Chapter 109 : Malignancies of the Immune System: Use of Immunologic and Molecular Tumor Markers in Classification and Diagnostics

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Malignancies of the immune system are primarily represented by the malignant lymphomas and a smaller number of nonlymphoid neoplasms that originate from cells involved in antigen presentation and processing. The diagnosis and classification of these tumors have benefited enormously from advances in cellular and molecular immunology, as well as from careful dissection of the molecular genetics of the cancers themselves. Our ability to correctly diagnose tumors of the immune system, which in many instances show little morphological variation, requires the careful application of both immunologic tumor markers as well as molecular (DNA- or RNA-based) tumor markers. Therefore, malignancies of the immune system are not only interesting models of normal immune cells but are also excellent examples of the variety of molecular and immunological approaches for assessing cancers.

Citation: Jaffe E, Raffeld M. 2016. Malignancies of the Immune System: Use of Immunologic and Molecular Tumor Markers in Classification and Diagnostics, p 1015-1035. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch109
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Image of FIGURE 1

Schematic diagram showing stages of T-cell differentiation. Neoplasms can be related to precursor and mature or peripheral T lymphocytes. Antigenic phenotype correlates with maturational stage. Note that CD7 is the earliest T-associated antigen.

Citation: Jaffe E, Raffeld M. 2016. Malignancies of the Immune System: Use of Immunologic and Molecular Tumor Markers in Classification and Diagnostics, p 1015-1035. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch109
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Image of FIGURE 2

Schematic diagram showing stages of B-cell differentiation. Lymphomas can be related to precursor B-cell, mature B-cell, and secretory B-cell (plasma cell) stages of differentiation. Note that CD79a has the broadest range of reactivity, staining precursor, mature, and secretory B cells.

Citation: Jaffe E, Raffeld M. 2016. Malignancies of the Immune System: Use of Immunologic and Molecular Tumor Markers in Classification and Diagnostics, p 1015-1035. In Detrick B, Schmitz J, Hamilton R (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, Eighth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555818722.ch109
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