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The significance of as a foodborne pathogen is complex. The severity and case-fatality rate of the disease listeriosis require appropriate preventive measures, but the characteristics of the microorganism are such that it is unrealistic to expect all food to be -free. This dilemma has generated an ongoing debate concerning both the various strategies for prevention of listeriosis and the regulation of in foods. Epidemiologic investigations of outbreaks have helped identify the vehicles of transmission and have led to an expanding list of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods that have been associated with outbreaks. Basic research on the genetics, molecular biology, and immunologic response of animals and humans to has provided detailed insights into the virulence characteristics of this fascinating pathogen. Concurrent infection can also influence susceptibility to listeriosis. FbpA behaves as a chaperone for two important virulence factors, listeriolysin O (LLO) and internalin B (InlB), probably preventing their degradation. Public health surveillance, outbreak investigations, and applied and basic research conducted during the past 30 years have helped to characterize the disease listeriosis, define the magnitude of its public health problem and its impact on the food industry, identify the risk factors associated with disease, and develop appropriate and targeted control strategies.

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R. 2013. , p 503-545. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch20
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Figure 20.1

Phenotypic identification of species. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch20f1

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R. 2013. , p 503-545. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch20
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Figure 20.2

Potential routes of transmission of . Adapted from reference . Circles or ovals indicate areas of greatest risk of multiplication. Boxes indicate where direct consumption of minimally processed products (e.g., whole fresh vegetables, cooked carcass cuts of meat and fish, and effectively pasteurized milk) presents a low risk. Double arrows indicate consumer at risk. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch20f2

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R. 2013. , p 503-545. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch20
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Figure 20.3

Schematic representation of the pathophysiology of infection. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch20f3

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R. 2013. , p 503-545. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch20
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Figure 20.4

Schematic representation of the successive steps of the cell infectious process. Factors implicated in the different steps are indicated. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch20f4

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R. 2013. , p 503-545. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch20
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Figure 20.5

Directional actin polymerization by . isolates were processed for triple-labeling fluorescence microscopy, 5 h after starting the infection of Vero cells. Bacteria (red) were visualized with a polyclonal anti- antibody, actin (green) with phalloidin, and cell nuclei (blue) with DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole). Magnification, ×100. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch20f5

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R. 2013. , p 503-545. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch20
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Figure 20.6

Schematic representation of the virulence factors. The localization of factors implicated in adhesion (green), entry (blue), escape from the phagosome and intracellular growth (red), and intracytoplasmic movement and cell-to-cell spreading (purple) is indicated. The names of factors whose expression is regulated by PrfA are in orange. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch20f6

Citation: Ryser E, Buchanan R. 2013. , p 503-545. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch20
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