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The group presently consists of seven , i.e., , , , , , , and the most recently recognized member of the group, , which is thermotolerant. There are two types of foodborne illness. The first type, which is caused by an emetic toxin, results in vomiting, whereas the second type, which is caused by enterotoxin(s), results in diarrhea. The most recently discovered enterotoxin, cytotoxin K (CytK), is similar to the β-toxin of (and other related toxins) and was the causative agent in a severe outbreak of foodborne illness in France in 1998. The two types of foodborne illness are caused by very different types of toxins including emetic toxin and enterotoxins. Expression of the toxins Hb1, Nhe, and CytK is regulated by the PlcR quorum-sensing system. The spore of is an important factor in contributing to foodborne illness. The spore is more hydrophobic than spores from any other spp., which enables it to adhere to several types of surfaces. foodborne illness is likely to be highly underreported because of its relatively mild symptoms with short duration. However, increased consumer interest for precooked, chilled food products with extended shelf lives may be well suited for survival and growth. Such foods could increase the prominence of as a foodborne pathogen.

Citation: Granum P, Lindbäck T. 2013. , p 491-502. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch19
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Figure 19.1

The operon with promoter and regulatory sites. The indicated regulatory sequences are from type strain (ATCC 14579). The consensus PlcR box ( ) and the putative PlcR box with one mismatch in strain ATCC 14579 (underlined) and six bases between the palindromic flanks of the recognition sequence instead of four as in the established consensus ( ) and the two predicted sites (with mismatches towards the consensus underlined) are shown as boxes. The inverted repeat between and ( ) is indicated as a stem-loop structure. The bent arrows indicate the positions of transcriptional start sites, preceded by putative −10 and −35 regions. The transcriptional start site closest to the gene was identified using RNA isolated from strains NVH 0075/95 and NVH 1230/88 ( ), whereas the one further upstream was identified using a plasmid carrying the promoter from strain 407 ( ). The scale (in bp) is shown in the lower part of the figure. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch19f1

Citation: Granum P, Lindbäck T. 2013. , p 491-502. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch19
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Generic image for table
Table 19.1

Criteria to differentiate members of the group

Citation: Granum P, Lindbäck T. 2013. , p 491-502. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 19.2

Examples of foods involved in food poisoning events

Citation: Granum P, Lindbäck T. 2013. , p 491-502. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 19.3

Characteristics of the two types of illness caused by

Citation: Granum P, Lindbäck T. 2013. , p 491-502. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 19.4

Properties of the emetic toxin cereulide

Citation: Granum P, Lindbäck T. 2013. , p 491-502. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 19.5

Toxins produced by

Citation: Granum P, Lindbäck T. 2013. , p 491-502. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch19
Generic image for table
Table 19.6

Properties of the Nhe proteins

Citation: Granum P, Lindbäck T. 2013. , p 491-502. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch19

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