Chapter 24 : Foodborne Viral Pathogens

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Human enteric viruses have properties that are unique from those of bacterial foodborne pathogens. Viruses are usually species-specific and tissue-tropic, meaning that the human enteric viruses are believed to infect only humans. From an epidemiologic perspective, human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the two most important. From a foodborne disease standpoint, three types of commodities are commonly associated with viral disease outbreaks, namely, (i) molluscan shellfish contaminated by feces-impacted growing waters; (ii) fresh produce items contaminated by human feces during production or packing, usually through workers’ hands or contact with contaminated water; and (iii) ready-to-eat (RTE) and prepared foods contaminated by infected food handlers as a result of poor personal hygiene. The major steps for the detection of viruses in foods can be designated as follows: (i) virus concentration and purification, (ii) nucleic acid extraction, (iii) detection of amplicons, and (iv) confirmation of amplicon identity. Epidemiologic evidence reveals that foods play an important role in the transmission of human enteric viruses. Improved and more widespread reporting and investigation of foodborne viral disease outbreaks, as well as targeted epidemiologic studies to identify the risk factors for acquiring viral gastroenteritis, would improve our understanding of source attribution.

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.1
Figure 24.1

Norwalk virus genome organization (adapted from Kapikian et al. [ ]). VPg, genome-linked virion protein. ORF1 encodes polyprotein posttranslationally cleaved into nonstructural proteins helicase (with a predicted nucleotide triphosphate-binding domain [NTPase]), proteinase (Pro), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol). ORF2 encodes capsid protein, which is translated into major and minor structural proteins which consist of shell and protruding domains. N, NH2-terminal arm. ORF3 encodes a basic protein of unknown function. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f1

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.2
Figure 24.2

HAV genome organization (adapted from Hollinger and Emerson [ ]). 5´UTR, 624 to 1,199 nt long; VPg, genome-linked virion protein, 22 to 24 amino acids. The single ORF encodes polyprotein posttranslationally cleaved into VP1, VP2, and VP3, which form the capsid; VP4 is the inner surface capsid protein. 2A, unknown function; 2B, RNA synthesis and cell membrane permeability; 2C, RNA replication; 3A and 3B, RNA replication proteins, cofactor for 3D; 3C, viral proteinases; 3D, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Poly(A) tail, about 35 to 100 nt long; 3´UTR, 47 to 125 nt long. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f2

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.3
Figure 24.3

Transmission routes of foodborne viruses. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f3

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
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Image of Figure 24.4
Figure 24.4

Candidate methods for the concentration and detection of viruses in foods. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch24f4

Citation: Jaykus L, D'Souza D, Moe C. 2013. Foodborne Viral Pathogens, p 619-649. In Doyle M, Buchanan R (ed), Food Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818463.ch24
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