. M. Bordun,, S. Dohi,, H. Kasuga,, G. Fang,, V. Prado,, R. L. Guerrant,, and J. G. Morris, Jr. 1993. Assessment of enterotoxin production by Yersinia enterocolitica and identification of a novel heat-stable enterotoxin produced by a noninvasive Y. enterocolitica strain isolated from clinical material. Infect. Immun. 61: 764 767.
244. Robins-Browne, R. M.,, S. Tzipori,, G. Gonis,, J. Hayes,, M. Withers,, and J. K. Prpic. 1985. The pathogenesis of Yersinia enterocolitica infection in gnotobiotic piglets. J.?Med. Microbiol. 19: 297 308.
245.Reference deleted.
246. Roggenkamp, A.,, H.-R. Neuberger,, A. Flugel,, T. Schmoll,, and J. Heesemann. 1995. Substitution of two histidine residues in YadA protein of Yersinia enterocolitica abrogates collagen binding, cell adherence and mouse virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 16: 1207 1219.
247. Rohde, J. R.,, J. M. Fox,, and S. A. Minnich. 1994. Thermoregulation in Yersinia enterocolitica is coincident with changes in DNA supercoiling. Mol. Microbiol. 12: 187 199.
248. Sachdeva, P.,, and J. S. Virdi. 2004. Repetitive elements sequence (REP/ERIC)-PCR based genotyping of clinical and environmental strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A reveal existence of limited number of clonal groups. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 240: 193 201.
249. Saebo, A.,, and J. Lassen. 1992. Acute and chronic gastrointestinal manifestations associated with Yersinia enterocolitica infection. A Norwegian 10-year follow-up study on 458 hospitalized patients. Ann. Surg. 215: 250 255.
250. Saltman, L. H.,, Y. Lu,, E. M. Zaharias,, and R. R. Isberg. 1996. A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein that contributes to high affinity binding to integrin receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 23438 23444.
251. Sansonetti, P. J.,, and A. Phalipon. 1999. M cells as ports of entry for enteroinvasive pathogens: mechanisms of interaction, consequences for the disease process. Semin. Immunol. 11: 193 203.
252. Schiemann, D. A. 1980. Yersinia enterocolitica: observations on some growth characteristics and response to selective agents. Can. J. Microbiol. 26: 1232 1240.
253. Schiemann, D. A. 1981. An enterotoxin-negative strain of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 is capable of producing diarrhea in mice. Infect. Immun. 32: 571 574.
254. Schiemann, D. A. 1987. Yersinia enterocolitica in milk and dairy products. J. Dairy Sci. 70: 383 391.
255. Schiemann, D. A. 1988. Examination of enterotoxin production at low temperatures by Yersinia spp. in culture media and foods. J. Food Prot. 51: 571 573.